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Diseases/Outcomes

Published: 2020
SYNOPSIS

These results highlight a relationship between environmental and residential exposure to glyphosate and high prevalence of asthma, while experimental studies support the biological plausibility of this association.

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CITATION

Medardo Avila-Vázquez, Flavia Difilippo, Bryan Mac Lean, et al. Risk of asthma and environmental exposure to glyphosate in an ecological study. Authorea. August 13, 2020.
DOI: 10.22541/au.159734524.47178780

SUMMARY

Background: There is strong evidence of the link between asthma and occupational exposure to pesticides and glyphosate in agricultural workers, but it is limited on environmental or residential exposure to these chemicals. Methods: We analyze asthma prevalence in an agricultural town with high use of pesticides, mainly glyphosate with an ecological study conducted in Monte Maíz, Argentina, composed of a chemical and environmental analysis to determine the burden of exposure to glyphosate and pesticides in general, and a cross-sectional asthma study that uses the methodological criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC); the prevalence’s found in Monte Maíz are compared with the results of ISAAC in Argentine cities with low exposure to pesticides. Results: In Monte Maíz high and preponderant levels of glyphosate were found in the soil and in corn husk and soybean powder. The environmental exposure burden to pesticides was 121 kilos, for glyphosate 81 kilos per person per year, while this burden in the entire country is 7.9 and 6 kilos respectively. The found asthma prevalences were several times higher than those of reference in all ages, the risk of asthma in children of 13 and 14 years old, with respect to those of three large Argentine cities is: OR of 4.64 (CI: 3, 26 – 6.60). Conclusion: These results highlight a relationship between environmental and residential exposure to glyphosate and high prevalence of asthma, while experimental studies support the biological plausibility of this association.

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Published: 2020
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There is a physiological effect of thimerosal in humans that could alter dopamine receptor pathways which are associated with locomotion and more importantly, motor disorders.

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The activities of drug inactive ingredients on biological targets

CITATION

Joshua Pottel, et al.; The activities of drug inactive ingredients on biological targets;July 24, 2020; Science Vol. 369, No. 6502; DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz9906.

SUMMARY

Excipients, considered “inactive ingredients,” are a major component of formulated drugs and play key roles in their pharmacokinetics. Despite their pervasiveness, whether they are active on any targets has not been systematically explored. We computed the likelihood that approved excipients would bind to molecular targets. Testing in vitro revealed 25 excipient activities, ranging from low-nanomolar to high-micromolar concentration. Another 109 activities were identified by testing against clinical safety targets. In cellular models, five excipients had fingerprints predictive of system-level toxicity. Exposures of seven excipients were investigated, and in certain populations, two of these may reach levels of in vitro target potency, including brain and gut exposure of thimerosal and its major metabolite, which had dopamine D3 receptor dissociation constant Kd values of 320 and 210 nM, respectively. Although most excipients deserve their status as inert, many approved excipients may directly modulate physiologically relevant targets.

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Published: 2020
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These results suggest that US children with various developmental disabilities or delay may have higher odds for developing asthma vs their typically developing peers.

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Estimated Prevalence of Asthma in US Children With Developmental Disabilities

CITATION

Xie L, Gelfand A, Delclos GL, Atem FD, Kohl HW 3rd, Messiah SE. Estimated Prevalence of Asthma in US Children With Developmental Disabilities. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(6):e207728. Published 2020 Jun 1. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.7728

SUMMARY

A total of 71 811 participants were included in our final analytical sample, of whom 5687 had asthma and 11 426  had at least 1 disability. Overall asthma prevalence estimates were 10 percentage points higher in children with a disability vs children without a disability. The odds of asthma were significantly higher in children with a disability or delay vs typically growing children. Adjusted models remained significant for all disability categories. Subgroup analyses showed ethnic minorities had a higher prevalence of concurrent asthma and developmental disabilities vs non-Hispanic whites.

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Published: 2020
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Several epidemiological studies suggest a link between multiple vaccinations at the time of the military operation and the development of Gulf War iIlness, Macrophagic Myofasciitis and Post-HPV Vaccination Syndrome.

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Gulf war illness, post-HPV vaccination syndrome, and Macrophagic Myofasciitis. Similar disabling conditions possibly linked to vaccine-induced autoimmune dysautonomia.

CITATION

Manuel Martinez-Lavin, Melina Tejada-Ruiz. Autoimmunity Reviews, March 2, 2020; doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2020.102603.

