Science Library Category:

Vaccines

Published: 2012
SYNOPSIS

Danish researchers found children 8-times more likely to have a febrile seizure on the day of vaccination of DTaP-IPV-HiB vaccine.

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Risk of Febrile Seizures and Epilepsy After Vaccination With Diphtheria, Tetanus, Acellular Pertussis, Inactivated Poliovirus, and Haemophilus Influenzae Type b

CITATION

Yuelian Sun, Jakob Christensen, Anders Hviid, Jiong Li, Et al. Journal of the Amercian Medical Association, February 22/29, 2012—Vol 307, No. 8.

SUMMARY

“DTaP-IPV-Hib vaccination was associated with an increased risk of febrile seizures on the day of the first 2 vaccinations given at 3 and 5 months.”

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Published: 2012
SYNOPSIS

Surprisingly, even though the children with the best nutritional status were vaccinated early, early DTP vaccination was associated with increased mortality.

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Early diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination associated with higher female mortality and no difference in male mortality in a cohort of low birthweight children: an observational study within a randomised trial.

CITATION

Aaby P, Ravn H, Roth A, Rodrigues A, Lisse IM, Diness BR, Lausch KR, Lund N, Rasmussen J, Biering-Sorensen S, Whittle H, Benn CS. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2012 Aug;97(8):685-91. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2011-300646. Epub 2012 Feb 13.

SUMMARY

Studies from low-income countries have suggested that diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine provided after Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination may have a negative effect on female survival. The authors examined the effect of DTP in a cohort of low birthweight (LBW) infants and found, surprisingly, even though the children with the best nutritional status were vaccinated early, early DTP vaccination was associated with increased mortality for girls.

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Published: 2012
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Canadian researchers review literature on autoimmunity and neurological risks from vaccine adjuvant aluminum, express doubts regarding safety testing.

TITLE

Mechanisms of aluminum adjuvant toxicity and autoimmunity in pediatric populations

CITATION

L Tomljenovic, CA Shaw. Lupus. 2012;21:223–230.

SUMMARY

“Immune challenges during early development, including those vaccine-induced, can lead to permanent detrimental alterations of the brain and immune function. Experimental evidence also shows that simultaneous administration of as little as two to three immune adjuvants can overcome genetic resistance to autoimmunity. In spite of the widespread agreement that vaccines are largely safe and serious adverse complications are extremely rare, a close scrutiny of the scientific literature does not support this view. For example, to date, the clinical trials that could adequately address vaccine safety issues have not been conducted (i.e., comparing health outcomes in vaccinated versus non-vaccinated children). Infants and young children should not be viewed as ‘small adults.’ Their unique physiology makes them much more vulnerable to noxious environmental insults in comparison with the adult population. In spite of this, children are routinely exposed to much higher levels of Al vaccine adjuvants than adults, even though adequate safety data on these compounds are lacking. That Al vaccine adjuvants can induce significant autoimmune conditions in humans can hardly be disputed, although still debatable is how common such side effects are. However, the existing data (or lack thereof) raise questions on whether the current vaccines aimed at pediatric populations can be accepted as having adequate safety profiles. Because infants and children represent those who may be most at risk for complications following vaccination, a more rigorous evaluation of potential vaccine-related adverse health impacts in pediatric populations than what has been provided to date is urgently needed.”

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Published: 2012
SYNOPSIS

Infants who received more vaccines had much higher hospitalization and death rates than infants who received fewer vaccines.

TITLE

Relative trends in hospitalizations and mortality among infants by the number of vaccine doses and age, based on the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), 1990-2010

CITATION

GS Goldman, NZ Miller. Human and Experimental Toxicology, 2012, 31(10) 1012–1021.

SUMMARY

“The hospitalization rate increased linearly from 11.0% (107 of 969) for 2 doses to 23.5% (661 of 2817) for 8 doses and decreased linearly from 20.1% (154 of 765) for children aged < 0.1 year to 10.7% (86 of 801) for children aged 0.9 year. Our findings show a positive correlation between the number of vaccine doses administered and the percentage of hospitalizations and deaths. Since vaccines are given to millions of infants annually, it is imperative that health authorities have scientific data from synergistic toxicity studies on all combinations of vaccines that infants might receive. Finding ways to increase vaccine safety should be the highest priority."

