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Mercury Research

The literature confirming the toxicity of mercury goes well beyond its associations with autism. This document includes abstracts for over 240 studies that confirm the harmful effects of mercury from any source on brain cells, immune cells and other systems in the body. These include cellular, animal and human studies. There can be no justification for any intentional use of mercury given the extent of this literature.

Annotated Version of Peer-Reviewed, Published Research Linking Autism, Mercury and Thimerosal

In February 2017, Children’s Health Defense collected 89 peer-reviewed published articles linking autism, mercury and thimerosal. Each of these article abstracts are presented here along with a short annotation in layman terms about what the researchers found and how the findings are linked to autism. The science continues to accumulate that mercury and thimerosal are potent drivers of the autism epidemic. Download PDF (36.4MB)

Browse through and/or download a PDF of all the study abstracts, or read the individual study abstracts listed individually.

Also see:

Mercury-Autism Research

Thimerosal Research

Two options:

Download pdf of all studies (27.1mb) or browse the following 240+ abstracts (first page of study only).

Geier 2017 – A Case Series of Children with Apparent Mercury Toxic Encephalopathies Manifesting with Clinical Symptoms of Regressive Autistic Disorders

Geier 2017 – Abnormal Brain Connectivity Spectrum Disorders Following Thimerosal Administration: A Prospective Longitudinal Case–Control Assessment of Medical Records in the Vaccine Safety Datalink

Geier 2017 – Increased Risk for an Atypical Autism Diagnosis Following Thimerosal-containing Vaccine Exposure in the United States: A Prospective Longitudinal Case-Control Study in the Vaccine Study Datalink

Geier 2017 – Thimerosal exposure and disturbance of emotions specific to childhood and adolescence: A case-control study in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) database

Gericke 1993 – Thimerosal induced changes of intracellular calcium in human endothelial cells

Gillespie 1992 – Repetitive Transients in Intracellular Ca2+ in Cultured Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

Goldman 2013 – Comparison of VAERS fetal-loss reports during three consecutive influenza seasons: Was there a synergistic fetal toxicity associated with the two-vaccine 2009/2010 season?

Goodwin 1995 – Increased expression of procoagulant activity on the surface of human platelets exposed to heavy-metal compounds

Guida 2016 – MC1568 Inhibits Thimerosal-Induced Apoptotic Cell Death by Preventing HDAC4 Up-Regulation in Neuronal Cells and in Rat Prefrontal Cortex

Gump 2017 – Background lead and mercury exposures: Psychological and behavioral problems in children

Haase 2015 – Ethylmercury and Hg2+ induce the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) by human neutrophil granulocytes

Hashimoto 2009 – Increase in intracellular Zn2+ concentration by thimerosal in rat thymocytes: Intracellular Zn2+ release induced by oxidative stress

Havarinasab 2004 – Dose-response study of thimerosal-induced murine systemic autoimmunity

Havarinasab 2005 – Immunosuppressive and autoimmune effects of thimerosal in mice

Havarinasab 2005 – Organic mercury compounds and autoimmunity

Havarinasab 2006 – Alteration of the spontaneous systemic autoimmune disease in (NZB x NZW)F1 mice by treatment with thimerosal (ethyl mercury)

Heckler 1989 – The Sulphydryl Reagent Thimerosal Elicits Human Platelet Aggregation by Mobilization of Intracellular Calcium and Secondary Prostaglandin Endoperoxide Formation

Herdman 2006 – Thimerosal Induces Apoptosis in a Neuroblastoma Model via the cJun N-Terminal Kinase Pathway

Hewitson 2010 – Influence of pediatric vaccines on amygdala growth and opioid ligand binding in rhesus macaque infants: A pilot study

Heyworth 1979 – Problems associated with the use of merthiolate as a preservative in anti-lymphocytic globulin

Hooker 2014 – Methodological Issues and Evidence of Malfeasance in Research Purporting to Show Thimerosal in Vaccines Is Safe

Humphrey 2005 – Mitochondrial Mediated Thimerosal-Induced Apoptosis in a Human Neuroblastoma Cell Line (SK-N-SH)

Hunter 2010 – Neuroligin-deficient mutants of C. elegans have sensory processing deficits and are hypersensitive to oxidative stress and mercury toxicity

Ida-Eto 2011 – Embryonic exposure to thimerosal, an organomercury compound, causes abnormal early development of serotonergic neurons

Ida-Eto 2013 – Prenatal exposure to organomercury, thimerosal, persistently impairs the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems in the rat brain: Implications for association with developmental disorders

