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Science Library Category:

Diseases/Outcomes

Published: 2018
SYNOPSIS

The prevalence of diagnosed ADHD in U.S. children and adolescents significantly increased over two decades, from 6.1% (1997-1998) to 10.2% (2015-2016).

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Twenty-year trends in diagnosed attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder among US children and adolescents, 1997-2016

Citation

Xu G, Strathearn L, Liu B, Yang B, Bao W. JAMA Network Open. 2018;1(4):e181471.

 

Summary

Among U.S. children and adolescents, the estimated prevalence of diagnosed ADHD increased significantly between 1997-1998 and 2015-2016, from 6.1% to 10.2%. The continuous increase in the prevalence of diagnosed ADHD was consistent across all subgroups.

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Published: 2018
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Fluoride and aluminum, alone or in combination, can produce the condition of “immunoexcitotoxicity” that leads to the pathological changes seen in autism. 

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Immunoexcitotoxicity as the central mechanism of etiopathology and treatment of autism spectrum disorders: a possible role of fluoride and aluminum

Citation

Strunecka A, Blaylock RL, Patocka J, Strunecky O. Surgical Neurology International. 2018;9:74.

 

Summary

Children experience sequential immune stimulation from a growing number of neurotoxic metals and chemicals, vaccines and persistent viral infections. This excessive immune activation is the “initiating and sustaining event” in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), triggering inflammation and a cascade of excitotoxicity (damaged nerve cells). The fluoride added to drinking water and the aluminum in vaccines—singly or synergistically as aluminofluoride—can be potent factors in producing the condition of “immunoexcitotoxicity” that leads to the pathological changes seen in ASD.

 

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Published: 2018
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The first-ever measurements of aluminum in the brain tissue of donors with multiple sclerosis detected pathologically significant levels of aluminum in every single individual.

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Aluminium in brain tissue in multiple sclerosis

Citation

Mold M, Chmielecka A, Rodriguez MRR, …Exley C. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018;15(8):1777.

 

Summary

The researchers examined the aluminum content of brain tissue from 14 donors diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS), 11 of whom were below age 60. Collecting the first-ever measurements of aluminum in MS brain tissue, the researchers found that all 14 donors had at least one sample with a pathologically significant concentration of aluminum. The universally high aluminum content and the aluminum’s location in the brain suggest a role for aluminum in the neurodegeneration observed in MS.

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Published: 2018
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Vaccination can trigger a series of cascading events that disturbs the balance between “protective immunity” and “destructive inflammation.”

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Vaccines and neuroinflammation

Citation

Giannotta G, Giannotta N. International Journal of Public Health & Safety. 2018;3:3.

 

Summary

This study explores molecular mechanisms capable of explaining “post-vaccination inflammatory syndrome” and the neuroinflammation observed in children with autism. Focusing especially on vaccines (such as HPV vaccines) that contain biopersistent aluminum adjuvants, the authors describe how “continuously escalating doses of this poorly biodegradable adjuvant…may become insidiously unsafe,” especially in children who are vaccinated repeatedly or who have an immature or altered blood-brain barrier. Vaccination can trigger a series of cascading events (involving overexpression of the signaling molecules that regulate inflammation and activation of brain cells called microglia) that disturbs the balance between “protective immunity” and “destructive inflammation.”

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Published: 2018
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The offspring of mothers exposed to DDT and its metabolites during pregnancy are at increased risk for autism.

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Association of maternal insecticide levels with autism in offspring from a national birth cohort

Citation

Brown AS, Cheslack-Postava K, Rantakokko P, et al. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2018;175:1094-1101.

 

Summary

The study provides the first evidence based on biomarkers of an increased autism risk in the offspring of mothers exposed to certain insecticides during pregnancy. In this large national birth cohort study of Finnish children, the odds of autism plus intellectual disability were increased by greater than twofold in mothers measuring with the highest levels of a DDT metabolite.

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Published: 2018
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In children under age two, four postnatal risk factors (acetaminophen use, antibiotic use, ear infections and early weaning) were associated with an increased risk of autism.

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Acetaminophen, antibiotics, ear infection, breastfeeding, vitamin D drops, and autism: an epidemiological study

Citation

Bittker SS, Bell KR. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment. 2018;14:1399-1414.

