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Diseases/Outcomes

Published: 2013
SYNOPSIS

Israeli and Italian researchers demonstrate that exposure to aluminum in vaccines can lead to autoimmune and brain dysfunction.

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Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) 2013: Unveiling the pathogenic, clinical and diagnostic aspects

CITATION

Perricone C, Colafrancesco S, Mazor RD, Soriano A, Agmon-Levin N, Shoenfeld Y. Journal of Autoimmunity. 2013;47:1-16.

SUMMARY

Environmental factors play a critical role in the induction of autoimmunity, with an interplay between genetic susceptibility and environment. Several neurologic demyelinating diseases have been reported following vaccination, notably Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) (an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system). A number of the most common vaccines appear to have some involvement with autoimmunity.

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Published: 2013
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Canadian researchers: aluminum in vaccines can cause both autoimmunity and neurological damage.

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Aluminum in the central nervous system (CNS): toxicity in humans and animals, vaccine adjuvants, and autoimmunity

CITATION

Shaw C, Tomljenovic L. Immunologic Research. 2013;56:304–316.

SUMMARY

“In young children, a highly significant correlation exists between the number of pediatric aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines administered and the rate of autism spectrum disorders. Many of the features of aluminum-induced neurotoxicity may arise, in part, from autoimmune reactions, as part of the ASIA syndrome. Aluminum is added to vaccines to help the vaccine work more effectively, but unlike dietary aluminum which will usually clear rapidly from the body, aluminum used in vaccines and injected is designed to provide a long-lasting cellular exposure. Thus, the problem with vaccine-derived aluminum is really twofold: It drives the immune response even in the absence of a viral or bacterial threat and it can make its way into the central nervous system. It is not really a matter of much debate that aluminum in various forms can be neurotoxic.”

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Published: 2013
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Research has determined there is a subgroup of the population that has hypersensitivity to the toxicity of thimerosal yet thimerosal containing vaccines are administered to all without consideration to this important fact. We can ban peanuts from schools because a subpopulation is allergic to them, so why is thimerosal still contained in our vaccines?

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B-lymphocytes from a population of children with autism spectrum disorder and their unaffected siblings exhibit hypersensitivity to thimerosal.

CITATION

Sharpe MA, Gist TL, Baskin DS. J Toxicol. 2013;2013:801517. doi: 10.1155/2013/801517. Epub 2013 Jun 9.

SUMMARY

Two medications (valproate and thalidomide) have been definitively shown to be causative with regards to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Both of these medications share a common trait of inhibiting cell proliferation. Thus, these researchers set out to determine if thimerosal can inhibit cell proliferation using doses of thimerosal which reflect the concentrations that infants are exposed to via vaccinations. The design of this experiment was chosen to be able to distinguish between shared or different in utero environments among families with an ASD member. To accomplish this goal, B-cells were collected from, ASD individuals, their unaffected fraternal twins representing a shared in utero environment, and their unaffected nontwin siblings. In the same manner, B-cells were collected from control families with no history of ASD which were matched for age/sex/ethnicity and compared to ASD families. It was determined that there is a hypersensitivity to thimerosal among a subpopulation of ASD families. The target of thimerosal toxicity is the mitochondria and cell proliferation was inhibited at a dose that was lower than that required to cause cell death.  Among the hypersensitive population, the dose of thimerosal that could inhibit cell proliferation was found to be only 40% of that needed to inhibit proliferation in the control group. Whether a twin or sibling was hypersensitive was dependent on having another family member with hypersensitivity. This finding implies there is a genetic component to thimerosal hypersensitivity. Among the ASD families with hypersensitivity oxidative stress was determined to be the contributing factor. Poor antioxidant status, high lactate levels, and elevated markers of oxidative stress are a common finding among individuals with ASD. In 2008 the case of Hannah Poling was awarded compensation under the United States National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. It was claimed that her vaccines induced a mitochondrial encephalopathy that resulted in autism. Since the mitochondria is the most significant target of thimerosal toxicity, it is particularly poignant to know that a lowering of antioxidant status by any other additional conditions such as infections or co-exposure to other toxins would further sensitize mitochondria to the damaging effects of thimerosal. These researchers state that their work, “…supports a multi-insult model of ASD causation where many individuals have the genetic background that makes them vulnerable to a particular type of insult at a particular time in their brain development…”. Just like valproate and thalidomide which are the only 2 accepted causative agents for ASD, this research has demonstrated that thimerosal is also capable of inhibiting cell proliferation.