Islam 1993 – Sulfhydryl oxidation induces rapid and reversible closure of the ATP-regulated K channel in the pancreatic β-cell

James 2004 – Thimerosal Neurotoxicity is Associated with Glutathione Depletion: Protection with Glutathione Precursors

James 2009 – Cellular and mitochondrial glutathione redox imbalance in lymphoblastic cells derived from children with autism

Jeong 2017 – High Mernal Blood Mercury Level is Associated with Low Verbal IQ in Children

Jin 2004-Thimerosal decreases TRPV1 activity by oxidation of extracellular sulfhydryl residues

Kaplin 1994 – Purified Reconstituted Inositol 1,4,5-Triphosphate Receptors

Karsen 2007 – Apparent vaccine-thimerosal induced hypersensitivity myelodysplastic syndrome and pancytopenia

Kempuraj 2010 – Mercury induces inflammatory mediator release from human mast cells

Kern 2010 – A biomarker of mercury body-burden correlated with diagnostic domain specific clinical symptoms of autism spectrum disorder

Kern 2010 – Toxicity biomarkers among US children compared to a similar cohort in France: a blinded study measuring urinary porphyrins

Kern 2010 – Toxicity biomarkers in autism spectrum disorder: A blinded study of urinary porphyrins

Kern 2012 – Evidence of parallels between mercury intoxication and the brain pathology in autism

Kern 2015 – Systematic Assessment of Research on Autism Spectrum Disorder and Mercury Reveals Conflicts of Interest and the Need for Transparency in Autism Research

Kern 2016 – The relationship between mercury and autism: A comprehensive review and discussion

Khan 2012 – Sex-dependent Changes in Cerebellar Thyroid Hormone-dependent Gene Expression Following Perinatal Exposure to Thimerosal in Rats

Kim 2002 – Thimerosal stimulates focal adhesion kinase and cytoskeletal changes by redox modulation

Kramer 2004 – Mercury exposure in protein A immunoadsorption

Lawton 2007 -Reduced tubulin tyrosination as an early marker of mercury toxicity in differentiating N2a cells

Lee 2006 – Thimerosal induces oxidative stress in HeLa S epithelial cells

Leventhal 2012 – Hypersensitivity Reactions to Vaccine Constituents: A Case Series and Review of the Literature

Li 2000 – Mercury intoxication presenting with tics

Li 2012 – Thimerosal-Induced Apoptosis in Mouse C2C12 Myoblast Cells Occurs through Suppression of the P13K/Akt/ Surviving Pathway

Li 2014 – Transcriptomic Analyses of Neurotoxic Effects in Mouse Brain After Intermittent Neonatal Administration of Thimerosal

Lohren – Toxicity of organic and inorganic mercury species in differentiated human neurons and human astrocytes

Loison 2014 – Suppression by Thimerosal of Ex-Vivo CD4 T Cell Response to Influenza Vaccine and Induction of Apoptosis in Primary Memory T Cells

Loison 2014 – Thimerosal compromises human dendritic cell maturation, IL-12 production, chemokine release, and T-helper polarization

Madi 2004 – Being on the Track of Thimerosal

Magos 2001 – Review on the Toxicity of Ethylmercury, Including its Presence as a Preservative in Biological and Pharmaceutical Products

Marques 2008 – Principal component analysis and discrimination of variables associated with pre- and post-natal exposure to mercury

Marques 2009 – Prenatal and Postnatal Mercury Exposure, Breastfeeding and Neurodevelopment During the First 5 Years

Marques 2010 – Thimerosal exposure (from tetanus-diphtheria) during pregnancy and neurodevelopment of breastfed infants at 6 months

Marques 2014 – Perinatal multiple exposure to neurotoxic (lead, methylmercury, ethylmercury, and aluminum) substances and neurodevelopment at six and 24 months of age

Marques 2016 – Neurodevelopment of Amazonian children exposed to ethylmercury (from Thimerosal in vaccines) and methylmercury (from fish)

Matheson 1980 – Mercury toxicity (acrodynia) induced by long-term injection of gamma globulin

Mercury Poisoning in Child Treated with Aqueous Merthiolate

Migdal 2010 – Responsiveness of human monocyte-derived cells to thimerosal and mercury derivatives

Miller 2005 – Thimerosal, micromercurialism and chronic fatigue syndrome

Minami 2007 – Effects of lipopolysaccharide and chelator on mercury content in the cerebrum of thimerosal-administered mice

Minami 2009 – Induction of metallothionein in mouse cerebellum and cerebrum with low-dose thimerosal injection