 

Summary

This study suggests that increased use of acetaminophen and antibiotics in children under age two, along with an increased incidence of ear infections in the first two years and early weaning, are associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The researchers conducted a large parent Internet survey covering over 1,500 three- to twelve-year-old children who either had or did not have ASD. The findings replicate other studies focused on these postnatal ASD risk factors.

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Published: 2018
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Two prenatal exposures—stress and maternal immune dysregulation—are associated with autism, probably in combination with other genetic and environmental risk factors.

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Prenatal stress, maternal immune dysregulation, and their association with autism spectrum disorders

Citation

Beversdorf DQ, Stevens HE, Jones KL. Current Psychiatry Reports. 2018;20:76.

 

Summary

Prenatal stress and disruption of a pregnant woman’s immune response (“maternal immune activation”) are two environmental factors associated with the increased incidence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the fact that, in many cases, these prenatal exposures do not result in ASD suggests an “interaction with multiple other risks.” Some evidence points to greater susceptibility to prenatal stress and maternal immune dysregulation in male offspring.

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Published: 2018
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The contamination of vaccines with animal proteins that resemble human proteins can trigger autoimmunity.

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Cancer immunology, bioinformatics and chemokine evidence link vaccines contaminated with animal proteins to autoimmune disease: a detailed look at Crohn’s disease and Vitiligo

Citation

Arumugham V, Trushin MV.  Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. 2018;10(8):2106-2110.

Summary

Vaccines are contaminated with animal proteins that resemble human proteins, and this can result in autoimmunity. This study, which used bioinformatics to analyze animal proteins in vaccines and their similarity to human proteins, adds to growing evidence of vaccines inducing autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes, Crohn’s disease, vitiligo, systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. The authors suggest that the live viruses and aluminum adjuvants in certain vaccines can stimulate the activation of particular T cells that, upon activation, may cause autoimmune disease. Because autoimmune reactions vary from person to person, “not everyone will develop overt disease”; thus, autoimmune illness may represent the tip of a broader “iceberg” of subclinical effects.

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Published: 2018
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Severe, long-term disability and even death can occur in a subset of individuals vulnerable to “HPV vaccination syndrome.”

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Autoimmunity, autonomic neuropathy, and the HPV vaccination: a vulnerable subpopulation

Citation

Schofield JR, Hendrickson JE. Clinical Pediatrics. 2018;57(5):603-606.

Summary

The authors describe the first biopsy-proven case of serious nerve damage developing within days of HPV vaccination, with an evident link between symptom onset and vaccination. The authors advocate for “increased [provider] awareness of the potential for neurological complications” resulting from HPV vaccination, particularly due to the “devastating clinical outcome of severe, long-term disability and even death of [a vulnerable subset] affected by the HPV vaccination syndrome.”

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Published: 2018
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Aluminum and mercury sulfates may contribute to neurodegeneration and progressive age-related functional decline such as Alzheimer’s disease.

TITLE

Synergism in aluminum and mercury neurotoxicity

CITATION

Alexandrov PN, Pogue AI, Lukiw WJ. Integrative Food, Nutrition and Metabolism. 2018;5(3):1-7. doi: 10.15761/IFNM.1000214.

SUMMARY

The authors analyzed the effects of aluminum and/or mercury, either alone or together, on their ability to induce inflammatory signaling in human cells and in a cell culture that is the same brain cell types targeted by the inflammatory neurodegeneration that characterizes Alzheimer’s disease. They report that neurotoxic metal sulfates obtainable via our environment or diet are significantly potent.

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Published: 2018
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Mercury-associated diagnoses are common among children diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorders.

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Symptoms observed in pervasive developmental disorders such as autism overlap with symptoms of mercury poisoning.

CITATION

Geier DA, Kern JK, Sykes LK, Geier MR. Metabolic Brain Disease. March 2018. doi: 10.1007/s11011-018-0211-9.

SUMMARY

Research indicates that environmental triggers are contributing to the childhood epidemics of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). The mercury-containing vaccine preservative thimerosal is a biologically plausible candidate to induce PDD. This study reveals that 12 symptom categories associated with mercury poisoning directly overlap with symptoms observed in children who have a PDD.

