Science Library Category:

Vaccines

Published: 2017
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Yale scientists find strong association between vaccinations and anorexia, ocd, and anxiety disorder.

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Temporal Association of Certain Neuropsychiatric Disorders Following Vaccination of Children and Adolescents: A Pilot Case-Control Study

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Douglas L. Leslie, Robert A. Kobre, Brian J. Richmand. Frontiers in Psychiatry, January 2017.

SUMMARY

“Subjects with newly diagnosed anorexia nervosa were more likely than controls to have had any vaccination in the previous 3 months [hazard ratio (HR) 1.80, 95% confidence interval 1.21-2.68]. Influenza vaccinations during the prior 3, 6, and 12 months were also associated with incident diagnoses of AN, OCD, and an anxiety disorder. Several other associations were also significant with HRs greater than 1.40 (hepatitis A with OCD and AN; hepatitis B with AN; and meningitis with AN and chronic tic disorder). This pilot epidemiologic analysis implies that the onset of some neuropsychiatric disorders may be temporally related to prior vaccinations in a subset of individuals.”

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Published: 2017
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Italian scientists find unexpected contaminants in all pediatric vaccines, including lead, stainless steel, tungsten, iron, and chromium

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New Quality-Control Investigations on Vaccines: Micro- and Nanocontamination

CITATION

Dr. Antonietta M. Gatti, Stefano Montanari. International Journal of Vaccines and Vaccination, January 2017.

SUMMARY

Scientists found contaminants in all vaccines that are not listed on the label of the vaccines. “The analyses carried out show that in all samples checked vaccines contain non biocompatible and bio-persistent foreign bodies which are not declared by the Producers, against which the body reacts in any case. This new investigation represents a new quality control that can be adopted to assess the safety of a vaccine. Our hypothesis is that this contamination is unintentional, since it is probably due to polluted components or procedures of industrial processes (e.g. filtrations) used to produce vaccines, not investigated and not detected by the Producers. If our hypothesis is actually the case, a close inspection of the working places and the full knowledge of the whole procedure of vaccine preparation would probably allow to eliminate the problem.”

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Published: 2016
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In seven studies of BCG-vaccinated children, DTP vaccination was associated with a 2.54 (95% Cl 1.68- 3.86) increase in mortality in girls (with no increase in boys [ratio 0.96, 0.55-1.68]). The ways in which the female and the male immune systems may respond differently to vaccinations in infants are only beginning to be studied.

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Is diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) associated with increased female mortality? A meta-analysis testing the hypotheses of sex-differential non-specific effects of DTP vaccine.

CITATION

Peter Aaby, Henrik Ravn, Ane B. Fisker, Amabelia Rodrigues, and Christine S. Benn; Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2016 Dec; 110(10): 570–581.doi: 10.1093/trstmh/trw073.

SUMMARY

Ten years ago, we formulated two hypotheses about whole-cell diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination: first, when given after BCG (bacille Calmette-Guerin, is a vaccine for tuberculosis), DTP increases mortality in girls and, second, following DTP there is an increase in the female/male mortality rate ratio (MRR). A recent review by WHO found no convincing evidence that DTP increases mortality in females. Now, ten years later, we have tested the two hypotheses using studies from before, but also those published since formulation of the hypotheses. All studies published after the formulation of the hypotheses of the association of DTP with increased mortality.

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Published: 2016
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Israeli, Canadian and Colombian scientists show that the Gardasil vaccine triggers brain inflammation and autoimmunity in mice.

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Behavioral abnormalities in female mice following administration of aluminum adjuvants and the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine Gardasil

CITATION

Inbar R, Weiss R, Tomljenovic L, Arango M-T, Deri Y, Shaw CA, Chapman J, Blank M, Shoenfeld Y. Immunologic Research. 2017;65(1):136-149.

SUMMARY

“Vaccine adjuvants and vaccines may induce autoimmune and inflammatory manifestations in susceptible individuals. To date most human vaccine trials utilize aluminum (Al) adjuvants as placebos despite much evidence showing that Al in vaccine-relevant exposures can be toxic to humans and animals…. It appears that Gardasil via its Al adjuvant and HPV antigens has the ability to trigger neuroinflammation and autoimmune reactions, further leading to behavioral changes…. In light of these findings, this study highlights the necessity of proceeding with caution with respect to further mass-immunization practices with a vaccine of yet unproven long-term clinical benefit in cervical cancer prevention.”