 

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Published: 2013
SYNOPSIS

Scientists from Mexico and Israel explain adjuvants (aluminum) used in vaccines can induce autoimmunity.

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Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (Shoenfeld’s syndrome): clinical and immunological spectrum

CITATION

Vera-Lastra O, Medina G, Del-Pilar Cruz Dominguez M, Jara LJ. Expert Reviews-Clinical Immunology. 2013;9(4):361-373.

SUMMARY

Activation of the immune system by adjuvants could trigger manifestations of autoimmunity or autoimmune disease. Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) includes postvaccination phenomena, macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF), Gulf War syndrome and siliconosis. Various adjuvants used in vaccines enhance a specific immune response against antigens and may produce autoimmunity and autoimmune disease in experimental models and humans. “The clinical and laboratory data support an association between adjuvants and autoimmune diseases.”

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Published: 2013
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There is a connection between infant and prenatal thimerosal exposure and neurological disorders.

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Low-dose mercury exposure in early life: Relevance of thimerosal to fetuses, newborns and infants

CITATION

Dórea JG. Current Medicinal Chemistry. 2013;20:4060-4069.

SUMMARY

This review article highlights the scientifically affirmed connection between infant and prenatal thimerosal exposure and neurological disorders, including tic disorder, which has been shown to be much more prevalent in children with autism. The author also delineates the use of thimerosal in vaccines in developing countries at a greater exposure level than developed countries such as the U.S.

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Published: 2012
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Canadian researchers review literature on autoimmunity and neurological risks from vaccine adjuvant aluminum, express doubts regarding safety testing.

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Mechanisms of aluminum adjuvant toxicity and autoimmunity in pediatric populations

CITATION

L Tomljenovic, CA Shaw. Lupus. 2012;21:223–230.

SUMMARY

“Immune challenges during early development, including those vaccine-induced, can lead to permanent detrimental alterations of the brain and immune function. Experimental evidence also shows that simultaneous administration of as little as two to three immune adjuvants can overcome genetic resistance to autoimmunity. In spite of the widespread agreement that vaccines are largely safe and serious adverse complications are extremely rare, a close scrutiny of the scientific literature does not support this view. For example, to date, the clinical trials that could adequately address vaccine safety issues have not been conducted (i.e., comparing health outcomes in vaccinated versus non-vaccinated children). Infants and young children should not be viewed as ‘small adults.’ Their unique physiology makes them much more vulnerable to noxious environmental insults in comparison with the adult population. In spite of this, children are routinely exposed to much higher levels of Al vaccine adjuvants than adults, even though adequate safety data on these compounds are lacking. That Al vaccine adjuvants can induce significant autoimmune conditions in humans can hardly be disputed, although still debatable is how common such side effects are. However, the existing data (or lack thereof) raise questions on whether the current vaccines aimed at pediatric populations can be accepted as having adequate safety profiles. Because infants and children represent those who may be most at risk for complications following vaccination, a more rigorous evaluation of potential vaccine-related adverse health impacts in pediatric populations than what has been provided to date is urgently needed.”

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Published: 2011
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Using the Tukey-Kramer test, statistically significant differences in mean IMRs (infant mortality rates) were found between nations giving 12-14 vaccine doses and those giving 21-23, and 24-26 doses.”

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Infant mortality rates regressed against number of vaccine doses routinely given: is there a biochemical or synergistic toxicity?

