Science Library Category:

Vaccines

Published: 2001
SYNOPSIS

French scientists tie aluminum adjuvant in vaccine to macrophagic myofasciitis.

TITLE

Macrophagic myofasciitis lesions assess long-term persistence of vaccine derived aluminum hydroxide in muscle

CITATION

R.K. Gherardi, M. Coquet, P. Cherin, L. Belec, P. Moretto, P.A. Dreyfus. Brain, 2001, 124, 1821-1831.

SUMMARY

“Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an emerging condition of unknown cause, detected in patients with diffuse arthromyalgias and fatigue, and characterized by muscle infiltration by granular periodic acid-Schiff’s reagent-positive macrophages and lymphocytes. Intracytoplasmic inclusions have been observed in macrophages of some patients. To assess their significance, electron microscopy was performed in 40 consecutive cases and chemical analysis was done by microanalysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. Inclusions were constantly detected and corresponded to aluminium hydroxide, an immunostimulatory compound frequently used as a vaccine adjuvant.”

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Published: 2000
SYNOPSIS

CDC scientists admit that 90% of infectious disease mortality decrease in the United States happened before vaccines were available.

TITLE

Annual Summary of Vital Statistics: Trends in the Health of Americans During the 20th Century

CITATION

Bernard Guyer, MD, Mary Anne Freeman, MA, Donna M. Strobino, PhD, Edward J. Sondik, PhD. Pediatrics, Dec 2000, Vol. 106, No. 6.

SUMMARY

“Thus vaccination does not account for the impressive declines in mortality seen in the first half of the century…nearly 90% of the decline in infectious disease mortality among US children occurred before 1940, when few antibiotics or vaccines were available.”

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Published: 2000
SYNOPSIS

One dose of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine was associated with a mortality ratio of 1.84 (1.10 to 3.10) and two to three doses with a ratio of 1.38 (0.73 to 2.61) compared with children who had received no dose of these vaccines.”

TITLE

Routine vaccinations and child survival: follow up study in Guinea Bissau, West Africa.

CITATION

Kristensen I, Aaby P, Jensen H. British Medical Journal. 2000 Dec 9;321(7274):1435-8.

SUMMARY

Research on vaccines in developing countries recommended by the World Health Organization has emphasised serological responses and protection against specific diseases. The aim of the research has been to optimise vaccine schedules for control, elimination, or eradication of disease. In modelling exercises, vaccination against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, and polio has been assumed to save 1.5­2.0% of the children in areas with high infant mortality. However, these assumptions are not supported by data. Mortality was lower in the group vaccinated with any vaccine compared with those not vaccinated, however, recipients of one dose of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis or polio vaccines had higher mortality than children who had received none of these vaccines.

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Published: 2000
SYNOPSIS

Infants receiving mercury-containing vaccines developed speech disorders, sleep disorders and autism, according to CDC scientists.

TITLE

Increased risk of developmental neurologic impairment after high exposure to thimerosal-containing vaccine in first month of life

CITATION

Verstraeten TM, Davies R, Gu D, DeStefano F. Proceedings of the Epidemic Intelligence Service Annual Conference, April 2000.

SUMMARY

“This analysis suggests that high exposure to ethylmercury from thimerosal-containing vaccines in the first month of life increases the risk of subsequent development of neurologic development impairment.”

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Published: 2000
SYNOPSIS

Japanese scientists find vaccine-strain of measles in the guts of children with autism.

TITLE

Detection and sequencing of measles virus from peripheral mononuclear cells from patients with inflammatory bowel disease and autism

CITATION

Kawashima H, Mori T, Kashiwagi Y, Takekuma K, Hoshika A, Wakefield A. Digestive Diseases and Sciences. 2000;45:723–729.

SUMMARY

“Additionally, a new syndrome has been reported in children with autism who exhibited developmental regression and gastrointestinal symptoms (autistic enterocolitis), in some cases soon after MMR vaccine. The sequences obtained from the patients with ulcerative colitis and children with autism were consistent with being vaccine strains. The results were concordant with the exposure history of the patients. Persistence of measles virus was confirmed in PBMC in some patients with chronic intestinal inflammation.”