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Published: 2016
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Infants vaccinated with multiple vaccines at once have much higher hospitalizations and death rates than infants who receive fewer simultaneous vaccines

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Combining Childhood Vaccines at One Visit Is Not Safe

CITATION

Neil Z. Miller. Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons, Summer 2016.

SUMMARY

“Our study showed that infants who receive several vaccines concurrently, as recommended by CDC, are significantly more likely to be hospitalized or die when compared with infants who receive fewer vaccines simultaneously. It also showed that reported adverse effects were more likely to lead to hospitalization or death in younger infants. The safety of CDC’s childhood vaccination schedule was never affirmed in clinical studies. Vaccines are administered to millions of infants every year, yet health authorities have no scientific data from synergistic toxicity studies on all combinations of vaccines that infants are likely to receive. National vaccination campaigns must be supported by scientific evidence.”

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Published: 2016
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When young adults fully vaccinated in childhood with two doses of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine are given a third dose, measles antibody levels revert to near-baseline levels within a year.

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Measles virus neutralizing antibody response, cell-mediated immunity, and IgG antibody avidity before and after a third dose of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine in young adults

Citation

Fiebelkorn AP, Coleman LA, Belongia EA, et al. Measles virus neutralizing antibody response, cell-mediated immunity, and IgG antibody avidity before and after a third dose of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine in young adults. Journal of Infectious Diseases;2016;213(7):1115-23.

 

Summary

When fully vaccinated young adults who received two doses of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine in childhood are given a third dose (MMR3), measles antibody levels revert to near-baseline levels within a year. In this study—after just one month—MMR3 failed to produce any “substantial improvements in the quality of the immune response” for 96.8% of subjects. Individuals who had low or negative vaccine-induced antibodies at baseline were more likely to remain low or negative both one month and one year after the MMR booster, suggesting that “inherent biology” influences whether individuals respond to measles vaccination. Those who received their first MMR dose before 15 months of age also had significantly lower antibody levels later in life. The CDC and FDA researchers conclude that “MMR3 is unlikely to solve the problem of waning immunity in the U.S.”

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Published: 2016
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Israeli and Italian scientists warn that vaccine adjuvants (aluminum) are causing a wide-range of autoimmune conditions, including Sjogren’s Syndrome.

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Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants and Sjogren’s syndrome

CITATION

Colafrancesco S, Perricone C, Shoenfeld Y. The Israel Medical Association Journal. 2016;18(3-4):150-153.

SUMMARY

Considerable evidence raises the possibility of vaccine-triggered autoimmunity. For example, case reports suggest that both vaccines and silicone may trigger the development of Sjogren’s syndrome (a chronic systemic autoimmune inflammatory condition involving the exocrine glands). Aluminum, one of the principal adjuvants used in vaccine formulation, may be responsible for the development of autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA). Aluminum salts seem to induce the activation of dendritic cells and complement components and increase the level of chemokine secretion at the injection site. Evidence also suggests that several vaccines, including BCG (tuberculosis), hepatitis A and/or B and human papillomavirus (HPV), should be avoided or considered only in selected individuals.

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Published: 2016
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Aluminum in vaccines is highly neurotoxic and exposure levels given to infants have dramatically increased.

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Aluminum in Childhood Vaccines Is Unsafe

CITATION

Neil Z. Miller. Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons, Winter 2016.

SUMMARY

“Infants and young children throughout the world receive high quantities of aluminum from multiple inoculations. Incremental changes to the vaccination schedule during the past several years significantly increased the quantity of aluminum in childhood shots. Numerous studies provide compelling evidence that injected aluminum can be detrimental to health. Aluminum is capable of remaining in cells long after vaccination and may cause neurologic and autoimmune disorders. During early development, the child’s brain is more susceptible to toxins and the kidneys are less able to eliminate them. Thus, children have a greater risk than adults of adverse reactions to aluminum in vaccines. Millions of children every year are injected with vaccines containing mercury and aluminum despite well-established experimental evidence of the potential for additive or synergistic toxicity when an organism is exposed to two or more toxic metals.”

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Published: 2016
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There is a significant increase in neurodevelopmental delays in children exposed to both Thimerosal (in vaccines) and methylmercury (in fish).