CITATION

Neil Z Miller and Gary S Goldman; Human and Experimental Toxicology. 2011 Sep; 30(9): 1420–1428. doi: 10.1177/0960327111407644.

SUMMARY

The infant mortality rate (IMR) is one of the most important indicators of the socio-economic well-being and public health conditions of a country. The US childhood immunization schedule specifies 26 vaccine doses for infants aged less than 1 year—the most in the world—yet 33 nations have lower IMRs. Using linear regression, the immunization schedules of these 34 nations were examined and a correlation was found between IMRs and the number of vaccine doses routinely given to infants.

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Published: 2010
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It is feasible that vaccinations may contribute to the mosaic of autoimmunity.

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Vaccines and autoimmune diseases of the adult

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Orbach H, Agmon-Levin N, Zandman-Goddard G. Discovery Medicine. 2014;10(2):101-107.

SUMMARY

Infectious agents contribute to the environmental factors involved in the development of autoimmune diseases possibly through molecular mimicry mechanisms. Hence, it is feasible that vaccinations may also contribute to the mosaic of autoimmunity. Evidence for the association of vaccinations and the development of these diseases is presented in this review.

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Published: 2009
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Swedish researchers found that children who had natural measles infection had much lower rates of allergy than children vaccinated against measles.

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Allergic disease and atopic sensitization in children in relation to measles vaccination and measles infection

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Rosenlund H, Bergstrom A, Alm JS, … PARSIFAL Study Group. Pediatrics. 2009;123(3):771-778.

SUMMARY

In these analyses, measles infection [natural measles] was inversely associated with any allergic symptom or physician’s diagnosis of allergy, suggesting that natural measles infection may protect against allergies in children.

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Published: 2008
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Boys receiving the hepatitis B vaccine series were nine times more likely to need special education and be developmentally disabled.

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Hepatitis B triple series vaccine and developmental disability in US children aged 1-9 years

CITATION

Gallagher C, Goodman M. Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry. 2008;90(5):997-1008.

SUMMARY

This study investigated the association between vaccination with the hepatitis B triple series vaccine (pre-2000) and subsequent developmental disability. The odds of receiving special education were approximately nine times as great for vaccinated boys as for unvaccinated boys, after adjustment for confounders. The evidence, statistically significant, suggests that boys in United States who were vaccinated with the triple series hepatitis B vaccine were more susceptible to developmental disability than were unvaccinated boys.

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Published: 2008
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A CDC-sponsored database showed much higher rates of neurodevelopmental disabilities from mercury-containing vaccines.

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Thimerosal exposure in infants and neurodevelopmental disorders: An assessment of computerized medical records in the Vaccine Safety Datalink

CITATION

Young HA, Geier DA, Geier MR. Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 2008;121:626-631.

SUMMARY

“Consistent significantly increased rate ratios were observed for autism, autism spectrum disorders, tics, attention deficit disorder, and emotional disturbances with Hg [mercury] exposure from TCVs [thimerosal-containing vaccines]. By contrast, none of the control outcomes had significantly increased rate ratios with Hg exposure from TCVs.”

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Published: 2008
SYNOPSIS

Children who delayed the timing of the DPT vaccine had lower rates of asthma.

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Delay in diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus vaccination is associated with a reduced risk of childhood asthma?

CITATION

McDonald KL, Huq SI. Journal of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. 2008;121:626-631.

SUMMARY

“Early childhood immunizations have been viewed as promoters of asthma development by stimulating a T(H)2-type immune response or decreasing microbial pressure, which shifts the balance between T(H)1 and T(H)2 immunity. Among 11, 531 children who received at least 4 doses of DPT, the risk of asthma was reduced to (1/2) in children whose first dose of DPT was delayed by more than 2 months.”

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Published: 2007
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Neonatal deaths following hepatitis B vaccination should be investigated as possible vaccine-related deaths.

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An investigation of infant deaths following initial hepatitis B vaccination based on the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), 1992-2002

CITATION

Soldatenkova VA, Yazbak FE. Medical Veritas. 2007;4:1414-1421.

