Science Library Category:

Diseases/Outcomes

Published: 2019
SYNOPSIS

Pregnant women are a WHO priority group for influenza vaccination, but evidence from observational studies in pregnancy is subject, among others, to the healthy-vaccinee bias, overestimating the vaccine effectiveness and safety. An USA survey adds new evidence that documents this bias. Therefore, it is essential to assess vaccine effectiveness and safety with RCTs. Cochrane reviews identified one RCT with “low risk of bias”, in a medium-income country, with NNV 55 for mothers. Its data show an excess of local adverse effects, and a tendency to harm for serious adverse events, with uncertain or very limited protection against influenza.

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Influenza Vaccination for All Pregnant Women? So Far the Less Biased Evidence Does Not Favour It

Pregnant women are a WHO priority group for influenza vaccination, but evidence from observational studies in pregnancy is subject, among others, to the healthy-vaccinee bias, overestimating the vaccine effectiveness and safety. An USA survey adds new evidence that documents this bias. Therefore, it is essential to assess vaccine effectiveness and safety with RCTs. Cochrane reviews identified one RCT with “low risk of bias”, in a medium-income country, with NNV 55 for mothers. Its data show an excess of local adverse effects, and a tendency to harm for serious adverse events, with uncertain or very limited protection against influenza

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Published: 2019
SYNOPSIS

This case report describes bilateral deafness following influenza vaccination.

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Bilateral deafness two days following influenza vaccination: a case report

CITATION

Kolarov C, Lobermann M, Fritsche C, Hemmer C, Mlynski R, Reisinger EC.  Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics. 2019;15(1):107-108.

SUMMARY

This case report describes bilateral deafness following influenza vaccination in a 79-year-old woman with previously normal hearing.

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Published: 2019
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About 2%–10% of healthy individuals fail to mount antibody levels to routine vaccines.

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Primary vaccine failure to routine vaccines: Why and what to do?

CITATION

Wiedermann U, Garner-Spitzer E, Wagner A. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics. 2016;12(1):239–243.

SUMMARY

Two sets of factors are responsible for vaccine failure: vaccine-related factors (e.g., failures in vaccine attenuation, vaccination regimes or administration) and host-related factors (e.g., genetics, immune status, age, health or nutritional status). Primary vaccine failure describes the inability to respond to primary vaccination, and secondary vaccine failure is characterized by a loss of protection after initial effectiveness. Studies indicate that about 2%–10% of healthy individuals fail to mount antibody levels to routine vaccines. T-regulatory as well as B-regulatory cells and the production of IL-10 are involved in non/hypo-responsiveness to vaccination. Non-responsiveness increases with age, indicating that vaccine schedules and doses (at least for primary vaccination) should be adapted according to age. Studies also suggest that different vaccination approaches may be needed for allergic or obese individuals. The significant paradigm shift taking place in many fields of medical research and care should extend the concept of personalized medicine into the field of vaccinology.

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Published: 2019
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Children of mothers with asthma are at increased risk of developing autism, highlighting the importance of studying environmental risk factors during pregnancy.

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Parental asthma and risk of autism spectrum disorder in offspring: a population and family-based case-control study

Citation

Gong T, Lundholm C, Rejno G, et al. Clinical and Experimental Allergy. 2019 Feb 11.

 

Summary

This large observational study reports that children of mothers with asthma are at increased risk of developing autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The study looked at all children born in Sweden between 1992 and 2007, including almost 23,000 children with ASD. The researchers posit that maternal immune activation during pregnancy may represent a biological mechanism explaining the association. The increased ASD risk could not be explained by socioeconomic, demographic, or genetic factors, underscoring “the importance of investigating other maternal environmental factors.”

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Published: 2018
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An allergic response to thimerosal, nickel, mercury and cobalt often manifests as hand eczema.

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Hand eczema in children. Clinical and epidemiological study of the population referred to a tertiary hospital

CITATION

Ortiz-Salvador JM, Subiabre-Ferrer D, Rabasco AG, Esteve-Martínez A, Zaragoza-Ninet V, de Miquel VA. Anales de Pediatria (Barc.) 2018;88:309-314.