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Neurodevelopment of Amazonian children exposed to ethylmercury (from Thimerosal in vaccines) and methylmercury (from fish)

CITATION

Marques RC, Abreu L, Bernardi JVE, Dórea JG. Environmental Research. 2016;149:259–265.

SUMMARY

Amazonian children exposed to high and low levels of both ethyl- and methylmercury were assessed using the Mental Developmental Index and Psychomotor Developmental Index. The researchers observed statistically significant differences in the high-exposure group at 24 months in the Mental Developmental Index. Combined exposures led to developmental delays, including the age of talking and the age of walking.

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Published: 2015
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The specific mechanism of action of each vaccine adjuvant may have different effects on the course of autoimmune conditions resulting from vaccination.

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On vaccine’s adjuvants and autoimmunity: Current evidence and future perspectives

CITATION

Pellegrino P, Clementi E, Radice S. Autoimmunity Reviews. 2015;14(10):880-888.

SUMMARY

Adjuvants in vaccines have been implicated in “Autoimmune/inflammatory Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants” (ASIA), an umbrella of clinical conditions that includes post-vaccination adverse reactions. Aluminum-based compounds, in particular, are associated with the development of vaccine adjuvant-induced autoimmune diseases, but vaccines with other adjuvants may also cause specific autoimmune adverse reactions via different pathogenic mechanisms. The specific mechanism of action of each single adjuvant may have different effects on the course of different diseases.

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Published: 2015
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Evidence points to vaccine-induced autoimmunity and adjuvant-induced autoimmunity in experimental models and human patients.

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Vaccines, adjuvants and autoimmunity

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Guimarães LE, Baker B, Perricone C, Shoenfeld Y. Pharmacological Research. 2015;100:190-209.

SUMMARY

This review of the literature assembles evidence of vaccine-induced autoimmunity and adjuvant-induced autoimmunity in both experimental models as well as human patients. Adjuvants and infectious agents may exert their immune-enhancing effects through various functional activities, encompassed by the adjuvant effect. These mechanisms are shared by different conditions triggered by adjuvants leading to the autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA).

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Published: 2015
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There is evidence of a significant relationship between increasing organic mercury exposure from Thimerosal-containing vaccines and the subsequent risk of PDD diagnosis in males and females.

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A Case-Control Study Evaluating the Relationship Between Thimerosal-Containing Haemophilus influenzae Type b Vaccine Administration and the Risk for a Pervasive Developmental Disorder Diagnosis in the United States

CITATION

David A. Geier & Janet K. Kern & Paul G. King & Lisa K. Sykes & Mark R. Geier; Biological Trace Element Research, (2015) 163:28–38.

SUMMARY

In this case-control study of pervasive development disorder (PDD) in U.S. children, cases were consistently exposed to higher levels of thimerosal via infant vaccines at both 6 months of age and 15 months of age, based specifically on Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines. Differences between exposures in cases and controls were statistically significant at both ages evaluated.

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Published: 2015
SYNOPSIS

Some individuals are at risk of developing autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA).

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Predicting post-vaccination autoimmunity: who might be at risk?

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Soriano A, Nesher G, Shoenfeld Y. Pharmacological Research, 2015;92:18-22. Epub 2014 Sep 30.

SUMMARY

It has been postulated that autoimmunity could be triggered or enhanced by a vaccine’s immunogen contents, as well as by adjuvants, which are used to increase the immune reaction to the immunogen. Fortunately, vaccination-related ASIA (autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants) is uncommon. Yet, by defining individuals at risk, it may be possible to further limit the number of individuals developing post-vaccination ASIA.

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Published: 2015
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Vaccines are implicated in the epidemic of childhood food allergies.

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Evidence that food proteins in vaccines cause the development of food allergies and its implications for vaccine policy

CITATION

Arumugham V. Journal of Developing Drugs. 2015;4:137.

SUMMARY

Studies, including by the Institute of Medicine, have demonstrated that food proteins contained in vaccines/injections can induce food allergy. Allergen quantities in vaccines are unregulated. C-section births bias a newborn’s immune system toward IgE synthesis due to the development of a suboptimal gut microbiome. Vaccines contain adjuvants such as aluminum compounds and pertussis toxin that also bias toward IgE synthesis. Over several decades, C-section birth rates have gone up 50%, and the vaccine schedule has increased the number of vaccine shots, with up to five vaccines administered simultaneously. “Given these conditions, the predictable and observed outcome is a food allergy epidemic.”

