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Mercury Research

The literature confirming the toxicity of mercury goes well beyond its associations with autism. This document includes abstracts for over 240 studies that confirm the harmful effects of mercury from any source on brain cells, immune cells and other systems in the body. These include cellular, animal and human studies. There can be no justification for any intentional use of mercury given the extent of this literature.

Annotated Version of Peer-Reviewed, Published Research Linking Autism, Mercury and Thimerosal

In February 2017, Children’s Health Defense collected 89 peer-reviewed published articles linking autism, mercury and thimerosal. Each of these article abstracts are presented here along with a short annotation in layman terms about what the researchers found and how the findings are linked to autism. The science continues to accumulate that mercury and thimerosal are potent drivers of the autism epidemic. Download PDF (36.4MB)

Browse through and/or download a PDF of all the study abstracts, or read the individual study abstracts listed individually.

Also see:

Mercury-Autism Research

Thimerosal Research

Two options:

Download pdf of all studies (27.1mb) or browse the following 240+ abstracts (first page of study only).

Abdel-Rahman 2013 – Studies on H1N1 vaccine-induced monoamines alternations and oxidative stress on brain of adult mice

Adams 2007 – Mercury, Lead, and Zinc in Baby Teeth of Children with Autism Versus Controls

Adams 2009 – The Severity of Autism Is Associated with Toxic Metal Body Burden and Red Blood Cell Glutathione Levels

Adams 2012 – Toxicological Status of Children with Autism vs. Neurotypical Children and the Association with Autism Severity

Adams 2017- Significant Association of Urinary Toxic Metals and Autism-Related Symtoms – Anon Linear Statistical Analysis with Cross Validation

Agrawal 2007 – Thimerosal Induces TH2 Responses via Influencing Cytokine Secretion By Human Dendritic Cells

Andreoli 2017 – Genetic Aspects of Susceptibility to Mercury Toxicity: An Overview

Austin 2008 – An Investigation of Porphyrinuria in Australian Children with Autism

Barile 2012 – Thimerosal Exposure in Early Life and Neuropsychological Outcomes 7-10 Years Later

Baskin 2003 – Thimerosal Induces DNA Breaks, Caspase-3 Activation, Membrane Damage, and Cell Death in Cultured Human Neurons and Fibroblasts

Bernard 2001 – Autism: a novel form of mercury poisoning

Bernard 2002 – The role of mercury in the pathogenesis of autism

Bernard 2004 – Association Between Thimerosal-Containing Vaccine and Autism

Bernard 2008 – Early Thimerosal Exposure and Neuropsychological Outcomes

Blanchard 2010 – The Value of Ecologic Studies: Mercury Concentration in Ambient Air and The Risk of Autism

Blanusa 2012 – Mercury Disposition in Suckling Rats: Comparative Assessment Following Parenteral Exposure to Thimerosal and Mercuric Chloride

Blaucok Busch 2012 – Efficacy of DMSA Therapy in a Sample of Arab Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

Blaxill 2004 – Concerns Continue Over Mercury and Autsim

Blaxill 2004 – Thimerosal and Autism? A Plausible Hypothesis that Should Not Be Dismissed

Blaylock 2009 – A Possible Central Mechanism In Autism Spectrum Disorders, Part 1

Blaylock 2009 – A Possible Central Mechanism In Autism Spectrum Disorders, Part 2: Immunoexcitotoxicity

Blaylock 2009 – Immune-Glutamatergic Dysfunction as a Central Mechanism of the Autism Spectrum Disorders

Bradstreet 2003 – A Case-Control Study of Mercury Burden in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

Branch 2009 – Gender-selective Toxicity of Thimerosal

Branco 2007 – Impaired Cross-talk Between the Thioredoxin and Glutathione Systems is Related to ASK-1 Mediated Apoptosis in Neuronal Cells Exposed to Mercury

Burbacher 2005 – Comparison of Blood and Brain Mercury Levels in Infant Monkeys Exposed to Methylmercury or Vaccines Containing Thimerosal

Carneiro 2014 – A Systematic Study of the Disposition and Metabolism of Mercury Species in Mice After Exposure to Low Levels of Thimerosal (ethylmercury)

Carneiro 2015 – Thimerosal Induces Apoptotic and Fibrotic Changes to Kidney Epithelial Cells In Vitro

Cave 2008 – The History of Vaccinations in the Light of the Autism Epidemic

Chen 2013 – Effect of Thimerosal on the Neurodevelopment of Premature Rats

Choi 2016 – Ethylmercury-Induced Oxidative snd Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Medicates Autophagic Cell Death: Involvment of Autophagosome – Lysosome Fusion Arrest