SUMMARY

More than one-fourth of all Persian Gulf War coalition soldiers remain seriously ill with Post-HPV Vaccination Syndrome, Macrophagic Myofasciitis (localized lesions in the muscles found at the site of a vaccination with an aluminium-containing vaccine), and Gulf War Illness. Vaccine-induced autoimmune dysautonomia may be the common underlying mechanism of all three illnesses, characterized by chronic fatigue, widespread pain, and dyscognition (difficulty concentrating, disorganized thinking, memory problems, and inability to stay focused or alert.)

Several epidemiological studies suggest a link between multiple vaccinations at the time of the military operation and the development of these illnesses. Macrophagic Myofasciitis and Post-HPV Vaccination Syndrome are two newer vaccine-related disabling ailments affecting our veterans.

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Published: 2020
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Quantitative analyses suggest increased brain aluminium content in a number of neurodegenerative diseases including familial Alzheimer’s disease, congophilic amyloid angiopathy, epilepsy and autism.

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Imaging of aluminium and amyloid β in neurodegenerative disease

CITATION

C. Exley, M.J. Mold; Imaging of aluminium and amyloid β in neurodegenerative disease. Heliyon 6 21 April 2020; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03839.

SUMMARY

Recent research has confirmed the presence of aluminium in human brain tissue. Quantitative analyses suggest increased brain aluminium content in a number of neurodegenerative diseases including familial Alzheimer’s disease, congophilic amyloid angiopathy, epilepsy and autism. Complementary aluminium-specific fluorescence microscopy identifies the location of aluminium in human brain tissue and demonstrates significant differences in distribution between diseases. Herein we combine these approaches in investigating associations between aluminium in human brain tissue and specific disease-associated neuropathologies.

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Published: 2020
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From 2002 to 2012, type 1 and type 2 diabetes incidence increased 1.4% and 7.1%, respectively, among U.S. youths, highlighting the need for continued surveillance for diabetes among youths to monitor overall and group-specific trends, identify factors driving these trends, and inform health care planning.

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Trends in Incidence of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Among Youths — Selected Counties and Indian Reservations, United States, 2002–2015

CITATION

Divers J, Mayer-Davis EJ, Lawrence JM, et al. Trends in Incidence of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Among Youths — Selected Counties and Indian Reservations, United States, 2002–2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020;69:161–165. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6906a3

SUMMARY

From 2002 to 2015, the annual incidence of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes increased at constant rates among persons aged <20 years in selected counties and Indian reservations in the United States. Rates of increase in incidence were higher for type 2 diabetes (4.8% per year) than for type 1 (1.9%). Since 2012, the rate of increase in type 2 diabetes has not changed, and has also remained constant for type 1 diabetes, except among Asians and Pacific Islanders. These findings provide indicators of the number of new cases of type 1 and type 2 diabetes among U.S. youths and identify groups with increased incidences of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes is a chronic disease that requires lifelong treatment and manage-ment. Better understanding of the number of new cases of diabetes among youths helps in planning for health care needs and resources.

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Published: 2020
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In susceptible individuals, chronic low Hg exposure may trigger local and systemic inflammation, even exacerbating the already existing autoimmune response in patients with autoimmunity.

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Mercury-induced autoimmunity: Drifting from micro to macro concerns on autoimmune disorders

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Bjorklund, G., M. Peana, M. Dadar, S. Chirumbolo, J. Aaseth, and N. Martins. 2020. ‘Mercury-induced autoimmunity: Drifting from micro to macro concerns on autoimmune disorders’, Clin Immunol: 108352.

SUMMARY

Mercury (Hg) is widely recognized as a neurotoxic metal, besides it can also act as a proinflammatory agent and immunostimulant, depending on individual exposure and susceptibility. Mercury exposure may arise from internal body pathways, such as via dental amalgams, preservatives in drugs and vaccines, and seafood consumption, or even from external pathways, i.e., occupation, environmental pollution, and handling of metallic items and cosmetics containing Hg. In susceptible individuals, chronic low Hg exposure may trigger local and systemic inflammation, even exacerbating the already existing autoimmune response in patients with autoimmunity. Mercury exposure can trigger dysfunction of the autoimmune responses and aggravate immunotoxic effects associated with elevated serum autoantibodies titers. The purpose of the present report is to provide a critical overview of the many issues associated with Hg exposure and autoimmunity. In addition, the paper also focuses on individual susceptibility and other health effects of Hg.

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Published: 2020
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The CDC vaccine schedule results in a high degree of chronic aluminum toxicity in the first seven months of life.