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Published: 2014
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Researchers found that febrile seizures occurred in roughly one in every 1,000 children who were given the MMR vaccine and two genetic variants came to light that pointed to a higher risk of a febrile seizure in the second week following MMR vaccination.

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Common variants associated with general and MMR vaccine–related febrile seizures

CITATION

Bjarke Feenstra, Bjorn Pasternak, Frank Geller, Lisbeth Carstensen, et. al. Nature Genetics 46, 1274-1282; 26 October, 2014.

SUMMARY

Febrile seizures represent a serious adverse event following measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination. We conducted a series of genome-wide association scans comparing children with MMR-related febrile seizures, children with febrile seizures unrelated to vaccination and controls with no history of febrile seizures. Two loci were distinctly associated with MMR-related febrile seizures. Furthermore, four loci were associated with febrile seizures in general, implicating the sodium channel genes and a region associated with magnesium levels.

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Published: 2014
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FDA’s instruction to health providers that “there is no biologically plausible way in which HPV vaccine could cause infertility” is not science-based and compromises safety monitoring by undermining reporting efficiency, safety signaling and informed consent.

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Adolescent premature ovarian insufficiency following human papillomavirus vaccination: A case series seen in general practice

CITATION

Little DT, Ward HR. Journal of Investigative Medicine-High Impact Case Reports. 2014;2(4):2324709614556129.

SUMMARY

Published case reports point to a possible link between quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine and premature ovarian failure. Declining menstrual function in girls aged 14, 15, and 20 years followed quadrivalent HPV vaccination and preceded premature ovarian failure. However, long-term follow-up after HPV vaccination has not surveyed ovarian function, nor recorded, measured or analyzed symptoms or signs of dysfunction. Disparagement of adverse event reporting by licensing bodies, which instruct health providers that “there is no biologically plausible way in which HPV vaccine could cause infertility,” is not science-based and compromises safety monitoring by undermining “reporting efficiency,” safety signaling and informed consent. In the absence of sound research, public reassurance that “studies have not found ovarian failure to be associated with HPV vaccination” may be harmful to vaccine confidence.

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Published: 2014
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Neurodevelopmental disorders are much more common in children who received mercury-containing vaccines.

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A dose-response relationship between organic mercury exposure from thimerosal-containing vaccines and neurodevelopmental disorders

CITATION

Geier DA, Hooker BS, Kern JK, King PG, Sykes LK, Geier MR. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014;11:9156-9170.

SUMMARY

On a per microgram of organic-mercury (Hg) basis, pervasive developmental disorder, specific developmental disorder, tic disorder and hyperkinetic syndrome of childhood cases were significantly more likely than controls to receive increased organic-Hg exposure. This study provides new epidemiological evidence supporting a significant relationship between increasing organic-Hg exposure from vaccines and the subsequent risk of a neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosis.

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Published: 2014
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Chinese scientists find mice injected with thimerosal (vaccine mercury) have behavioral impairments similar to autism.

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Transcriptomic analyses of neurotoxic effects in mouse brain after intermittent neonatal administration of thimerosal

CITATION

Li X, Qu F, Xie W, et al. Toxicological Sciences. 2014;139:452–465.

SUMMARY

“Thimerosal-treated mice exhibited neural development delay, social interaction deficiency, and inclination of depression. Apparent neuropathological changes were also observed in adult mice neonatally treated with thimerosal. High-throughput RNA sequencing of autistic-behaved mice brains revealed the alternation of a number of canonical pathways involving neuronal development, neuronal synaptic function, and the dysregulation of endocrine system.”

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Published: 2014
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Newborns have been overexposed to aluminum.

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Aluminum exposure and toxicity in neonates: a practical guide to halt aluminum overload in the prenatal and perinatal periods.

CITATION

Fanni D, et al. World Journal of Pediatrics, 2014 May; 10(2):101-7.