Colman 2003 – Mercury in Infants give Vaccines Containing Thimerosal

Crowe 2016 – Mercury as an Environmental Stimulus in the Development of Autoimmunity – A Systematic Review

Curtis 2010 – Chronic Metals Ingestion By Prairie Voles Produces Sex-Specific Deficits In Social Behavior: An Animal Model of Autism

Curtis 2011 – Cronci Inorganic Mercury Exposure Induces Sex-specific Changes in Central TNFα Expression: Importance in Autism?

de Olivera Souza 2016 – A Brain Proteome Profile in Rats Exposed to Methylmercury of Thimerosal (ethylmercury)

DeSoto 2007 – Blood Levels of Mercury Are Related to Diagnosis of Autism: A Reanalysis of an Important Data Set

Desoto 2010 – Sorting Out the Spinning of Autism: Heavy Metals and the Question of Incidence

Deth 2007 – How environmental and genetic facts combine to cause autism: A redox/methylation hypothesis

Dickerson 2016 – Autism Spectrum Disorder Prevalence and Associations With Air Concentrations of Lead, Mercury, and Arsenic

Dorea 2008 – Hair Mercury concentrations in Korean Infants Could Be Influenced by Thimerosal-containing Vaccines

Dorea 2008 – Modeling NeurodevelopmentOutcomes and Ethylmercury Exposure from Thimerosal-Containing Vaccines

Dorea 2009 – Comparing Fish-mercury Exposed Amazonian Children: Should We Not Consider Thimerosal-preserved Vaccines?

Dorea 2009 – Neonate Exposure to Thimerosal Mercury from Hepatitis B Vaccines

Dorea 2010 – Infants’ Exposure to Aluminum from Vaccines and Breast Milk During the First 6 Months

Dorea 2010 – Making Sense of Epidemiological Studies of Young children Exposed to Thimerosal in Vaccines

Dorea 2011 – Integrating Experimental (In Vitro and In Vivo) Neurotoxicity Studies of Low-dose Thimerosal Relevant to Vaccines

Dorea 2012 – Multiple Toxic Heavy Metals and Neonatal Neurobehavior in china Require Considering Co-exposure to Thimerosal-ethylmercury and Adjuvant-aluminum

Dorea 2013 – Low-Dose Mercury Eposure in Early Life : Relavance of Thimerosal to Fetuses, Newborns and Infants

Dorea 2014 – Canine Hair as a Model for Tracing Ethylmercury from Thimerosal-containing Vaccines

Dorea 2014 – Premature and Neonate Modeling of Thimerosal Exposure and Neurodevelopment: Additional Comments

Dorea 2015 – Exposure to Mercury and Aluminum in Early Life: Developmental Vulnerability as a Modifying Factor in Neurologic and Immunologic Effects

Dorea 2017 – Abating Mercury Exposure in Young Children Should Include Thimerosal-Free Vaccines

Dorea 2017 – Low-dose Thimerosal in Pediatric Vaccines: Adverse Effects in Perspective

Drum 2009 – Are Toxic Biometals Destroying Your Children’s Future?

Dufault 2009 – Mercury Exposure, Nutritional Deficiencies and Metabolic Disruptions May Affect Learning in Children

Duszczyk-Budhathoki 2012 – Administration of Thimerosal to Infant Rats Increases Overflow of Glutamate and Aspartate in the Prefrontal Cortex: Protective Role of Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate

Eke 2008 – Genotoxicity of Thimerosal in Cultured Human Lymphocytes with and without Metabolic activation Sister Chromatid Exchange Analysis Proliferation Index and Mitotic Index

Ekstrand 2010 – Mercury Toxicokinetics – Dependency on Strain and Gender

Elferink 1998 – The Effect of Thimerosal on Neutrophil Migration

Elferink 1999 – Thimerosal_ A versatile sulfhydryl Reagent, Calcium Mobilizer, and Cell Function-modulating Agent

Epstein 2009 – Comparative Toxicity of Preservatives on Immortalized Corneal and Conjunctival Epithelial Cells

Evans 2000 – Regulation Of Sodium Currents Through Oxidation and Reduction of Thiol Residues

Fagan 1977 – Organ Mercury Levels in Infants With Omphaloceles Treated With organic Mercurial Antiseptic

Freitag 1980 – Ethylmercurithiosalicylate – A New Reagent For the Study of Phosphate Transport in Mitochondria

Fujiwara 2016 – Chemicals, Nutrition, and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Mini Review

Gadad 2013 – Neuropathology and Animal Models of Autism: Genetic and Environmental Factors