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Acute exposure and chronic retention of aluminum in three vaccine schedules and effects of genetic and environmental variation

CITATION

McFarland G, La Joie E, Thomas P, Lyons-Weiler J. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. 2019 Dec 5;58:126444.

SUMMARY

This study shows that the CDC vaccine schedule results in a high degree of chronic aluminum toxicity in the first seven months of life—a time period critically important to neurodevelopment and immune system development. The authors reached this conclusion after assessing “time spent in toxicity” (defined as “the percentage of days of each week an infant spends with a body burden that exceeds the minimum safe level”) for the CDC schedule and two other lower-aluminum schedules. Important safety considerations include aluminum adjuvant dose per vaccine, spacing of aluminum-containing vaccines, the child’s weight at the time of vaccination and genetic variants that may limit ability to clear aluminum. Changes to the vaccine schedule, including use of vaccines that do not contain aluminum, can significantly reduce “time spent in toxicity.”

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Published: 2020
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The origin of polyarthritis post-arthritogenic alphaviral infections may also be mediated through a hitherto unknown autoimmune response due to the presence of cross-reactive epitopes between viral and human proteins.

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A possible role for autoimmunity through molecular mimicry in alphavirus mediated arthritis

CITATION
Venigalla, S.S.K., Premakumar, S. & Janakiraman, V. A possible role for autoimmunity through molecular mimicry in alphavirus mediated arthritis. Sci Rep 10, 938 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-55730-6
SUMMARY

Alphaviral infections are foremost in causing debilitating clinical outcomes in humans characterized by rheumatic arthritis like conditions. Though the presence of virus in joints and associated inflammation has been implicated as one of the reasons for the acute and chronic polyarthritis post alphaviral infections, the basis for rheumatic like outcomes is not clear. through an in silico analysis, we have investigated the possibility of an autoimmune process mediated through molecular mimicry in alphaviral infection induced pathogenicity. interestingly, sequence alignment of the structural polyproteins belonging to arthritogenic alphaviruses revealed conserved regions which share homology with human proteins implicated in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). these conserved regions were predicted to exhibit binding to HLA class ii alleles, showcasing their potential to incite t cell help. Molecular docking of the viral peptide and the corresponding homologous region in the human protein onto HLA-DRB1 revealed strong similarities in their binding patterns. Linear and conformational B cell epitope prediction analyses showed that these potential mimics have high propensity to elicit an efficient B cell response. We thus propose that the origin of polyarthritis post-arthritogenic alphaviral infections may also be mediated through a hitherto unknown autoimmune response due to the presence of cross-reactive epitopes between viral and human proteins.

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Published: 2020
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PBDE (chemicals from Flame Retardants) exposure was the greatest contributor to intellectual disability burden, resulting in a total of 162 million IQ points lost and over 738,000 cases of intellectual disability.

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Trends in neurodevelopmental disability burden due to early life chemical exposure in the USA from 2001 to 2016: A population-based disease burden and cost analysis

CITATION

Abigail Gaylord, Gwendolyn Osborne, Akhgar Ghassabian, Julia Malits, Teresa Attina, Leonardo Transande; Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology; Online: 14 January 2020. doi 10.1016/j.mce.2019.110666.

SUMMARY

Endocrine disrupting chemicals are known to cause neurodevelopmental toxicity through direct and indirect pathways. In this study we used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, along with known exposure-disease relationships, to quantify the intellectual disability burden attributable to in utero exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs commonly known as Flame Retardants), organophosphates, and methylmercury and early life exposure to lead. We also estimated the cost of the IQ points lost and cases of intellectual disability. PBDE exposure was the greatest contributor to intellectual disability burden, resulting in a total of 162 million IQ points lost and over 738,000 cases of intellectual disability. This was followed by lead, organophosphates, and methylmercury. From 2001 to 2016, IQ loss from PBDEs, methylmercury, and lead have decreased or remained stagnant. Organophosphate exposure measurements were only available up to 2008 but did show an increase in organophosphate-attributable IQ loss. Although most of these trends show benefit for children’s neurodevelopmental health, they may also point towards the use of potentially harmful substitutions for chemicals that are being phased out.

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Published: 2019
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Compelling data have shown that gut microbiota (GM) are closely liaised with various types of autoimmune diseases in the form of dysbiosis- alteration of individual species and/or global communities of the GM (dysbiosis) which can give rise to different outcomes of autoimmune conditions. Certainly, gut microbiome could possibly be applied as a biomarker for autoimmune diseases prediction.