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Published: 2017
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Adolescents given meningococcal vaccines have experienced a wide variety of serious adverse events, including new autoimmune conditions and death.

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Post-licensure safety surveillance study of routine use of quadrivalent meningococcal diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine

CITATION

Hansen J, Zhang L, Klein NP, et al. Vaccine 2017;35(49 Pt B):6879-84.

 

SUMMARY

Adolescents receiving the Menactra® meningococcal vaccine (MenACWY-D) in 2005-2006 experienced a variety of adverse events in the six months following vaccination—including death—but the researchers (one of whom was affilated with the vaccine’s manufacturer, Sanofi Pasteur) concluded that only two diagnoses (diabetes and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis) were “possibly related to vaccination.” After comparing 31,000 Kaiser Permanente patients who received the MenACWY-D vaccine to 31,000 matched teens who had received a tetanus-diphtheria (Td) or hepatitis vaccine the previous year, the researchers assessed 1660 outcomes and determined that 1.3% were “significantly elevated” in the meningococcal group. There were two deaths in vaccinees with cancer (“with onset preceding vaccination”) following MenACWY-D vaccination as well as a third cardiac-related death; there was also one fetal death in a young woman who received Menactra® during pregnancy. Many of the adverse events, including difficulty breathing, occurred two or more months following vaccination.

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Published: 2017
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A number of factors can predispose susceptible individuals to autoimmune reactions following vaccination.

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Vaccination and autoimmune diseases: is prevention of adverse health effects on the horizon?

CITATION

Vadalà M, Poddighe D, Laurino C, Palmieri B. European Association for Predictive Preventive & Personalized Medicine Journal. 2017;8(3):295-311.

SUMMARY

This review discusses possible underlying mechanisms of autoimmune reactions following vaccinations and cases of autoimmune diseases that have been correlated with vaccination. Molecular mimicry and bystander activation are possible mechanisms by which vaccines can cause autoimmune reactions. The individuals who might be susceptible to develop these reactions could be those with previous post-vaccination phenomena, those with allergies, individuals who are prone to develop autoimmune diseases (such as those with a family history of autoimmunity or with known autoantibodies) and genetically predisposed individuals.

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Published: 2017
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Vaccination of preterm infants on the same schedule as term infants increased the odds of a neurodevelopmental disorder.

TITLE

Preterm birth, vaccination and neurodevelopmental disorders: a cross-sectional study of 6- to 12-year-old vaccinated and unvaccinated children

CITATION

Mawson AR, Bhuiyan A, Jacob B, Ray BD. Journal of Translational Science. 2017;3(3):1-8.

SUMMARY

This paper explored the association between preterm birth, vaccination and neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), based on a secondary analysis of data from an anonymous survey of mothers. The researchers compared the birth history and health outcomes of vaccinated and unvaccinated homeschooled children 6 to 12 years of age. The results suggest clues to the epidemiology and causation of NDDs and raise questions about the safety of current vaccination practices for preterm infants.

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Published: 2017
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Vaccinated homeschooled children had a higher rate of allergies and neurodevelopmental disorders than unvaccinated homeschooled children.

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Pilot comparative study on the health of vaccinated and unvaccinated 6- to 12-year-old U.S. children

CITATION

Mawson AR, Ray BD, Bhuiyan AR, Jacob B. Journal of Translational Science. 2017;3(3):1-12.

SUMMARY

This study aimed 1) to compare vaccinated and unvaccinated children on a broad range of health outcomes, and 2) to determine whether an association found between vaccination and neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), if any, remained significant after adjustment for other measured factors. Vaccination remained significantly associated with NDDs after controlling for other factors, and preterm birth coupled with vaccination was associated with an apparent synergistic increase in the odds of NDD.

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Published: 2016
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Israeli, Canadian and Colombian scientists show that the Gardasil vaccine triggers brain inflammation and autoimmunity in mice.

TITLE

Behavioral abnormalities in female mice following administration of aluminum adjuvants and the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine Gardasil

CITATION

Inbar R, Weiss R, Tomljenovic L, Arango M-T, Deri Y, Shaw CA, Chapman J, Blank M, Shoenfeld Y. Immunologic Research. 2017;65(1):136-149.