SUMMARY

Hand eczema is a common condition in children. The most common cause is atopic dermatitis, although cases of allergic contact dermatitis manifesting as hand eczema are not uncommon. Using children with hand eczema exclusively, researchers conducted patch-testing. The most frequent allergens detected were thimerosal, nickel, mercury and cobalt.

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Published: 2018
SYNOPSIS

The preponderance of the evidence indicates that mercury exposure is causal and/or contributory to ASD.

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Current knowledge on endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) from animal biology to humans, from pregnancy to adulthood: Highlights from a national Italian meeting

CITATION

Street ME, et al. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018;19:1647.

SUMMARY

This manuscript reviews the reports of a multidisciplinary national meeting on the effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Section 3 specifically discusses EDCs and neurodevelopmental diseases in humans, with a focus on autism. Recent studies point to an equal contribution of environmental factors (particularly environmental toxicants) and genetic susceptibility, but only a few industrial chemicals (e.g., lead [Pb], methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], and toluene) are recognized causes of neurodevelopmental disorders and subclinical brain dysfunction. Recent discoveries indicate that heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) may exhibit endocrine-disrupting activity in animal models, probably by interfering with zinc-fingers of nuclear estrogen receptors. The authors review research on mercury, PCBs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, phthalates, BPAs and pesticides.

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Published: 2018
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Food proteins in vaccines can sensitize the immune system and trigger development of food allergies and other chronic conditions such as autism and type 1 diabetes.

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Milk containing vaccines cause milk allergies, EoE, autism and type 1 diabetes

CITATION

Arumugham V. BMJ. 2018;361:k2396. [Letter in response to Schulze MB et al., Food based dietary patterns and chronic disease prevention, BMJ 2018;361:k2396.]

SUMMARY

Responding to an article about food and chronic illness, the author criticizes the researchers for overlooking “a major cause of why food has become dangerous,” noting that vaccines contain food proteins that can “program the immune system to recognize food as pathogens.” Injection of vaccines containing cow’s milk proteins can cause sensitization to several bovine proteins (casein, folate receptor and insulin). In addition, studies suggest an association between vaccine-induced sensitization to cow’s milk proteins and the development of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), autism and type 1 diabetes.

 

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Published: 2018
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The neonatal hepatitis B vaccination induced an anti-inflammatory response lasting for 4–5 weeks.

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IL-4 mediates the delayed neurobehavioral impairments induced by neonatal hepatitis B vaccination that involves the down-regulation of the IL-4 receptor in the hippocampus

CITATION

Yang XWJ, Xing Z, Zhang H, et al. Cytokine. 2018; 110:137-149.

SUMMARY

Experiments showed that IL-4 mediates the delayed neurobehavioral impairments induced by neonatal hepatitis B vaccination, which involves the permeability of neonatal blood–brain barrier and the down-regulation of IL-4 receptor. This finding suggests that clinical events concerning neonatal IL-4 over-exposure, including neonatal hepatitis B vaccination and allergic asthma in human infants, may have adverse implications for brain development and cognition.

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Published: 2018
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Autistic children with gastrointestinal symptoms have an imbalance in their immune response that affects behavior and quality of life.

TITLE

Differential immune responses and microbiota profiles in children with autism spectrum disorders and co-morbid gastrointestinal symptoms

CITATION

Rose DR, Yang H, Serena G, Sturgeon C, Ma B, Careaga M, Hughes HK, Angkustsiri K, Rose M, Hertz-Picciotto I, Van de Water J, Hansen RL, Ravel J, Fasano A, Ashwood P. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 2018;70:354-368.

SUMMARY

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and concurrent gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms have a more imbalanced immune response, a more disturbed gut microbiome and worse behavioral outcomes (such as irritability, agitation, social withdrawal, lethargy, hyperactivity and noncompliance) than ASD children without GI symptoms. The study additionally looked at typically developing children with and without GI symptoms and found that ASD+GI children stood out compared to those two groups as well. Children with ASD plus GI symptoms may have a “propensity” toward leaky gut that contributes to their other symptoms and clinical outcomes.

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Published: 2018
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The prevalence of diagnosed ADHD in U.S. children and adolescents significantly increased over two decades, from 6.1% (1997-1998) to 10.2% (2015-2016).