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Published: 2000
SYNOPSIS

UCLA researchers find the DTP vaccine is causing asthma.

TITLE

Effects of Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis or Tetanus Vaccination on Allergies and Allergy-Related Respiratory Symptoms Among Children and Adolescents in the United States

CITATION

Eric L. Hurwitz, DC, PhD, and Hal Morgenstern, PhD. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, Volume 23, Number 2, February 2000.

SUMMARY

“Asthma and other allergic hypersensitivity reactions and related symptoms may be caused, in part, by the delayed effects of DTP or tetanus vaccination. Because the proportion of US children who have received at least 1 dose of DTP vaccine approaches 100%, the number of allergies and allergy-related conditions attributable to DTP or tetanus vaccination in the United States may be very high. For example, assuming that the estimated vaccination effect is unbiased, 50% of diagnosed asthma cases (2.93 million) in US children and adolescents would be prevented if the DTP or tetanus vaccination was not administered.”

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Published: 2000
SYNOPSIS

Vaccines with mercury significantly raised the body levels of mercury in infants.

TITLE

Iatrogenic exposure to mercury after hepatitis B vaccination in preterm infants

CITATION

Gregory V. Stajich, Gaylord P. Lopez, Sokei W. Harry, and William R. Sexson. Journal of Pediatrics, 2000, 136, 679-81.

SUMMARY

“Thimerosal, a derivative of mercury, is used as a preservative in hepatitis B vaccines. We measured total mercury levels before and after the administration of this vaccine in 15 preterm and 5 term infants. Comparison of pre- and post-vaccination mercury levels showed a significant increase in both preterm and term infants after vaccination. Additionally, post-vaccination mercury levels were significantly higher in preterm infants as compared with term infants. Because mercury is known to be a potential neurotoxin to infants, further study of its pharmacodynamics is warranted.”

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Published: 1999
SYNOPSIS

Infectious disease rates declined precipitously in the united states in the 20th century before the implementation of a national vaccine program.

TITLE

Trends in Infectious Disease Mortality in the United States During the 20th Century

CITATION

Gregory L. Armstrong, MD, Laura A. Conn, MPH, Robert W. Pinner, MD. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1999, 281: 61-66.

SUMMARY

“During the first 8 decades of the 20th century, the infectious disease mortality rate in the United States declined substantially…Improvements in living conditions, sanitation, and medical care probably accounted for this trend.”

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Published: 1997
SYNOPSIS

Addition of the Hepatitis B Vaccine in 1988 Increased the Rate of Type 1 Diabetes 1.62X in Children in New Zealand. The incidence of type I diabetes in person 0-19 years old living in Christchurch rose from 11.2 cases per 100,000 children annually in the years before the immunization program, 1982-1987, to 18.1 cases per 100,000 children annually ( P = .0008) in the years following the immunization, 1989-1991.

TITLE

The timing of pediatric immunizations and the risk of Insulin-Dependent diabetes mellitus

CITATION

Classen David C.; Classen, John Barthelow; Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice: September-October 1997 – Volume 6 – Issue 7 – ppg 449-454.

SUMMARY

Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is believed to be an autoimmune disease induced by a variety of environmental stimuli. Vaccines and infectious agents have been suggested to have an influence, but most of this research has been centered on the ability of these agents to infect the pancreatic islet cells or contain antigens that mimic autoantigens. Classen found that administration of the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) and anthrax vaccines to mice and rats at birth prevented the development of diabetes, whereas administration of the DTP vaccine starting at 8 weeks was associated with an increased incidence of diabetes.

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Published: 1995
SYNOPSIS

CDC scientists find children given the MMR vaccine shed the measles virus for at least 2 weeks after getting the vaccine, making them vectors to spread measles.

TITLE

Detection of Measles Virus RNA in Urine Specimens from Vaccine Recipients

CITATION

Paul A. Rota, Ali S. Khan, Edison Durigon, Thomas Yuron, and William Bellini. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, Vol. 33, No. 9, Sept. 1995, p. 2485–2488.