SUMMARY

“Vaccine adjuvants and vaccines may induce autoimmune and inflammatory manifestations in susceptible individuals. To date most human vaccine trials utilize aluminum (Al) adjuvants as placebos despite much evidence showing that Al in vaccine-relevant exposures can be toxic to humans and animals…. It appears that Gardasil via its Al adjuvant and HPV antigens has the ability to trigger neuroinflammation and autoimmune reactions, further leading to behavioral changes…. In light of these findings, this study highlights the necessity of proceeding with caution with respect to further mass-immunization practices with a vaccine of yet unproven long-term clinical benefit in cervical cancer prevention.”

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Published: 2016
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There is a significant increase in neurodevelopmental delays in children exposed to both Thimerosal (in vaccines) and methylmercury (in fish).

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Neurodevelopment of Amazonian children exposed to ethylmercury (from Thimerosal in vaccines) and methylmercury (from fish)

CITATION

Marques RC, Abreu L, Bernardi JVE, Dórea JG. Environmental Research. 2016;149:259–265.

SUMMARY

Amazonian children exposed to high and low levels of both ethyl- and methylmercury were assessed using the Mental Developmental Index and Psychomotor Developmental Index. The researchers observed statistically significant differences in the high-exposure group at 24 months in the Mental Developmental Index. Combined exposures led to developmental delays, including the age of talking and the age of walking.

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Published: 2016
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Mercury exposure is implicated in neuroinflammatory disorders including autism.

TITLE

The levels of blood mercury and inflammatory-related neuropeptides in the serum are correlated in children with autism spectrum disorder

CITATION

Mostafa GA, Bjørklund G, Urbina MA, Al-Ayadhi LY. Metabolic Brain Disease. 2016;31:593–599.

SUMMARY

Blood mercury levels and tachykinins (neuropeptides that cause inflammation) were correlated in children with ASD and statistically significantly higher than neurotypical control children. It has been shown that mercury exposure can elicit tachykinin formation, which has been implicated in neuroinflammatory disorders including autism.

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Published: 2015
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The specific mechanism of action of each vaccine adjuvant may have different effects on the course of autoimmune conditions resulting from vaccination.

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On vaccine’s adjuvants and autoimmunity: Current evidence and future perspectives

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Pellegrino P, Clementi E, Radice S. Autoimmunity Reviews. 2015;14(10):880-888.

SUMMARY

Adjuvants in vaccines have been implicated in “Autoimmune/inflammatory Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants” (ASIA), an umbrella of clinical conditions that includes post-vaccination adverse reactions. Aluminum-based compounds, in particular, are associated with the development of vaccine adjuvant-induced autoimmune diseases, but vaccines with other adjuvants may also cause specific autoimmune adverse reactions via different pathogenic mechanisms. The specific mechanism of action of each single adjuvant may have different effects on the course of different diseases.

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Published: 2015
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Evidence points to vaccine-induced autoimmunity and adjuvant-induced autoimmunity in experimental models and human patients.

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Vaccines, adjuvants and autoimmunity

CITATION

Guimarães LE, Baker B, Perricone C, Shoenfeld Y. Pharmacological Research. 2015;100:190-209.

SUMMARY

This review of the literature assembles evidence of vaccine-induced autoimmunity and adjuvant-induced autoimmunity in both experimental models as well as human patients. Adjuvants and infectious agents may exert their immune-enhancing effects through various functional activities, encompassed by the adjuvant effect. These mechanisms are shared by different conditions triggered by adjuvants leading to the autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA).

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Published: 2015
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Autistic children accumulate metals at a much higher level than children who do not have a diagnosis of autism.

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Assessment of hair aluminum, lead, and mercury in a sample of autistic Egyptian children: Environmental risk factors of heavy metals in autism

CITATION

El Baz Mohamed F, Zaky EA, Bassuoni EI-Sayed A, et al. Behavioural Neurology. 2015, Article ID 545674.

SUMMARY

Researchers found the mean levels of mercury, lead and aluminum in hair of autistic patients were significantly higher than in controls. Mercury, lead and aluminum levels were positively correlated with maternal fish consumption, living near gasoline stations and the usage of aluminum pans, respectively.