SUMMARY

During the last years, human newborns have been overexposed to biologically reactive aluminum, with possible relevant consequences on their future health and on their susceptibility to a variety of diseases. Children, newborns and particularly preterm neonates are at an increased risk of aluminum toxicity because of their relative immaturity. Based on recent original publications and classical data of the literatures, we reviewed the aluminum content in mother’s food during the intrauterine life as well as in breast milk and infant formula during lactation. We also determined the possible role of aluminum parenteral nutrition solutions, in adjuvants of vaccines and in pharmaceutical products.

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Published: 2014
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These data provide a plausible explanation for pertussis resurgence and suggest that attaining herd immunity will require the development of improved vaccination strategies that prevent B. pertussis colonization and transmission.

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Acellular pertussis vaccines protect against disease but fail to prevent infection and transmission in a nonhuman primate model

CITATION

Jason M. Warfel, Lindsey I. Zimmerman, and Tod J. Merkel; Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences; January 14, 2014, 111 (2), 787-792; https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1314688110.

SUMMARY

In this study, researchers found that current acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines fail to prevent colonization and transmission. Nonhuman primates vaccinated with current acellular Pertussis (aP) were protected from severe symptoms but not infection and readily transmitted Bordetella pertussis to contacts.

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Published: 2014
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UC-Boulder professor says the autism epidemic is real and therefore must be the product of an environmental factor.

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A comparison of temporal trends in United States autism prevalence to trends in suspected environmental factors

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Nevison CD. Environmental Health. 2014;13:73.

SUMMARY

“Diagnosed autism prevalence has risen dramatically in the U.S over the last several decades and continued to trend upward as of birth year 2005. The increase is mainly real and has occurred mostly since the late 1980s. In contrast, children’s exposure to most of the top ten toxic compounds has remained flat or decreased over this same time frame. Environmental factors with increasing temporal trends can help suggest hypotheses for drivers of autism that merit further investigation.”

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Published: 2013
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Israeli and Italian researchers demonstrate that exposure to aluminum in vaccines can lead to autoimmune and brain dysfunction.

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Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) 2013: Unveiling the pathogenic, clinical and diagnostic aspects

CITATION

Perricone C, Colafrancesco S, Mazor RD, Soriano A, Agmon-Levin N, Shoenfeld Y. Journal of Autoimmunity. 2013;47:1-16.

SUMMARY

Environmental factors play a critical role in the induction of autoimmunity, with an interplay between genetic susceptibility and environment. Several neurologic demyelinating diseases have been reported following vaccination, notably Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) (an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system). A number of the most common vaccines appear to have some involvement with autoimmunity.

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Published: 2013
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Israeli, Italian, and Canadian researchers tie HPV vaccine to primary ovarian failure.

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Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine and Primary Ovarian Failure: Another Facet of the Autoimmune/Inflammatory Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants

CITATION

Selena Colafrancesco, Carlo Perricone, Lucija Tomljenovic, Yehuda Shoenfeld. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 2013.

SUMMARY

“We documented here the evidence of the potential of the HPV vaccine to trigger a life-disabling autoimmune condition. The increasing number of similar reports of post HPV vaccine-linked autoimmunity and the uncertainty of long-term clinical benefits of HPV vaccination are a matter of public health that warrants further rigorous inquiry.”

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Published: 2013
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Following implementation of changes in a pediatric medical practice to address autism risks, no new cases of autism occurred.

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Can awareness of medical pathophysiology in autism lead to primary care autism prevention strategies?

Citation

Mumper E. North American Journal of Medicine and Science. 2013;6:134-144.

 

Summary

In 2005, the author’s pediatric practice implemented seven changes to address autism risks, focusing on minimizing environmental toxicant exposure, encouraging prolonged breastfeeding, recommending probiotics, providing nutritional counseling, limiting use of antibiotics and acetaminophen and allowing a modified vaccine schedule. No new cases of autism occurred in children born between 2005 and 2011, even though the CDC autism rate would have predicted about six new cases in the practice over that period. The author cautions that “epidemiology may be too blunt a tool to determine all risks for subsets of the population who may be more vulnerable to vaccine reactions.”

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Published: 2013
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Canadian researchers: aluminum in vaccines can cause both autoimmunity and neurological damage.

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Aluminum in the central nervous system (CNS): toxicity in humans and animals, vaccine adjuvants, and autoimmunity

CITATION

Shaw C, Tomljenovic L. Immunologic Research. 2013;56:304–316.