SUMMARY

“For the study, daily urine samples were obtained from either 15- month-old children or young adults following measles immunization. Overall, measles virus RNA was detected in 10 of 12 children during the 2-week sampling period. In some cases, measles virus RNA was detected as early as 1 day or as late as 14 days after vaccination. Measles virus RNA was also detected in the urine samples from all four of the young adults between 1 and 13 days after vaccination. This assay will enable continued studies of the shedding and transmission of measles virus and, it is hoped, will provide a rapid means to identify measles infection, especially in mild or asymptomatic cases.”

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Published: 1994
SYNOPSIS

Thimerosal used in vaccines increases risks of side effects.

TITLE

Thimerosal induces toxic reaction in non-sensitized animals

CITATION

Uchida T, Naito S, Kato H, Hatano I, Harashima A, Terada Y, Ohkawa T, Chino F, Eto K. Thimerosal induces toxic reaction in non-sensitized animals. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology. 1994;104(3):296-301.

SUMMARY

A two-decades-old study in mice showed that thimerosal in vaccines may “augment” vaccine side effects in humans. Injection of a thimerosal-containing solution into mice resulted in hypersensitive reactions, including severe swelling and acute inflammation at the injection site with an hour of receiving the injection.

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Published: 1984
SYNOPSIS

A computer model was created to study the effect of the measles elimination program in the United States on the number of susceptibles in the population. The simulation reveals that in the prevaccine era, approximately 10.6% of the population was susceptible to measles, most of whom were children less than 10 years of age.

TITLE

The future of measles in highly immunized populations. A modeling approach.

CITATION

Levy DL. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1984 Jul;120(1):39-48.

SUMMARY

Little is known about how an intensive measles elimination program changes the overall immune status of the population. A computer model was created to study the effect of the measles elimination program in the United States on the number of susceptibles in the population. The simulation reveals that in the prevaccine era, approximately 10.6% of the population was susceptible to measles, most of whom were children less than 10 years of age. With the institution of the measles immunization program, the proportion of susceptibles in the population fell to 3.1% from 1978 through 1981, but then began to rise by approximately 0.1% per year to reach about 10.9% in the year 2050. The susceptibles at this time were distributed evenly throughout all age groups. The model did not consider the potential effect of waning immunity. The results of this study suggest that measles elimination in the United States has been achieved by an effective immunization program aimed at young susceptibles combined with a highly, naturally immunized adult population. However, despite short-term success in eliminating the disease, long-range projections demonstrate that the proportion of susceptibles in the year 2050 may be greater than in the prevaccine era. Present vaccine technology and public health policy must be altered to deal with this eventuality.

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Published: 1982
SYNOPSIS

The 1989 measles outbreak in the province of Quebec has been largely attributed to an incomplete vaccination coverage, despite a 99% vaccination rate.

TITLE

Major measles epidemic in the region of Quebec despite a 99% vaccine coverage

Citation

Boulianne N, De Serres G, Duval B, Joly JR, Meyer F, Déry P, Alary M, Le Hénaff D, Thériault N. Canadian Journal of Public Health. 1991 May-Jun;82(3):189-90.

Summary

The 1989 measles outbreak in the province of Quebec has been largely attributed to an incomplete vaccination coverage. In the Quebec City area (pop. 600,000) 1,363 confirmed cases of measles did occur. A case-control study conducted to evaluate risk factors for measles allowed us to estimate vaccination coverage.  The vaccination coverage among cases was at least 84.5%. Vaccination coverage for the total population was 99.0%. Incomplete vaccination coverage is not a valid explanation for the Quebec City measles outbreak.

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Published: 1951
SYNOPSIS

Research supports a relationship between immunizations and onset of paralytic poliomyelitis.

TITLE

The relation of prophylactic inoculations to the onset of poliomyelitis: a study of 620 cases in the victorian epidemic of poliomyelitis in 1949.

CITATION

McCloskey, BP. Medical Journal of Australia, 1951 Apr 28;1(17):613-8.

SUMMARY

“Evidence is presented that in the current epidemic of poliomyelitis in Victoria
there has been a relation, in a number of cases, between an injection of an
immunising agent and the subsequent development of paralytic poliomyelitis.”

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