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Published: 2015
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Thimerosal exposure in humans is associated with neurodevelopmental deficits even at levels currently administered in vaccines.

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Thimerosal: Clinical, epidemiologic and biochemical studies

CITATION

Geier DA, King PG, Hooker BS, Dórea JG, Kern JK, Sykes LK, Geier MR. Clinica Chimica Acta. 2015;444:212–220.

SUMMARY

This review article includes a section on numerous papers linking thimerosal exposure via infant vaccines to autism. The publication also includes a critique of studies supported or conducted by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) that deny any associations between exposure to thimerosal in vaccines and the subsequent development of autism. Congress has criticized the CDC for conflicts of interest related to its vaccine development activities and role in vaccine safety oversight.

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Published: 2015
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Some individuals are at risk of developing autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA).

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Predicting post-vaccination autoimmunity: who might be at risk?

CITATION

Soriano A, Nesher G, Shoenfeld Y. Pharmacological Research, 2015;92:18-22. Epub 2014 Sep 30.

SUMMARY

It has been postulated that autoimmunity could be triggered or enhanced by a vaccine’s immunogen contents, as well as by adjuvants, which are used to increase the immune reaction to the immunogen. Fortunately, vaccination-related ASIA (autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants) is uncommon. Yet, by defining individuals at risk, it may be possible to further limit the number of individuals developing post-vaccination ASIA.

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Published: 2015
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Vaccines are implicated in the epidemic of childhood food allergies.

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Evidence that food proteins in vaccines cause the development of food allergies and its implications for vaccine policy

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Arumugham V. Journal of Developing Drugs. 2015;4:137.

SUMMARY

Studies, including by the Institute of Medicine, have demonstrated that food proteins contained in vaccines/injections can induce food allergy. Allergen quantities in vaccines are unregulated. C-section births bias a newborn’s immune system toward IgE synthesis due to the development of a suboptimal gut microbiome. Vaccines contain adjuvants such as aluminum compounds and pertussis toxin that also bias toward IgE synthesis. Over several decades, C-section birth rates have gone up 50%, and the vaccine schedule has increased the number of vaccine shots, with up to five vaccines administered simultaneously. “Given these conditions, the predictable and observed outcome is a food allergy epidemic.”

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Published: 2014
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Researchers found that febrile seizures occurred in roughly one in every 1,000 children who were given the MMR vaccine and two genetic variants came to light that pointed to a higher risk of a febrile seizure in the second week following MMR vaccination.

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Common variants associated with general and MMR vaccine–related febrile seizures

CITATION

Bjarke Feenstra, Bjorn Pasternak, Frank Geller, Lisbeth Carstensen, et. al. Nature Genetics 46, 1274-1282; 26 October, 2014.

SUMMARY

Febrile seizures represent a serious adverse event following measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination. We conducted a series of genome-wide association scans comparing children with MMR-related febrile seizures, children with febrile seizures unrelated to vaccination and controls with no history of febrile seizures. Two loci were distinctly associated with MMR-related febrile seizures. Furthermore, four loci were associated with febrile seizures in general, implicating the sodium channel genes and a region associated with magnesium levels.

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Published: 2014
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FDA’s instruction to health providers that “there is no biologically plausible way in which HPV vaccine could cause infertility” is not science-based and compromises safety monitoring by undermining reporting efficiency, safety signaling and informed consent.

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Adolescent premature ovarian insufficiency following human papillomavirus vaccination: A case series seen in general practice

CITATION

Little DT, Ward HR. Journal of Investigative Medicine-High Impact Case Reports. 2014;2(4):2324709614556129.

SUMMARY

Published case reports point to a possible link between quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine and premature ovarian failure. Declining menstrual function in girls aged 14, 15, and 20 years followed quadrivalent HPV vaccination and preceded premature ovarian failure. However, long-term follow-up after HPV vaccination has not surveyed ovarian function, nor recorded, measured or analyzed symptoms or signs of dysfunction. Disparagement of adverse event reporting by licensing bodies, which instruct health providers that “there is no biologically plausible way in which HPV vaccine could cause infertility,” is not science-based and compromises safety monitoring by undermining “reporting efficiency,” safety signaling and informed consent. In the absence of sound research, public reassurance that “studies have not found ovarian failure to be associated with HPV vaccination” may be harmful to vaccine confidence.

