Science Library Category:

Vaccines

Published: 1994
SYNOPSIS

Thimerosal used in vaccines increases risks of side effects.

TITLE

Thimerosal induces toxic reaction in non-sensitized animals

CITATION

Uchida T, Naito S, Kato H, Hatano I, Harashima A, Terada Y, Ohkawa T, Chino F, Eto K. Thimerosal induces toxic reaction in non-sensitized animals. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology. 1994;104(3):296-301.

SUMMARY

A two-decades-old study in mice showed that thimerosal in vaccines may “augment” vaccine side effects in humans. Injection of a thimerosal-containing solution into mice resulted in hypersensitive reactions, including severe swelling and acute inflammation at the injection site with an hour of receiving the injection.

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Published: 1984
SYNOPSIS

A computer model was created to study the effect of the measles elimination program in the United States on the number of susceptibles in the population. The simulation reveals that in the prevaccine era, approximately 10.6% of the population was susceptible to measles, most of whom were children less than 10 years of age.

TITLE

The future of measles in highly immunized populations. A modeling approach.

CITATION

Levy DL. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1984 Jul;120(1):39-48.

SUMMARY

Little is known about how an intensive measles elimination program changes the overall immune status of the population. A computer model was created to study the effect of the measles elimination program in the United States on the number of susceptibles in the population. The simulation reveals that in the prevaccine era, approximately 10.6% of the population was susceptible to measles, most of whom were children less than 10 years of age. With the institution of the measles immunization program, the proportion of susceptibles in the population fell to 3.1% from 1978 through 1981, but then began to rise by approximately 0.1% per year to reach about 10.9% in the year 2050. The susceptibles at this time were distributed evenly throughout all age groups. The model did not consider the potential effect of waning immunity. The results of this study suggest that measles elimination in the United States has been achieved by an effective immunization program aimed at young susceptibles combined with a highly, naturally immunized adult population. However, despite short-term success in eliminating the disease, long-range projections demonstrate that the proportion of susceptibles in the year 2050 may be greater than in the prevaccine era. Present vaccine technology and public health policy must be altered to deal with this eventuality.

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Published: 1982
SYNOPSIS

The 1989 measles outbreak in the province of Quebec has been largely attributed to an incomplete vaccination coverage, despite a 99% vaccination rate.

TITLE

Major measles epidemic in the region of Quebec despite a 99% vaccine coverage

Citation

Boulianne N, De Serres G, Duval B, Joly JR, Meyer F, Déry P, Alary M, Le Hénaff D, Thériault N. Canadian Journal of Public Health. 1991 May-Jun;82(3):189-90.

Summary

The 1989 measles outbreak in the province of Quebec has been largely attributed to an incomplete vaccination coverage. In the Quebec City area (pop. 600,000) 1,363 confirmed cases of measles did occur. A case-control study conducted to evaluate risk factors for measles allowed us to estimate vaccination coverage.  The vaccination coverage among cases was at least 84.5%. Vaccination coverage for the total population was 99.0%. Incomplete vaccination coverage is not a valid explanation for the Quebec City measles outbreak.

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Published: 1951
SYNOPSIS

Research supports a relationship between immunizations and onset of paralytic poliomyelitis.

TITLE

The relation of prophylactic inoculations to the onset of poliomyelitis: a study of 620 cases in the victorian epidemic of poliomyelitis in 1949.

CITATION

McCloskey, BP. Medical Journal of Australia, 1951 Apr 28;1(17):613-8.

SUMMARY

“Evidence is presented that in the current epidemic of poliomyelitis in Victoria
there has been a relation, in a number of cases, between an injection of an
immunising agent and the subsequent development of paralytic poliomyelitis.”

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