SUMMARY

This study argues that all unexpected neonatal deaths occurring after initial hepatitis B vaccination should be systematically investigated. Over one-fifth (22%) of neonatal hepatitis B vaccine injuries reported to the U.S. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) from 1992 to 2002 were deaths (38/170) that, in nearly all cases, occurred within hours or days of vaccination. Although most of the deaths were officially classified as sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) or “unexplained” rather than as vaccine-related deaths, the authors note “a statistically significant increase in [the] proportion of neonatal SIDS since implementation of universal vaccination of newborns against hepatitis B.” The VAERS reports also are suggestive of higher risks for premature, small, or slightly ill infants.

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Published: 2007
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Test scores among young men declined between 1998 and 2003/04.

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Secular declines in cognitive test scores: A reversal of the Flynn Effect

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Teasdale TW, Owen DR. Intelligence. 2008;36:121–126.

SUMMARY

Scores on cognitive tests have been very widely reported to have increased through the decades of the last century, a generational phenomenon termed the “Flynn Effect” since it was comprehensively documented by James Flynn in the 1980s. Data reported here from young adult males in Denmark show that whereas there were modest increases between 1988 and 1998, scores on all four tests declined between 1998 and 2003/2004.

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Published: 2005
SYNOPSIS

Among girls, those who received both BCG and DTP experienced higher mortality than those who received only one of the two vaccines (hazards ratio 2.4; 95% confidence interval 1.2-5.0).

TITLE

Evaluation of non-specific effects of infant immunization on early infant mortality in southern Indian population.

CITATION

Moulton LH, Rahmathullah L, Halsey NA, Thulasiraj RD, Katz J, Tielsch JM. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 2005 Oct;10(10):947-55.

SUMMARY

In a study of children under 2 years of age in Guinea-Bissau, Kristensen et al. (2000) found immunization with Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccine to be associated with lower mortality, but stated that oral polio vaccine (OPV) and diphtheria, tetanus, polio (DTP) vaccines were associated with higher mortality. More recently, it has been suggested that this effect may be gender-specific, existing primarily among girls. This evaluation, focused on relating timing of BCG and DTP vaccine receipt to mortality from 1 week to 6 months of age, with emphasis on gender differentials found that girls that received both BCG and DTP experienced higher mortality than those who received only one of the two vaccines.

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Published: 2005
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Many heavy metals increase the apparent toxicity of low levels of mercury.

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Mercury toxicity: Genetic susceptibility and synergistic effects

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Haley BE. Medical Veritas. 2005;2:535–542.

SUMMARY

This article discusses mercury intoxication and several normally appearing factors that increase the susceptibility to mercury toxicity. Boys with autism represent a subset of the population that is more susceptible to the toxic effects of mercury and thimerosal because they are not efficient excretors of these toxic materials. Research confirms that a lead-toxic person would be more susceptible to mercury toxicity than a healthy, non-toxic person. Researchers routinely observe that many heavy metals increase the apparent toxicity of low levels of mercury. In other words, the synergistic effects of other heavy metals, diet, antibiotics, etc. on mercury toxicity make it impossible to define a “safe level of mercury exposure.”

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Published: 2004
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The MR (mortality rate) was 1.81 (95% Cl: 0.95, 3.45) for the first dose of DTP and 4.36 (95% Cl: 1.28, 14.9) for the second and third dose

TITLE

The introduction of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine and child mortality in rural Guinea­Bissau: an observational study.

CITATION

Aaby P, Jensen H, Gomes J, Fernandes M, Lisse IM. International Journal of Epidemiology. 2004 Apr;33(2):374-80.