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Published: 2014
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Neurodevelopmental disorders are much more common in children who received mercury-containing vaccines.

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A dose-response relationship between organic mercury exposure from thimerosal-containing vaccines and neurodevelopmental disorders

CITATION

Geier DA, Hooker BS, Kern JK, King PG, Sykes LK, Geier MR. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014;11:9156-9170.

SUMMARY

On a per microgram of organic-mercury (Hg) basis, pervasive developmental disorder, specific developmental disorder, tic disorder and hyperkinetic syndrome of childhood cases were significantly more likely than controls to receive increased organic-Hg exposure. This study provides new epidemiological evidence supporting a significant relationship between increasing organic-Hg exposure from vaccines and the subsequent risk of a neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosis.

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Published: 2014
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MMR vaccination nearly triples the risk of febrile seizures within two weeks of vaccination, and some children are genetically vulnerable to this serious MMR-related adverse event.

TITLE

Common variants associated with general and MMR vaccine-related febrile seizures

Citation

Feenstra B, Pasternak B, Geller F, et al. Nature Genetics 2014;46(12):1274-1282.

Summary

MMR vaccination nearly triples the risk of febrile seizures—a serious adverse event—within two weeks of vaccination. This study explored whether genetic variants might explain the increased risk by comparing children who experienced MMR-related febrile seizures to children who had “MMR-unrelated febrile seizures” as well as a control group free of seizures. The analysis identified two genetic loci “distinctly associated with febrile seizures as an adverse event follow­ing MMR vaccination”—and four more related to febrile seizures in general. The authors hypothesize a two-stage response whereby the MMR-related genetic variants induce fever and then the febrile seizure variants trigger the seizure response. They note the need for additional studies “to determine whether the variants are associated with response to other vaccines.”

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Published: 2014
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Mesenchymal stem cells may be promising candidates for addressing autism-related immune dysregulation.

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Mesenchymal stem cells in treating autism: novel insights

Citation

Siniscalco D, Bradstreet JJ, Sych N, Antonucci N. World Journal of Stem Cells. 2014;6:173-178.

 

Summary

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess unique immunological properties that make them promising candidates in regenerative medicine, with the potential to address the immune dysregulation often observed in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study describes a variety of mechanisms through which MSCs could exert a positive effect in ASD.

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Published: 2014
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There has been an epidemic of inflammatory diseases that has paralleled the epidemic on iatrogenic immune stimulation with vaccines. The epidemic of diabetes/prediabetes appears to be accelerating at a time when the prevalence of obesity has stabilized, indicating that the negative feedback system of the immune system has been over whelmed.

TITLE

Review of Vaccine Induced Immune Overload and the Resulting Epidemics of Type 1 Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome, Emphasis on Explaining the Recent Accelerations in the Risk of Prediabetes and other Immune Mediated Diseases

CITATION

Classen JB (2014) Review of Vaccine Induced Immune Overload and the Resulting Epidemics of Type 1 Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome, Emphasis on Explaining the Recent Accelerations in the Risk of Prediabetes and other Immune Mediated Diseases. J Mol Genet Med S1: 025. doi:10.4172/1747-0862.S1-025

SUMMARY

There has been an epidemic of inflammatory diseases that has paralleled the epidemic on iatrogenic immune stimulation with vaccines. Extensive evidence links vaccine induced immune over load with the epidemic of type 1 diabetes. More recent data indicates that obesity, type 2 diabetes and other components of metabolic syndrome are highly associated with immunization and may be manifestations of the negative feedback loop of the immune system reacting to the immune overload. The epidemic of diabetes/prediabetes appears to be accelerating at a time when the prevalence of obesity has stabilized, indicating that the negative feedback system of the immune system has been over whelmed. The theory of vaccine induced immune overload can explain the key observations that have confounded many competing hypothesis. The current paper reviews the evidence that vaccine induced immune overload explains the disconnect between the increase in prediabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver at a time when the obesity epidemic is waning in children.

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