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Published: 2011
SYNOPSIS

Canadian researchers report vaccine aluminum and autism prevalence related.

TITLE

Do aluminum vaccine adjuvants contribute to the rising prevalence of autism?

CITATION

Tomljenovic L, Shaw CA. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry. 2011;105:1489-1499.

SUMMARY

“Dysfunctional immunity and impaired brain function are core deficits in ASD. Aluminum (Al), the most commonly used vaccine adjuvant, is a demonstrated neurotoxin and a strong immune stimulator. Hence, adjuvant Al has the potential to induce neuroimmune disorders. The application of the Hill’s criteria to these data indicates that the correlation between Al in vaccines and ASD may be causal. Because children represent a fraction of the population most at risk for complications following exposure to Al, a more rigorous evaluation of Al adjuvant safety seems warranted. By satisfying eight of the Hill’s criteria for establishing causality applicable to our study, we show that Al-adjuvanted vaccines may be a significant etiological factor in the rising prevalence of ASD in the Western world. We also show that children from countries with the highest ASD prevalence appear to have a much higher exposure to Al from vaccines, particularly at 2 months of age.”

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Published: 2010
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Researchers warn of sizable difference in individual reaction to vaccines, stress need to avoid increasing side effects of vaccines.

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Interindividual variations in the efficacy and toxicity of vaccines

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Chandan Thomasa, Majid Moridanib. Toxicology 278, 2010 204-210.

SUMMARY

“A number of currently available vaccines have shown significant differences in the magnitude of immune responses and toxicity in individuals undergoing vaccination. A number of factors may be involved in the variations in immune responses, which include age, gender, race, amount and quality of the antigen, the dose administered and to some extent the route of administration, and genetics of immune system. Hence, it becomes imperative that researchers have tools such as genomics and proteomics at their disposal to predict which set of population is more likely to be non-responsive or develop toxicity to vaccines.. With the increasing number of side effects associated with a number of vaccines reported over the years, it has become imperative to develop new technologies that can effectively assist in the development and evaluation of vaccines for efficacy and toxicity.”

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Published: 2010
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Scientists review literature and raise concerns about denial of environmental toxin link to autism.

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Sorting out the spinning of autism: heavy metals and the question of incidence

CITATION

DeSoto MC, Hitlan RT. ACTA Neurobiological Experimentals. 2010;70:165–176.

SUMMARY

“In this paper, we argue that increasingly over the past decade, positions that deny a link to environmental toxins and autism are based on relatively weak science and are disregarding the bulk of scientific literature. The question about toxic exposure and autism is open, with the weight of evidence favoring a connection that is not well understood. Although it is not possible to say with certainty, it seems likely that the connection would be mediated by genetic susceptibility and ability to detoxify. That is, some people have genotypes that confer higher susceptibility to toxic exposures. If so, then 50 years ago few people would have had enough toxic exposure to have the neurological changes that result in autism.”

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Published: 2010
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Baby monkeys given U.S. vaccine schedule had brain abnormalities in region responsible for social and emotional development.

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Influence of pediatric vaccines on amygdala growth and opioid ligand binding in rhesus macaque infants: A pilot study

CITATION

Laura Hewitson, Brian J. Lopresti, Carol Stott, N. Scott Mason and Jaime Tomko1. ACTA Neurobiological Experimentals, 2010 70: 147–164.

SUMMARY

“The data suggest that vaccine exposure may be associated with significant disturbances in central opioidergic pathways in this model… Volumetric analyses identified significantly greater total brain volume in exposed compared with unexposed animals at both measured time points. These results raise the possibility that multiple vaccine exposures during the previous 3-4 months may have had a significant impact on brain growth and development.”

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Published: 2010
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SUNY-Stony Brook scientists find boys receiving the hepatitis B vaccine series are three times more likely to have autism.

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Hepatitis B vaccination of male neonates and autism diagnosis, NHIS 1997-2002

CITATION

Gallagher C, Goodman M. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A. 2010;73:1665–1677.