Minami 2009-Expression of metallothionein mRNAs on mouse cerebellum microglia cells by thimerosal and its metabolites

Mostafa 2007 – Antineuronal antibodies in autistic children: relation to blood mercury

Mostafa 2015 – The levels of blood mercury and inflammatory-related neuropeptides in the serum are correlated in children with autism spectrum disorder

Mrozek-Budzyn 2012 – Neonatal exposure to Thimerosal from vaccines and child development in the first 3 years of life

Muller 2001 – Inhibition of the human erythrocytic glutathione-S-transferase T1 (GST T1) by thimerosal

Mutkus 2005 – In Vitro Uptake of Glutamate in GLAST- and GLT-1-Transfected Mutant CHO-K1 Cells Is Inhibited by the Ethylmercury-Containing Preservative Thimerosal

Mutter 2005 – Mercury and Autism: Accelerating Evidence?

Mutter 2006 – Comments on the Article “The Toxicology of Mercury and Its Chemical Compounds” by Clarkson and Magos

Mutter 2008 – Kawasaki`s Disease, Acrodynia, and Mercury

Nataf 2006 – Porphyrinuria in childhood autistic disorder: Implications for environmental toxicity

Nguyen 2007 – Thimerosal-Induced Limbal Stem Cell Failure: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature

Niehoff 2015 – Quantitative Bioimaging to Investigate the Uptake of Mercury Species in Drosophilia melanogaster

Nishio 1996 – Effects of Thimerosal, an Organic Sulfhydryl Modifying Agent, on Serotonin Transport Activity into Rabbit Blood Platelets

Obrenovich 2011 – Altered Heavy Metals and Transketolase Found in Autistic Spectrum Disorder

Ohno 2004 – Wide use of Merthiolate May Cause Mercury Poisoning in Mexico

Olczak 2009 – Neonatal administration of a vaccine preservative, thimerosal, produces lasting impairment of nociception and apparent activation of opioid system in rats

Olczak 2010 – Neonatal Administration of Thimerosal Causes Persistent Changes in Mu Opioid Receptors in the Rat Brain

Olczak 2011 – Persistent behavioral impairments and alternations of brain dopamine system after early postnatal administration of thimerosal in rats

Orct 2006 – Comparison of organic and inorganic mercury distribution of suckling rat

Palmer 2004 – Environmental mercury release, special education rates, and autism disorder: an ecological study of Texas

Palmer 2008 – Proximity to point sources of environmental mercury release as a predictor of autism prevalence

Park 2007 – Evaluation of Cytotoxicity Attributed to Thimerosal on Murine and Human Kidney Cells

Parran 2005 – Effects of Thimerosal on NGF Signal Transduction and Cell Death in Neuroblastoma Cells

Peltz 2009 – Calcium and Calmodulin Regulate Mercury-induced Phospholipase D Activation in Vascular Endothelial Cells

Pieper 2014 – Mechanisms of Hg species induced toxicity in cultured human astrocytes: genotoxicity and DNA-damage response

Pintado 1994 – Effect of thimerosal and other sulfhydryl reagents on calcium permeability in thymus lymphocytes

Pletz 2016 – Dose-response analysis indicating time-dependent neurotoxicity caused by organic and inorganic mercury–Implications for toxic effects in the developing brain

Qvarnstrom 2003 – Determination of Methylmercury, Ethylmercury, and Inorganic Mercury in Mouse Tissues, Following Administration of Thimerosal, by Species-Specific Isotope Dilution GD-Inductively Coupled Plasma-MS

Rampersad 2005 – Chemical compounds that target thiol-disulfide groups on mononuclear phagocytes inhibit immune mediated phagocytes of red blood cells

Redwood 2001 – Predicted Mercury Concentrations in Hair From Infant Immunizations: Cause for Concern

Rempel 2015 – A transcriptome-based classifier to identify developmental toxicants by stem cell testing: design, validation and optimization for histone deacetylase inhibitors

Risher 2002 – Organic mercury compounds: human exposure and its relevance to public health

Risher 2016 – Alkyl Mercury-Induced Toxicity: Multiple Mechanisms of Action

Rode 2006 – Are Mercury Amalgam Fillings Safe for Children? An Evaluation of Recent Research Results

Rodrigues 2010 – Identification and distribution of mercury species in rat tissues following administration of thimerosal or methyl mercury

Rodrigues 2015 – Toxicological effects of thimerosal and ethyl mercury: Inhibition of the thioredoxin system and NADP-dependent dehydrogenases of the pentose phosphate pathway