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Twenty-year trends in diagnosed attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder among US children and adolescents, 1997-2016

Citation

Xu G, Strathearn L, Liu B, Yang B, Bao W. JAMA Network Open. 2018;1(4):e181471.

 

Summary

Among U.S. children and adolescents, the estimated prevalence of diagnosed ADHD increased significantly between 1997-1998 and 2015-2016, from 6.1% to 10.2%. The continuous increase in the prevalence of diagnosed ADHD was consistent across all subgroups.

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Published: 2018
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Fluoride and aluminum, alone or in combination, can produce the condition of “immunoexcitotoxicity” that leads to the pathological changes seen in autism. 

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Immunoexcitotoxicity as the central mechanism of etiopathology and treatment of autism spectrum disorders: a possible role of fluoride and aluminum

Citation

Strunecka A, Blaylock RL, Patocka J, Strunecky O. Surgical Neurology International. 2018;9:74.

 

Summary

Children experience sequential immune stimulation from a growing number of neurotoxic metals and chemicals, vaccines and persistent viral infections. This excessive immune activation is the “initiating and sustaining event” in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), triggering inflammation and a cascade of excitotoxicity (damaged nerve cells). The fluoride added to drinking water and the aluminum in vaccines—singly or synergistically as aluminofluoride—can be potent factors in producing the condition of “immunoexcitotoxicity” that leads to the pathological changes seen in ASD.

 

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Published: 2018
SYNOPSIS

The first-ever measurements of aluminum in the brain tissue of donors with multiple sclerosis detected pathologically significant levels of aluminum in every single individual.

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Aluminium in brain tissue in multiple sclerosis

Citation

Mold M, Chmielecka A, Rodriguez MRR, …Exley C. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018;15(8):1777.

 

Summary

The researchers examined the aluminum content of brain tissue from 14 donors diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS), 11 of whom were below age 60. Collecting the first-ever measurements of aluminum in MS brain tissue, the researchers found that all 14 donors had at least one sample with a pathologically significant concentration of aluminum. The universally high aluminum content and the aluminum’s location in the brain suggest a role for aluminum in the neurodegeneration observed in MS.

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Published: 2018
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Vaccination can trigger a series of cascading events that disturbs the balance between “protective immunity” and “destructive inflammation.”

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Vaccines and neuroinflammation

Citation

Giannotta G, Giannotta N. International Journal of Public Health & Safety. 2018;3:3.

 

Summary

This study explores molecular mechanisms capable of explaining “post-vaccination inflammatory syndrome” and the neuroinflammation observed in children with autism. Focusing especially on vaccines (such as HPV vaccines) that contain biopersistent aluminum adjuvants, the authors describe how “continuously escalating doses of this poorly biodegradable adjuvant…may become insidiously unsafe,” especially in children who are vaccinated repeatedly or who have an immature or altered blood-brain barrier. Vaccination can trigger a series of cascading events (involving overexpression of the signaling molecules that regulate inflammation and activation of brain cells called microglia) that disturbs the balance between “protective immunity” and “destructive inflammation.”

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Published: 2018
SYNOPSIS

The offspring of mothers exposed to DDT and its metabolites during pregnancy are at increased risk for autism.

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Association of maternal insecticide levels with autism in offspring from a national birth cohort

Citation

Brown AS, Cheslack-Postava K, Rantakokko P, et al. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2018;175:1094-1101.

 

Summary

The study provides the first evidence based on biomarkers of an increased autism risk in the offspring of mothers exposed to certain insecticides during pregnancy. In this large national birth cohort study of Finnish children, the odds of autism plus intellectual disability were increased by greater than twofold in mothers measuring with the highest levels of a DDT metabolite.

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Published: 2018
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In children under age two, four postnatal risk factors (acetaminophen use, antibiotic use, ear infections and early weaning) were associated with an increased risk of autism.

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Acetaminophen, antibiotics, ear infection, breastfeeding, vitamin D drops, and autism: an epidemiological study

Citation

Bittker SS, Bell KR. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment. 2018;14:1399-1414.