SUMMARY

“Boys vaccinated as neonates had threefold greater odds for autism diagnosis compared to boys never vaccinated or vaccinated after the first month of life. Findings suggest that U.S. male neonates vaccinated with the hepatitis B vaccine prior to 1999 (from vaccination record) had a threefold higher risk for parental report of autism diagnosis compared to boys not vaccinated as neonates during that same time period.”

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Published: 2010
SYNOPSIS

Acellular Pertussis vaccination interferes with the optimal clearance of B. parapertussis and enhances the performance of this pathogen. Our data raise the possibility that widespread acellular Pertussis vaccination can create hosts more susceptible to B. parapertussis infection.

TITLE

Acellular pertussis vaccination facilitates Bordetella parapertussis infection in a rodent model of bordetellosis

CITATION

Gráinne H. Long, Alexia T. Karanikas, Eric T. Harvill, Andrew F. Read and Peter J. Hudson, Proceedings of the Royal Society B, Biological Sciences; 03 March, 2010; Volume 277; https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2010.0010

SUMMARY

Despite over 50 years of population-wide vaccination, whooping cough incidence is on the rise. Although Bordetella pertussis is considered the main causative agent of whooping cough in humans, Bordetella parapertussis infections are not uncommon. The widely used acellular whooping cough vaccines (aP) are comprised solely of B. pertussis antigens that hold little or no efficacy against B. parapertussis. Here, we ask how aP vaccination affects competitive interactions between Bordetella species within co-infected rodent hosts and thus the aP-driven strength and direction of in-host selection. We show that aP vaccination helped clear B. pertussis but resulted in an approximately 40-fold increase in B. parapertussis lung colony-forming units (CFUs). Such vaccine-mediated facilitation of B. parapertussis did not arise as a result of competitive release; B. parapertussis CFUs were higher in aP-relative to sham-vaccinated hosts regardless of whether infections were single or mixed. Further, we show that aP vaccination impedes host immunity against B. parapertussis—measured as reduced lung inflammatory and neutrophil responses. Thus, we conclude that aP vaccination interferes with the optimal clearance of B. parapertussis and enhances the performance of this pathogen. Our data raise the possibility that widespread aP vaccination can create hosts more susceptible to B. parapertussis infection.

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Published: 2010
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British and Swedish scientists raise concerns about limited understanding of vaccine aluminum’s impact on the human body, raise risk of autoimmune response.

TITLE

The immunobiology of aluminium adjuvants: how do they really work?

CITATION

Exley C, Siesjo P, Eriksson H. Trends in Immunology. 2010;31:103-109.

SUMMARY

“Boys vaccinated as neonates had threefold greater odds for autism diagnosis compared to boys never vaccinated or vaccinated after the first month of life. Findings suggest that U.S. male neonates vaccinated with the hepatitis B vac- cine prior to 1999 (from vaccination record) had a threefold higher risk for parental report of autism diagnosis compared to boys not vaccinated as neonates during that same time period.”

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Published: 2010
SYNOPSIS

It is feasible that vaccinations may contribute to the mosaic of autoimmunity.

TITLE

Vaccines and autoimmune diseases of the adult

CITATION

Orbach H, Agmon-Levin N, Zandman-Goddard G. Discovery Medicine. 2014;10(2):101-107.

SUMMARY

Infectious agents contribute to the environmental factors involved in the development of autoimmune diseases possibly through molecular mimicry mechanisms. Hence, it is feasible that vaccinations may also contribute to the mosaic of autoimmunity. Evidence for the association of vaccinations and the development of these diseases is presented in this review.

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Published: 2009
SYNOPSIS

Vaccine aluminum injected into mice created significant motor deficits and motor neuron degeneration.

TITLE

Aluminum hydroxide injections lead to motor deficits and motor neuron degeneration

CITATION

Christopher A. Shaw and Michael S. Petrik. Journal Inorganic Biochemistry, 2009 November; 103(11): 1555.