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Autoimmune Diseases and Gut Symbionts: The Unpopular Liaison

CITATION
S Zulkafli Nor Effa, Shou Jin Phang, Hajar Fauzan Ahmad; Autoimmune Diseases and Gut Symbionts: The Unpopular Liaison; Malaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences; 15(SUPP9): 165-172, Dec 2019.
SUMMARY

In the past few years, compelling data have shown the potential crosstalk between dysbiosis of gut microbiota (GM) and impairment of systemic immune system. Since then, ideas on how GM partake in autoimmune conditions was put forward. Although genetic variability have been proven to contribute towards the pathogenesis of autoimmune conditions, epigenetics control have gained interest among researchers. Current review highlights the crosstalk between autoimmune conditions and GM and its potential regulatory mechanisms. Convincing data from existing literature help in paving ways for more well-defined species in the future studies. The studies should focus on identifying the distinct species involve in different types of autoimmune diseases and their definitive role in autoimmunity. Ultimately, these data can be used for the advancement of therapeutic approach in personalized medicine.

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Published: 2019
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Metabolism of metals and toxins may play a role in ADHD and autism development, evidence may be detectable.

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Dynamical properties of elemental metabolism distinguish attention deficit hyperactivity disorder from autism spectrum disorder

CITATION

Austin et al. Translational Psychiatry (2019) 9:238 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41398-019-0567-6

SUMMARY

Cyclical processes involved in the metabolism of essential and toxic elements during fetal and early postnatal development differ significantly in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and neurotypical children, according to a small study of tooth matrix biomarkers. The study’s findings suggest that metabolic regulation of nutrients and toxins may play a role in the development of ADHD and autism.

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Published: 2019
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Residual animal, plant, fungal, aeroallergen proteins (non-target proteins in general) in vaccines cause numerous disorders  including rheumatoid arthritis. The solution is to immediately remove all non-target antigens from vaccines using technologies such as affinity chromatography. 

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Autoepitopes (22 of 27) in rheumatoid arthritis differ from vaccine antigens by a single amino acid residue, ideal for low affinity self-reactive T cell mediated autoimmunity and a…

CITATION

Arumugham, Vinu. 2019, September.

SUMMARY

Vaccines are manufactured using animal, plant, fungal derived growth media or recombinant organisms. They contain residual quantities of all these proteins. Vaccine makers do not want to spend the money to completely remove these residual proteins. Due to molecular mimicry between these proteins and human self-proteins, immune responses directed against vaccine proteins can result in autoimmune diseases.

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Published: 2019
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This preliminary study provides evidence that post-vaccination abnormal autoimmunity plays an important role in the development of unique symptoms after HPV vaccination.

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Autoantibodies against Autonomic Nerve Receptors in Adolescent Japanese Girls after Immunization with Human Papillomavirus Vaccine

CITATION

Hineno A, Shu-ichi Ikeda, Scheibenbogen C, Heidecke H, Schulze-Forster K, Junker, et al. Autoantibodies against Autonomic Nerve Receptors in Adolescent Japanese Girls after Immunization with Human Papillomavirus Vaccine. Annals of Arthritis and Clinical Rheumatology. 2019; 2(2): 1014.

SUMMARY

In Japan a significant number of adolescent girls complain of unusual symptoms after human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination that are considered adverse effects of HPV vaccination. However, a causal link between HPV vaccination and these adverse effects has not been demonstrated. In the present study, we investigated autoantibodies against diverse G-protein coupled receptors in the serum of girls who complained of possible adverse effects after HPV vaccination. This preliminary study provides evidence that post-vaccination abnormal autoimmunity plays an important role in the development of unique symptoms after HPV vaccination.

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Published: 2019
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Pregnant women are a WHO priority group for influenza vaccination, but evidence from observational studies in pregnancy is subject, among others, to the healthy-vaccinee bias, overestimating the vaccine effectiveness and safety. An USA survey adds new evidence that documents this bias. Therefore, it is essential to assess vaccine effectiveness and safety with RCTs. Cochrane reviews identified one RCT with “low risk of bias”, in a medium-income country, with NNV 55 for mothers. Its data show an excess of local adverse effects, and a tendency to harm for serious adverse events, with uncertain or very limited protection against influenza.