SUMMARY

Prior to the introduction of vaccines, children who were absent at a village examination had the same mortality as children who were present. During 1984-1987, children receiving DTP at 2-8 months of age had higher mortality over the next 6 months, the mortality rate ratio (MR) being 1.92 (95% CI: 1.04, 3.52) compared with DTP-unvaccinated children, adjusting for age, sex, season, period, BCG, and region. The MR was 1.81 (95% CI: 0.95, 3.45) for the first dose of DTP and 4.36 (95% CI: 1.28, 14.9) for the second and third dose. BCG was associated with slightly lower mortality (MR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.30, 1.33), the MR for DTP and BCG being significantly inversed. Researchers found in low-income countries with high mortality, DTP as the last vaccine received may be associated with slightly increased mortality. Since the pattern was inversed for BCG, the effect is unlikely to be due to higher-risk children having received vaccination. The role of DTP in high mortality areas needs to be clarified.

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Published: 2004
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Scientists identify vaccine mercury’s role in blocking crucial neurodevelopmental pathways.

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Activation of methionine synthase by insulin-like growth factor-1 and dopamine: a target for neurodevelopmental toxins and thimerosal

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M Waly, H Olteanu, R Banerjee, S-W Choi, JB Mason, BS Parker, S Sukumar, S Shim,
A Sharma, JM Benzecry, V-A Power-Charnitsky and RC Deth. Molecular Psychiatry , (2004) 9, 358–370.

SUMMARY

“The ethylmercury-containing preservative thimerosal inhibited both IGF-1- and dopamine-stimulated methylation with an IC50 of 1nM and eliminated MS activity. Our findings outline a novel growth factor signaling pathway that regulates MS activity and thereby modulates methylation reactions, including DNA methylation. The potent inhibition of this pathway by ethanol, lead, mercury, aluminum and thimerosal suggest that it may be an important target of neurodevelopmental toxins.”

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Published: 2000
SYNOPSIS

One dose of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine was associated with a mortality ratio of 1.84 (1.10 to 3.10) and two to three doses with a ratio of 1.38 (0.73 to 2.61) compared with children who had received no dose of these vaccines.”

TITLE

Routine vaccinations and child survival: follow up study in Guinea Bissau, West Africa.

CITATION

Kristensen I, Aaby P, Jensen H. British Medical Journal. 2000 Dec 9;321(7274):1435-8.

SUMMARY

Research on vaccines in developing countries recommended by the World Health Organization has emphasised serological responses and protection against specific diseases. The aim of the research has been to optimise vaccine schedules for control, elimination, or eradication of disease. In modelling exercises, vaccination against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, and polio has been assumed to save 1.5­2.0% of the children in areas with high infant mortality. However, these assumptions are not supported by data. Mortality was lower in the group vaccinated with any vaccine compared with those not vaccinated, however, recipients of one dose of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis or polio vaccines had higher mortality than children who had received none of these vaccines.

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Published: 2000
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UCLA researchers find the DTP vaccine is causing asthma.

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Effects of Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis or Tetanus Vaccination on Allergies and Allergy-Related Respiratory Symptoms Among Children and Adolescents in the United States

CITATION

Eric L. Hurwitz, DC, PhD, and Hal Morgenstern, PhD. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, Volume 23, Number 2, February 2000.

SUMMARY

“Asthma and other allergic hypersensitivity reactions and related symptoms may be caused, in part, by the delayed effects of DTP or tetanus vaccination. Because the proportion of US children who have received at least 1 dose of DTP vaccine approaches 100%, the number of allergies and allergy-related conditions attributable to DTP or tetanus vaccination in the United States may be very high. For example, assuming that the estimated vaccination effect is unbiased, 50% of diagnosed asthma cases (2.93 million) in US children and adolescents would be prevented if the DTP or tetanus vaccination was not administered.”

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Published: 1998
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A high percentage of autistic children with positive antibodies to the measles and/or human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) also have autoantibodies to brain components. Might the MMR vaccine be an early event in brain autoimmunity?

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Serological association of measles virus and human herpesvirus-6 with brain autoantibodies in autism.

CITATION

Singh VK, Lin SX, Yang VC. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1998 Oct;89(1):105-8.