SUMMARY

“Aluminum-treated mice showed significantly increased apoptosis of motor neurons and increases in reactive astrocytes and microglial proliferation within the spinal cord and cortex. Morin stain detected the presence of aluminum in the cytoplasm of motor neurons with some neurons also testing positive for the presence of hyper-phosphorylated tau protein, a pathological hallmark of various neurological diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal dementia. A second series of experiments was conducted on mice injected with six doses of aluminum hydroxide. Behavioural analyses in these mice revealed significant impairments in a number of motor functions as well as diminished spatial memory capacity. The demonstrated neurotoxicity of aluminum hydroxide and its relative ubiquity as an adjuvant suggest that greater scrutiny by the scientific community is warranted. Overall, the results reported here mirror previous work that has clearly demonstrated that aluminum, in both oral and injected forms, can be neurotoxic.”

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Published: 2009
SYNOPSIS

Newborn monkeys given a mercury-containing hepatitis b vaccine had significant delays in neonatal reflexes and neurological development.

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Delayed acquisition of neonatal reflexes in newborn primates receiving a thimerosal-containing Hepatitis B vaccine: Influence of gestational age and birth weight

CITATION

Laura Hewitson, Lisa A. Houser, Carol Stott, Gene Sackett, Jaime L. Tomko, David Atwood, Lisa Blue, E. Railey White, Andrew J. Wakefield. NeuroToxicology, 2009; doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2009.09.008.

SUMMARY

“In summary, this study provides preliminary evidence of abnormal early neurodevelopmental responses in male infant rhesus macaques receiving a single dose of Th-containing HB vaccine at birth and indicates that further investigation is merited.”

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Published: 2009
SYNOPSIS

French scientists report aluminum from vaccines causes chronic cognitive dysfunction.

TITLE

Long-term persistence of vaccine-derived aluminum hydroxide is associated with chronic cognitive dysfunction

CITATION

Maryline Couette, Marie-Françoise Boisse, Patrick Maison, Pierre Brugieres, Pierre Cesaro, Xavier Chevalier, Romain K. Gherardi, Anne-Catherine Bachoud-Levi, François-Jérôme Authier. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 2009.

SUMMARY

“In conclusion, long-term persistence of vaccine-derived aluminum hydroxide within the body assessed by MMF is associated with cognitive dysfunction, not solely due to chronic pain, fatigue and depression. In conclusion, this work is the first firm demonstration that cognitive dysfunction is a central feature in MMF, this dysfunction being much more frequent and severe than suspected by routine neurological evaluation. Instead of being a non-specific bystander effect of pain, fatigue or depression, MACD seems to reflect an underlying organic, inflammatory or toxic, brain involvement.”

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Published: 2009
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Swedish researchers found that children who had natural measles infection had much lower rates of allergy than children vaccinated against measles.

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Allergic disease and atopic sensitization in children in relation to measles vaccination and measles infection

CITATION

Rosenlund H, Bergstrom A, Alm JS, … PARSIFAL Study Group. Pediatrics. 2009;123(3):771-778.

SUMMARY

In these analyses, measles infection [natural measles] was inversely associated with any allergic symptom or physician’s diagnosis of allergy, suggesting that natural measles infection may protect against allergies in children.

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Published: 2008
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Higher aluminum intake from drinking water is associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline, dementia and Alzheimer’s disease.

TITLE

Aluminum and silica in drinking water and the risk of Alzheimer’s disease or cognitive decline: findings from 15-year follow-up of the PAQUID cohort

CITATION

Rondeau V, Jacqmin-Gadda H, Commenges D, Helmer C, Dartigues JF. Aluminum and silica in drinking water and the risk of Alzheimer’s disease or cognitive decline: findings from 15-year follow-up of the PAQUID cohort. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2009;169(4):489-496.

SUMMARY

A long-term study in Southern France found that a higher intake of aluminum from drinking water was linked to an increased risk of cognitive decline, dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Conversely, an increase in silica intake (10 mg/day) reduced the risk of dementia. A unique feature of the study, which followed elderly individuals for 15 years, was its measurement of individual daily intake of drinking water (both tap and bottled water), in addition to assessing the geographical concentrations of aluminum and silica.  

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Published: 2008
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Boys receiving the hepatitis B vaccine series were nine times more likely to need special education and be developmentally disabled.