 

Summary

This study suggests that increased use of acetaminophen and antibiotics in children under age two, along with an increased incidence of ear infections in the first two years and early weaning, are associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The researchers conducted a large parent Internet survey covering over 1,500 three- to twelve-year-old children who either had or did not have ASD. The findings replicate other studies focused on these postnatal ASD risk factors.

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Published: 2018
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Two prenatal exposures—stress and maternal immune dysregulation—are associated with autism, probably in combination with other genetic and environmental risk factors.

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Prenatal stress, maternal immune dysregulation, and their association with autism spectrum disorders

Citation

Beversdorf DQ, Stevens HE, Jones KL. Current Psychiatry Reports. 2018;20:76.

 

Summary

Prenatal stress and disruption of a pregnant woman’s immune response (“maternal immune activation”) are two environmental factors associated with the increased incidence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the fact that, in many cases, these prenatal exposures do not result in ASD suggests an “interaction with multiple other risks.” Some evidence points to greater susceptibility to prenatal stress and maternal immune dysregulation in male offspring.

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Published: 2018
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The contamination of vaccines with animal proteins that resemble human proteins can trigger autoimmunity.

TITLE

Cancer immunology, bioinformatics and chemokine evidence link vaccines contaminated with animal proteins to autoimmune disease: a detailed look at Crohn’s disease and Vitiligo

Citation

Arumugham V, Trushin MV.  Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. 2018;10(8):2106-2110.

Summary

Vaccines are contaminated with animal proteins that resemble human proteins, and this can result in autoimmunity. This study, which used bioinformatics to analyze animal proteins in vaccines and their similarity to human proteins, adds to growing evidence of vaccines inducing autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes, Crohn’s disease, vitiligo, systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. The authors suggest that the live viruses and aluminum adjuvants in certain vaccines can stimulate the activation of particular T cells that, upon activation, may cause autoimmune disease. Because autoimmune reactions vary from person to person, “not everyone will develop overt disease”; thus, autoimmune illness may represent the tip of a broader “iceberg” of subclinical effects.

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Published: 2018
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Severe, long-term disability and even death can occur in a subset of individuals vulnerable to “HPV vaccination syndrome.”

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Autoimmunity, autonomic neuropathy, and the HPV vaccination: a vulnerable subpopulation

Citation

Schofield JR, Hendrickson JE. Clinical Pediatrics. 2018;57(5):603-606.

Summary

The authors describe the first biopsy-proven case of serious nerve damage developing within days of HPV vaccination, with an evident link between symptom onset and vaccination. The authors advocate for “increased [provider] awareness of the potential for neurological complications” resulting from HPV vaccination, particularly due to the “devastating clinical outcome of severe, long-term disability and even death of [a vulnerable subset] affected by the HPV vaccination syndrome.”

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Published: 2018
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Aluminum and mercury sulfates may contribute to neurodegeneration and progressive age-related functional decline such as Alzheimer’s disease.

TITLE

Synergism in aluminum and mercury neurotoxicity

CITATION

Alexandrov PN, Pogue AI, Lukiw WJ. Integrative Food, Nutrition and Metabolism. 2018;5(3):1-7. doi: 10.15761/IFNM.1000214.

SUMMARY

The authors analyzed the effects of aluminum and/or mercury, either alone or together, on their ability to induce inflammatory signaling in human cells and in a cell culture that is the same brain cell types targeted by the inflammatory neurodegeneration that characterizes Alzheimer’s disease. They report that neurotoxic metal sulfates obtainable via our environment or diet are significantly potent.

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Published: 2018
SYNOPSIS

Mercury-associated diagnoses are common among children diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorders.

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Symptoms observed in pervasive developmental disorders such as autism overlap with symptoms of mercury poisoning.

CITATION

Geier DA, Kern JK, Sykes LK, Geier MR. Metabolic Brain Disease. March 2018. doi: 10.1007/s11011-018-0211-9.

SUMMARY

Research indicates that environmental triggers are contributing to the childhood epidemics of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). The mercury-containing vaccine preservative thimerosal is a biologically plausible candidate to induce PDD. This study reveals that 12 symptom categories associated with mercury poisoning directly overlap with symptoms observed in children who have a PDD.

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Published: 2017
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Adolescents given meningococcal vaccines have experienced a wide variety of serious adverse events, including new autoimmune conditions and death.