SUMMARY

“In young children, a highly significant correlation exists between the number of pediatric aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines administered and the rate of autism spectrum disorders. Many of the features of aluminum-induced neurotoxicity may arise, in part, from autoimmune reactions, as part of the ASIA syndrome. Aluminum is added to vaccines to help the vaccine work more effectively, but unlike dietary aluminum which will usually clear rapidly from the body, aluminum used in vaccines and injected is designed to provide a long-lasting cellular exposure. Thus, the problem with vaccine-derived aluminum is really twofold: It drives the immune response even in the absence of a viral or bacterial threat and it can make its way into the central nervous system. It is not really a matter of much debate that aluminum in various forms can be neurotoxic.”

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Published: 2013
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Fully vaccinated children require much more emergency care than undervaccinated children.

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A Population-Based Cohort Study of Undervaccination in 8 Managed Care Organizations Across the United States

CITATION

Jason M. Glanz, PhD; Sophia R. Newcomer, MPH; Komal J. Narwaney, MD, PhD; Simon J. Hambidge, MD, PhD; Matthew F. Daley, MD; Nicole M. Wagner, MPH, et al. JAMA Pediatrics, 2013;167(3):274-281.

SUMMARY

“Children who were undervaccinated because of parental choice had lower rates of outpatient visits, lower rates of ED [emergency room] encounters… undervaccinated children had lower outpatient visit rates compared with children who were age-appropriately vaccinated.”

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Published: 2013
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Infants receiving mercury-containing vaccines had much higher rates of autism than infants receiving vaccines without mercury.

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A two-phase study evaluating the relationship between Thimerosal-containing vaccine administration and the risk for an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in the United States

CITATION

Geier DA, Hooker BS, Kern JK, King PG, Sykes LK, Geier MR. Translational Neurodegeneration. 2013;2:25.

SUMMARY

“The present study provides new epidemiological evidence supporting an association between increasing organic-Hg [mercury] exposure from Thimerosal-containing childhood vaccines and the subsequent risk of ASD [autism] diagnosis.”

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Published: 2013
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Scientists from Mexico and Israel explain adjuvants (aluminum) used in vaccines can induce autoimmunity.

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Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (Shoenfeld’s syndrome): clinical and immunological spectrum

CITATION

Vera-Lastra O, Medina G, Del-Pilar Cruz Dominguez M, Jara LJ. Expert Reviews-Clinical Immunology. 2013;9(4):361-373.

SUMMARY

Activation of the immune system by adjuvants could trigger manifestations of autoimmunity or autoimmune disease. Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) includes postvaccination phenomena, macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF), Gulf War syndrome and siliconosis. Various adjuvants used in vaccines enhance a specific immune response against antigens and may produce autoimmunity and autoimmune disease in experimental models and humans. “The clinical and laboratory data support an association between adjuvants and autoimmune diseases.”

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Published: 2013
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There is a connection between infant and prenatal thimerosal exposure and neurological disorders.

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Low-dose mercury exposure in early life: Relevance of thimerosal to fetuses, newborns and infants

CITATION

Dórea JG. Current Medicinal Chemistry. 2013;20:4060-4069.

SUMMARY

This review article highlights the scientifically affirmed connection between infant and prenatal thimerosal exposure and neurological disorders, including tic disorder, which has been shown to be much more prevalent in children with autism. The author also delineates the use of thimerosal in vaccines in developing countries at a greater exposure level than developed countries such as the U.S.

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Published: 2012
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Incidences of Chicken Pox are decreasing Shingles are increasing and the costs associated with the increase in Shingles incidences have exceed the cost savings from the decrease in Chicken Pox cases.

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Review of the United States universal varicella vaccination program: Herpes zoster incidence rates, cost-effectiveness, and vaccine efficacy based primarily on the Antelope Valley Varicella Active Surveillance Project data

CITATION

G.S. Goldman and P.G. King Vaccine, 31 (2013) 1680–1694.

SUMMARY

In 2000, varicella incidence dramatically declined to 70% of the prevaccine rate but reports of Herpes zoster, Shingles, significantly increased among adults aged 20–69 years from 2000 to 2001. Even children with a prior history of varicella demonstrated Shingles rates similar to adults. By 2002, the efficacy of the varicella vaccination had declined well below 80% and the costs of the increased shingles rate have exceeded the cost savings from varicella-disease reductions.

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