SUMMARY

Environmental exposures to toxins as well as viral infections are known to be triggers for autoimmunity. Individuals with autism suffer from a variety of immunological abnormalities with 55-70% having autoantibodies to brain antigens that include myelin basic protein (MBP), neuron-axon filament proteins (NAFP), and serotonin receptor. Many parents have reported the onset of autism soon after receiving a vaccine for the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) and/or diptheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT). The authors point out that both measles virus and human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) can manifest neurologic sequelae, show molecular mimicry with MBP and NAFP, and are associated with demyelination. To understand a possible association of viruses to brain autoimmunity, these researchers investigated virus serology of the measles virus and HHV-6. Children diagnosed with autism using the DSM-IIIR criteria were compared to normal controls. Both the controls and the children with autism had a high percentage of positive titers to measles as well as HHV-6 antibodies. According to the authors this was to be expected given that, “A high proportion (78%) of general populations is known to have positive titers of HHV-6 antibody.” The high percentage of measles antibody titers (85%) in children with autism was also expected. There is a high rate of seroconversion post MMR vaccination and none of the children had a history of exposure to the wild-type measles infection. An interesting finding was revealed when comparing the virus serology to brain autoantibodies. Among the control group, there were no brain autoantibodies found in any participant. However, among autistic subjects:

“approximately 90% of measles-IgG-positive sera also had anti-MBP”

“73% of measles-IgG- positive sera also had anti-NAFP”

“84% of HHV-6-IgG-positive sera also had anti-MBP”

“72% of HHV-6-IgG-positive sera also had anti-NAFP.”

“the higher the virus antibody titer the greater the chance of brain autoantibody”

The report closing by stating, “In conclusion, we suggest that while the etiology is not known, it is quite instructive to consider environmental factors, for example measles virus and HHV-6, as etiological agents linked to autoimmunity in autism.”

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Published: 1997
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Addition of the Hepatitis B Vaccine in 1988 Increased the Rate of Type 1 Diabetes 1.62X in Children in New Zealand. The incidence of type I diabetes in person 0-19 years old living in Christchurch rose from 11.2 cases per 100,000 children annually in the years before the immunization program, 1982-1987, to 18.1 cases per 100,000 children annually ( P = .0008) in the years following the immunization, 1989-1991.

TITLE

The timing of pediatric immunizations and the risk of Insulin-Dependent diabetes mellitus

CITATION

Classen David C.; Classen, John Barthelow; Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice: September-October 1997 – Volume 6 – Issue 7 – ppg 449-454.

SUMMARY

Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is believed to be an autoimmune disease induced by a variety of environmental stimuli. Vaccines and infectious agents have been suggested to have an influence, but most of this research has been centered on the ability of these agents to infect the pancreatic islet cells or contain antigens that mimic autoantigens. Classen found that administration of the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) and anthrax vaccines to mice and rats at birth prevented the development of diabetes, whereas administration of the DTP vaccine starting at 8 weeks was associated with an increased incidence of diabetes.

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Published: 1953
SYNOPSIS

Aluminum caused tics and grand mal seizures in monkeys.

TITLE

Experimental Epilepsy in the Monkey Following Multiple Intracerebral Injections of Alumina Cream

CITATION

Joseph G. Chusid, Lenore M. Kopeloff, Ph.D. and Nicholas Kopeloff, Ph.D. The Bulletin, 1953.

SUMMARY

The multiple intracerebral injection of alumina cream (aluminum hydroxide cream) into a principal cerebral sensorimotor cortical area is effective in producing chronic epilepsy in monkeys. In all injected animals a variable degree of contralateral hemiparesis was obvious immediately after operation. In five of the six monkeys injected unilaterally, spontaneous contralateral focal motor seizures were evident three to four weeks after operation. Initially there occurred almost continuous twitch-like movements of varying amplitude and regularity, involving the musculature of the contralateral face and limbs. Excitement, agitation, movement or stress readily aggravated and accentuated this type of motor activity and sometimes led to Jacksonian spread with full-blown generalized convulsive seizure and exhaustion.

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