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Post-licensure safety surveillance study of routine use of quadrivalent meningococcal diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine

CITATION

Hansen J, Zhang L, Klein NP, et al. Vaccine 2017;35(49 Pt B):6879-84.

 

SUMMARY

Adolescents receiving the Menactra® meningococcal vaccine (MenACWY-D) in 2005-2006 experienced a variety of adverse events in the six months following vaccination—including death—but the researchers (one of whom was affilated with the vaccine’s manufacturer, Sanofi Pasteur) concluded that only two diagnoses (diabetes and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis) were “possibly related to vaccination.” After comparing 31,000 Kaiser Permanente patients who received the MenACWY-D vaccine to 31,000 matched teens who had received a tetanus-diphtheria (Td) or hepatitis vaccine the previous year, the researchers assessed 1660 outcomes and determined that 1.3% were “significantly elevated” in the meningococcal group. There were two deaths in vaccinees with cancer (“with onset preceding vaccination”) following MenACWY-D vaccination as well as a third cardiac-related death; there was also one fetal death in a young woman who received Menactra® during pregnancy. Many of the adverse events, including difficulty breathing, occurred two or more months following vaccination.

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Published: 2017
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A number of factors can predispose susceptible individuals to autoimmune reactions following vaccination.

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Vaccination and autoimmune diseases: is prevention of adverse health effects on the horizon?

CITATION

Vadalà M, Poddighe D, Laurino C, Palmieri B. European Association for Predictive Preventive & Personalized Medicine Journal. 2017;8(3):295-311.

SUMMARY

This review discusses possible underlying mechanisms of autoimmune reactions following vaccinations and cases of autoimmune diseases that have been correlated with vaccination. Molecular mimicry and bystander activation are possible mechanisms by which vaccines can cause autoimmune reactions. The individuals who might be susceptible to develop these reactions could be those with previous post-vaccination phenomena, those with allergies, individuals who are prone to develop autoimmune diseases (such as those with a family history of autoimmunity or with known autoantibodies) and genetically predisposed individuals.

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Published: 2017
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Vaccination of preterm infants on the same schedule as term infants increased the odds of a neurodevelopmental disorder.

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Preterm birth, vaccination and neurodevelopmental disorders: a cross-sectional study of 6- to 12-year-old vaccinated and unvaccinated children

CITATION

Mawson AR, Bhuiyan A, Jacob B, Ray BD. Journal of Translational Science. 2017;3(3):1-8.

SUMMARY

This paper explored the association between preterm birth, vaccination and neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), based on a secondary analysis of data from an anonymous survey of mothers. The researchers compared the birth history and health outcomes of vaccinated and unvaccinated homeschooled children 6 to 12 years of age. The results suggest clues to the epidemiology and causation of NDDs and raise questions about the safety of current vaccination practices for preterm infants.

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Published: 2017
SYNOPSIS

Vaccinated homeschooled children had a higher rate of allergies and neurodevelopmental disorders than unvaccinated homeschooled children.

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Pilot comparative study on the health of vaccinated and unvaccinated 6- to 12-year-old U.S. children

CITATION

Mawson AR, Ray BD, Bhuiyan AR, Jacob B. Journal of Translational Science. 2017;3(3):1-12.

SUMMARY

This study aimed 1) to compare vaccinated and unvaccinated children on a broad range of health outcomes, and 2) to determine whether an association found between vaccination and neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), if any, remained significant after adjustment for other measured factors. Vaccination remained significantly associated with NDDs after controlling for other factors, and preterm birth coupled with vaccination was associated with an apparent synergistic increase in the odds of NDD.

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Published: 2016
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Israeli, Canadian and Colombian scientists show that the Gardasil vaccine triggers brain inflammation and autoimmunity in mice.

TITLE

Behavioral abnormalities in female mice following administration of aluminum adjuvants and the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine Gardasil

CITATION

Inbar R, Weiss R, Tomljenovic L, Arango M-T, Deri Y, Shaw CA, Chapman J, Blank M, Shoenfeld Y. Immunologic Research. 2017;65(1):136-149.