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Hepatitis B triple series vaccine and developmental disability in US children aged 1-9 years

CITATION

Gallagher C, Goodman M. Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry. 2008;90(5):997-1008.

SUMMARY

This study investigated the association between vaccination with the hepatitis B triple series vaccine (pre-2000) and subsequent developmental disability. The odds of receiving special education were approximately nine times as great for vaccinated boys as for unvaccinated boys, after adjustment for confounders. The evidence, statistically significant, suggests that boys in United States who were vaccinated with the triple series hepatitis B vaccine were more susceptible to developmental disability than were unvaccinated boys.

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Published: 2008
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Three gene variations are associated with adverse reactions to smallpox vaccination.  

TITLE

Genetic Basis for Adverse Events Following Smallpox Vaccination

CITATION

Reif DM, McKinney BA, Motsinger AA, Chanock SJ, Edwards KM, Rock MT, Moore JH, Crowe Jr. JE. Genetic basis for adverse events following smallpox vaccination. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2008;198(1):16-22.

SUMMARY

A pair of NIH-funded studies identified three genetic variations that make people more susceptible to systemic adverse events following smallpox vaccination. By studying the smallpox vaccine, the researchers focused on a vaccine historically noted for frequently causing adverse reactions in population-wide vaccination programs. In the two studies, 16/96 and 24/46 individuals experienced systemic adverse events after vaccination, and three candidate genes (MTHFR, IRF1 and IL4) had the strongest association with the adverse events. In susceptible individuals, “vaccination appears to trigger an acute inflammatory response that is excessive.”

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Published: 2008
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A CDC-sponsored database showed much higher rates of neurodevelopmental disabilities from mercury-containing vaccines.

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Thimerosal exposure in infants and neurodevelopmental disorders: An assessment of computerized medical records in the Vaccine Safety Datalink

CITATION

Young HA, Geier DA, Geier MR. Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 2008;121:626-631.

SUMMARY

“Consistent significantly increased rate ratios were observed for autism, autism spectrum disorders, tics, attention deficit disorder, and emotional disturbances with Hg [mercury] exposure from TCVs [thimerosal-containing vaccines]. By contrast, none of the control outcomes had significantly increased rate ratios with Hg exposure from TCVs.”

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Published: 2008
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Australian scientists describe the role of vaccines in triggering acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (“ADEM”).

TITLE

Post-vaccination encephalomyelitis: Literature review and illustrative case

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William Huynh, Dennis J. Cordato, Elias Kehdi, Lynette T. Masters, Chris Dedousis. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, 15 (2008) 1315–1322.

SUMMARY

“Post-infectious and post-immunization encephalomyelitis make up about three-quarters of cases, where the timing of a febrile event is associated with the onset of neurological disease. Post-vaccination Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis has been associated with several vaccines such as rabies, diphtheria-tetanus-polio, smallpox, measles, mumps, rubella, Japanese B encephalitis, pertussis, influenza, hepatitis B, and the Hog vaccine. We review ADEM with particular emphasis on vaccination as the precipitating factor.”

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Published: 2008
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Children who delayed the timing of the DPT vaccine had lower rates of asthma.

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Delay in diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus vaccination is associated with a reduced risk of childhood asthma?

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McDonald KL, Huq SI. Journal of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. 2008;121:626-631.

SUMMARY

“Early childhood immunizations have been viewed as promoters of asthma development by stimulating a T(H)2-type immune response or decreasing microbial pressure, which shifts the balance between T(H)1 and T(H)2 immunity. Among 11, 531 children who received at least 4 doses of DPT, the risk of asthma was reduced to (1/2) in children whose first dose of DPT was delayed by more than 2 months.”

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Published: 2007
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Neonatal deaths following hepatitis B vaccination should be investigated as possible vaccine-related deaths.

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An investigation of infant deaths following initial hepatitis B vaccination based on the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), 1992-2002

CITATION

Soldatenkova VA, Yazbak FE. Medical Veritas. 2007;4:1414-1421.