Gallagher 2010 – Hepatitis B Vaccination of Male Neonates and Autism Diagnoses, NHIS 1997-2002

Gardner 2010 – Differential Immunotoxic Effects of Inorganic and Organic Species In Vitro

Garrecht 2011 – The plausibility of role for mercury in the etiology of autism: a cellular perspective

Geier 2003 – A Comparative Evaluation of the Effects of MMR Immunization and Mercury Doses from Thimerosal-containing Childhood Vaccines on the Population Prevalence of Autism

Geier 2003 – An Assessment of the Impact of Thimerosal on Childhood Neurodevelopment Disorders

Geier 2003 – Neurodevelopment Disorders after Thimerosal-containing Vaccines: A Brief Communication

Geier 2004 – Neurodevelopmental Disorders Following Thimerosal-Containing Childhood Immunizations: A Follow-Up Analysis

Geier 2005 – The Potential importance of Steroids in the Treatment of Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Other Disorders Involving Mercury Toxicity

Geier 2006 – A meta-analysis epidemiological assessment of neurodevelopment disorders following vaccines administered from 1994-2000 in the United States

Geier 2006 – A Prospective Assessment of Porphyrins in Autistic Disorders: A Potential Marker for Heavy Metal Exposure

Geier 2006 – A Prospective Study of Thimerosal-containing Rho(D)-immune globulin Administration as a Risk Factor for Autistic Disorders

Geier 2006 – An Assessment of Downward Trends in Neurodevelopment Disorders in the United States Folloing Removal of Thimerosal from Childhood Vaccines

Geier 2006 – Early Downward Trends in Neurodevelopment Disorders Following Removal of Thimerosal-Containing Vaccines

Geier 2007 – A Case Series of Children with Apparent Mercury Toxic Encephalopathies Manifesting with Clinical Symptoms of Regressive Autistic Disorders

Geier 2007 – A Prospective Study of Mercury Toxicity Biomarkers in Autistic Spectrum Disorders

Geier 2007 – An Evaluation of the Effects of Thimerosal

Geier 2008 – Neurodevelopment Disorders, Maternal Rh-Negativity, and Rho(D) Immune Globulins: A Multi-Center Assessment

Geier 2009 – A Prospective Blinded Evaluation or Urinary Porphyrins Verses the Clinical Severity of Autism Spectrum Disorders

Geier 2009 – A Prospective Study of Prenatal Mercury Exposure From Maternal Dental Amalgams and Autism Severity

Geier 2009 – Mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired oxidative-reduction activity, degeneration, and death in human neuronal and fetal cells induced by low-level exposure in thimerosal and other metal compounds

Geier 2010 – Blood mercury levels in autism spectrum disorder: Is there a threshold level?

Geier 2010 – The Biological Basis of Autism Spectrum Disorders: Understanding Causation and Treatment by Clinical Geneticists

Geier 2013 – A two-phase study evaluating the relationship between Thimerosal-containing vaccine administration and the risk for an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in the United States

Geier 2014 – A Case-Control Study Evaluating the Relationship Between Thimerosal-Containing Haemophilus influenza Type b Vaccine Administration and the Risk for a Pervasive Developmental Disorder Diagnosis in the United States

Geier 2014 – A Dose-Response Relationship between Organic Mercury Exposure from Thimerosal-Containing Vaccines and Neurodevelopment Disorders

Geier 2014 – The risk of neurodevelopment disorders following a Thimerosal-preserved DTaP formulation in comparison to its Thimerosal-reduced formulation in the vaccine adverse event reporting system (VAERS)

Geier 2015 – Thimerosal exposure and increased risk for diagnosed tic disorder in the United States: a case-control study

Geier 2015 – Thimerosal: Clinical, epidemiologic and biochemical studies

Geier 2016 – A longitudinal cohort study of the relationship between Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccination and specific delays in development in the United States: Assessment of attributable risk and lifetime care costs

Geier 2016 – A Two-Phase Case-Control Study of Autism Risk Among Children Born From the Late 1990s Through the Early 2000s in the United States

Geier 2016 – Thimerosal-Containing Hepatitis B Vaccination and the Risk for Diagnosed Specific Delays in Development in the United States: A Case-Control Study in the Vaccine Safety Datalink

Geier 2016 – Thimerosal-containing Hepatitis B Vaccine Exposure is Highly Associated with Childhood Obesity: A Case-control Study Using the Vaccine Safety Datalink

Geier 2016 – Thimerosal-Preserved Hepatitis B Vaccine and Hyperkinetic Syndrome of Childhood