SUMMARY

“Vaccine adjuvants and vaccines may induce autoimmune and inflammatory manifestations in susceptible individuals. To date most human vaccine trials utilize aluminum (Al) adjuvants as placebos despite much evidence showing that Al in vaccine-relevant exposures can be toxic to humans and animals…. It appears that Gardasil via its Al adjuvant and HPV antigens has the ability to trigger neuroinflammation and autoimmune reactions, further leading to behavioral changes…. In light of these findings, this study highlights the necessity of proceeding with caution with respect to further mass-immunization practices with a vaccine of yet unproven long-term clinical benefit in cervical cancer prevention.”

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Published: 2016
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There is a significant increase in neurodevelopmental delays in children exposed to both Thimerosal (in vaccines) and methylmercury (in fish).

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Neurodevelopment of Amazonian children exposed to ethylmercury (from Thimerosal in vaccines) and methylmercury (from fish)

CITATION

Marques RC, Abreu L, Bernardi JVE, Dórea JG. Environmental Research. 2016;149:259–265.

SUMMARY

Amazonian children exposed to high and low levels of both ethyl- and methylmercury were assessed using the Mental Developmental Index and Psychomotor Developmental Index. The researchers observed statistically significant differences in the high-exposure group at 24 months in the Mental Developmental Index. Combined exposures led to developmental delays, including the age of talking and the age of walking.

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Published: 2016
SYNOPSIS

Mercury exposure is implicated in neuroinflammatory disorders including autism.

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The levels of blood mercury and inflammatory-related neuropeptides in the serum are correlated in children with autism spectrum disorder

CITATION

Mostafa GA, Bjørklund G, Urbina MA, Al-Ayadhi LY. Metabolic Brain Disease. 2016;31:593–599.

SUMMARY

Blood mercury levels and tachykinins (neuropeptides that cause inflammation) were correlated in children with ASD and statistically significantly higher than neurotypical control children. It has been shown that mercury exposure can elicit tachykinin formation, which has been implicated in neuroinflammatory disorders including autism.

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Published: 2015
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The specific mechanism of action of each vaccine adjuvant may have different effects on the course of autoimmune conditions resulting from vaccination.

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On vaccine’s adjuvants and autoimmunity: Current evidence and future perspectives

CITATION

Pellegrino P, Clementi E, Radice S. Autoimmunity Reviews. 2015;14(10):880-888.

SUMMARY

Adjuvants in vaccines have been implicated in “Autoimmune/inflammatory Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants” (ASIA), an umbrella of clinical conditions that includes post-vaccination adverse reactions. Aluminum-based compounds, in particular, are associated with the development of vaccine adjuvant-induced autoimmune diseases, but vaccines with other adjuvants may also cause specific autoimmune adverse reactions via different pathogenic mechanisms. The specific mechanism of action of each single adjuvant may have different effects on the course of different diseases.

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Published: 2015
SYNOPSIS

Evidence points to vaccine-induced autoimmunity and adjuvant-induced autoimmunity in experimental models and human patients.

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Vaccines, adjuvants and autoimmunity

CITATION

Guimarães LE, Baker B, Perricone C, Shoenfeld Y. Pharmacological Research. 2015;100:190-209.

SUMMARY

This review of the literature assembles evidence of vaccine-induced autoimmunity and adjuvant-induced autoimmunity in both experimental models as well as human patients. Adjuvants and infectious agents may exert their immune-enhancing effects through various functional activities, encompassed by the adjuvant effect. These mechanisms are shared by different conditions triggered by adjuvants leading to the autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA).

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Published: 2015
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Autistic children accumulate metals at a much higher level than children who do not have a diagnosis of autism.

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Assessment of hair aluminum, lead, and mercury in a sample of autistic Egyptian children: Environmental risk factors of heavy metals in autism

CITATION

El Baz Mohamed F, Zaky EA, Bassuoni EI-Sayed A, et al. Behavioural Neurology. 2015, Article ID 545674.

SUMMARY

Researchers found the mean levels of mercury, lead and aluminum in hair of autistic patients were significantly higher than in controls. Mercury, lead and aluminum levels were positively correlated with maternal fish consumption, living near gasoline stations and the usage of aluminum pans, respectively.

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