SUMMARY

This study argues that all unexpected neonatal deaths occurring after initial hepatitis B vaccination should be systematically investigated. Over one-fifth (22%) of neonatal hepatitis B vaccine injuries reported to the U.S. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) from 1992 to 2002 were deaths (38/170) that, in nearly all cases, occurred within hours or days of vaccination. Although most of the deaths were officially classified as sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) or “unexplained” rather than as vaccine-related deaths, the authors note “a statistically significant increase in [the] proportion of neonatal SIDS since implementation of universal vaccination of newborns against hepatitis B.” The VAERS reports also are suggestive of higher risks for premature, small, or slightly ill infants.

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Published: 2006
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Repeated influenza vaccination at a young age substantially increases the risk of influenza at older ages.

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Repeated influenza vaccination of healthy children and adults: borrow now, pay later?

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Carrat F, Lavenu A, Cauchemez S, Deleger S. Repeated influenza vaccination of healthy children and adults: borrow now, pay later? Epidemiology & Infection 2006;134(1):63-70.

SUMMARY

This study shows that repeated influenza vaccination at younger ages may double the risk of influenza in the elderly. The study suggests that the “possible benefits of vaccinating children after 5 years of age, and otherwise healthy adults—particularly over a long period and mainly for economic reasons—could be outweighed by severe clinical consequences and increased costs in the elderly.” Moreover, the findings are “solely due to differences between vaccine-induced immunity and naturally acquired immunity.” Unlike vaccination, naturally acquired immunity can provide long-lasting protection against subsequent infection by the same viral subtype.

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Published: 2005
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Among girls, those who received both BCG and DTP experienced higher mortality than those who received only one of the two vaccines (hazards ratio 2.4; 95% confidence interval 1.2-5.0).

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Evaluation of non-specific effects of infant immunization on early infant mortality in southern Indian population.

CITATION

Moulton LH, Rahmathullah L, Halsey NA, Thulasiraj RD, Katz J, Tielsch JM. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 2005 Oct;10(10):947-55.

SUMMARY

In a study of children under 2 years of age in Guinea-Bissau, Kristensen et al. (2000) found immunization with Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccine to be associated with lower mortality, but stated that oral polio vaccine (OPV) and diphtheria, tetanus, polio (DTP) vaccines were associated with higher mortality. More recently, it has been suggested that this effect may be gender-specific, existing primarily among girls. This evaluation, focused on relating timing of BCG and DTP vaccine receipt to mortality from 1 week to 6 months of age, with emphasis on gender differentials found that girls that received both BCG and DTP experienced higher mortality than those who received only one of the two vaccines.

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Published: 2005
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The mercury used as a vaccine preservative is far more neurotoxic than the mercury found in fish.

TITLE

Comparison of Blood and Brain Mercury Levels in Infant Monkeys Exposed to Methylmercury or Vaccines Containing Thimerosal

CITATION

Thomas M. Burbacher, Danny D. Shen, Noelle Liberato, Kimberly S. Grant, Elsa Cernichiari, and Thomas Clarkson. Environmental Health Perspectives, Volume 113, Number 8, August 2005.

SUMMARY

The mercury used in vaccines (and still in the flu vaccine given to pregnant women) is far more toxic than the mercury found in fish, because it stays in the brain at much higher levels. “Data from the present study support the prediction that, although little accumulation of Hg in the blood occurs over time with repeated vaccinations, accumulation of Hg in the brain of infants will occur. Thus, conclusion regarding the safety of thimerosal drawn from blood Hg clearance data in human infants receiving vaccines may not be valid, given the significantly slower half-life of Hg in the brain as observed in the infant macaques. There was a much higher proportion of inorganic Hg in the brain of thimerosal monkeys than in the brains of MeHg monkeys (up to 71% vs. 10%). Absolute inorganic Hg concentrations in the brains of the thimerosal-exposed monkeys were approximately twice that of the MeHg monkeys.”

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Published: 2005
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Many heavy metals increase the apparent toxicity of low levels of mercury.

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Mercury toxicity: Genetic susceptibility and synergistic effects

CITATION

Haley BE. Medical Veritas. 2005;2:535–542.

SUMMARY

This article discusses mercury intoxication and several normally appearing factors that increase the susceptibility to mercury toxicity. Boys with autism represent a subset of the population that is more susceptible to the toxic effects of mercury and thimerosal because they are not efficient excretors of these toxic materials. Research confirms that a lead-toxic person would be more susceptible to mercury toxicity than a healthy, non-toxic person. Researchers routinely observe that many heavy metals increase the apparent toxicity of low levels of mercury. In other words, the synergistic effects of other heavy metals, diet, antibiotics, etc. on mercury toxicity make it impossible to define a “safe level of mercury exposure.”

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Published: 2005
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Vaccine mercury depletes a vital antioxidant, glutathione.

TITLE

Thimerosal Neurotoxicity is Associated with Glutathione Depletion: Protection with Glutathione Precursors

CITATION

S.J. James, William Slikker, Stepan Melnyk, Elizabeth New,
Marta Pogribna, Stefanie Jernigan. NeuroToxicology, 26 (2005) 1–8.

SUMMARY

“Thimerosal is an antiseptic containing 49.5% ethyl mercury that has been used for years as a preservative in many infant vaccines and in flu vaccines. Environmental methyl mercury has been shown to be highly neurotoxic, especially to the developing brain. Because mercury has a high affinity for thiol (sulfhydryl (-SH)) groups, the thiol-containing antioxidant, glutathione (GSH), provides the major intracellular defense against mercury-induced neurotoxicity. Cultured neuroblastoma cells were found to have lower levels of GSH and increased sensitivity to thimerosal toxicity compared to glioblastoma cells that have higher basal levels of intracellular GSH. Thimerosal-induced cytotoxicity was associated with depletion of intracellular GSH in both cell lines. Although Thimerosal has been recently removed from most children’s vaccines, it is still present in flu vaccines given to pregnant women, the elderly, and to children in developing countries.”

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Published: 2004
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The MR (mortality rate) was 1.81 (95% Cl: 0.95, 3.45) for the first dose of DTP and 4.36 (95% Cl: 1.28, 14.9) for the second and third dose

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The introduction of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine and child mortality in rural Guinea­Bissau: an observational study.

CITATION

Aaby P, Jensen H, Gomes J, Fernandes M, Lisse IM. International Journal of Epidemiology. 2004 Apr;33(2):374-80.

SUMMARY

Prior to the introduction of vaccines, children who were absent at a village examination had the same mortality as children who were present. During 1984-1987, children receiving DTP at 2-8 months of age had higher mortality over the next 6 months, the mortality rate ratio (MR) being 1.92 (95% CI: 1.04, 3.52) compared with DTP-unvaccinated children, adjusting for age, sex, season, period, BCG, and region. The MR was 1.81 (95% CI: 0.95, 3.45) for the first dose of DTP and 4.36 (95% CI: 1.28, 14.9) for the second and third dose. BCG was associated with slightly lower mortality (MR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.30, 1.33), the MR for DTP and BCG being significantly inversed. Researchers found in low-income countries with high mortality, DTP as the last vaccine received may be associated with slightly increased mortality. Since the pattern was inversed for BCG, the effect is unlikely to be due to higher-risk children having received vaccination. The role of DTP in high mortality areas needs to be clarified.

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Published: 2004
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Scientists identify vaccine mercury’s role in blocking crucial neurodevelopmental pathways.

TITLE

Activation of methionine synthase by insulin-like growth factor-1 and dopamine: a target for neurodevelopmental toxins and thimerosal

CITATION

M Waly, H Olteanu, R Banerjee, S-W Choi, JB Mason, BS Parker, S Sukumar, S Shim,
A Sharma, JM Benzecry, V-A Power-Charnitsky and RC Deth. Molecular Psychiatry , (2004) 9, 358–370.

SUMMARY

“The ethylmercury-containing preservative thimerosal inhibited both IGF-1- and dopamine-stimulated methylation with an IC50 of 1nM and eliminated MS activity. Our findings outline a novel growth factor signaling pathway that regulates MS activity and thereby modulates methylation reactions, including DNA methylation. The potent inhibition of this pathway by ethanol, lead, mercury, aluminum and thimerosal suggest that it may be an important target of neurodevelopmental toxins.”

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