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Influenza Vaccination for All Pregnant Women? So Far the Less Biased Evidence Does Not Favour It

Pregnant women are a WHO priority group for influenza vaccination, but evidence from observational studies in pregnancy is subject, among others, to the healthy-vaccinee bias, overestimating the vaccine effectiveness and safety. An USA survey adds new evidence that documents this bias. Therefore, it is essential to assess vaccine effectiveness and safety with RCTs. Cochrane reviews identified one RCT with “low risk of bias”, in a medium-income country, with NNV 55 for mothers. Its data show an excess of local adverse effects, and a tendency to harm for serious adverse events, with uncertain or very limited protection against influenza

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Published: 2019
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This case report describes bilateral deafness following influenza vaccination.

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Bilateral deafness two days following influenza vaccination: a case report

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Kolarov C, Lobermann M, Fritsche C, Hemmer C, Mlynski R, Reisinger EC.  Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics. 2019;15(1):107-108.

SUMMARY

This case report describes bilateral deafness following influenza vaccination in a 79-year-old woman with previously normal hearing.

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Published: 2019
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About 2%–10% of healthy individuals fail to mount antibody levels to routine vaccines.

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Primary vaccine failure to routine vaccines: Why and what to do?

CITATION

Wiedermann U, Garner-Spitzer E, Wagner A. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics. 2016;12(1):239–243.

SUMMARY

Two sets of factors are responsible for vaccine failure: vaccine-related factors (e.g., failures in vaccine attenuation, vaccination regimes or administration) and host-related factors (e.g., genetics, immune status, age, health or nutritional status). Primary vaccine failure describes the inability to respond to primary vaccination, and secondary vaccine failure is characterized by a loss of protection after initial effectiveness. Studies indicate that about 2%–10% of healthy individuals fail to mount antibody levels to routine vaccines. T-regulatory as well as B-regulatory cells and the production of IL-10 are involved in non/hypo-responsiveness to vaccination. Non-responsiveness increases with age, indicating that vaccine schedules and doses (at least for primary vaccination) should be adapted according to age. Studies also suggest that different vaccination approaches may be needed for allergic or obese individuals. The significant paradigm shift taking place in many fields of medical research and care should extend the concept of personalized medicine into the field of vaccinology.

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Published: 2019
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With the preliminary literature search starting in 2013 and looking backwards in time, research publications revealed a myriad of toxic actions of Aluminum causing pathological conditions.

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Aluminium toxicosis: a review of toxic actions and effects

CITATION

Ikechukwu Onyebuchi Igbokwe, Ephraim Igwenagu, Nanacha Afifi Igbokwe. Interdiscip Toxicol. 2019; Vol. 12(2): 45–70. doi: 10.2478/intox-2019-0007

SUMMARY

Aluminium (Al) is frequently accessible to animal and human populations to the extent that intoxications may occur. Intake of Al is by inhalation of aerosols or particles, ingestion of food, water and medicaments, skin contact, vaccination, dialysis and infusions. Toxic actions of Al induce oxidative stress, immunologic alterations, genotoxicity, pro-inflammatory effect, peptide denaturation or transformation, enzymatic dysfunction, metabolic derangement, amyloidogenesis, membrane perturbation, iron dyshomeostasis, apoptosis, necrosis and dysplasia. The pathological conditions associated with Al toxicosis are desquamative interstitial pneumonia, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, granulomas, granulomatosis and fibrosis, toxic myocarditis, thrombosis and ischemic stroke, granulomatous enteritis, Crohn’s disease, inflammatory bowel diseases, anemia, Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, sclerosis, autism, macrophagic myofasciitis, osteomalacia, oligospermia and infertility, hepatorenal disease, breast cancer and cyst, pancreatitis, pancreatic necrosis and diabetes mellitus. The review provides a broad overview of Al toxicosis as a background for sustained investigations of the toxicology of Al compounds of public health importance.

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Published: 2019
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In this US urban, multi-ethnic population, elevated in utero Hg exposure was associated with a higher risk of over weight / obesity in childhood, and such risk was enhanced by maternal over weight / obesity and/or diabetes and reduced by adequate maternal folate.

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In utero exposure to mercury and childhood overweight or obesity: counteracting effect of maternal folate status

CITATION

Wang et al. BMC Medicine (2019) 17:216 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1442-2

SUMMARY

Low-dose mercury (Hg) exposure has been associated with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and obesity in adults, but it is unknown the metabolic consequence of in utero Mercury exposure. This study aimed to investigate the association between in utero Mercury exposure and child overweight or obesity (OWO) and to explore if adequate maternal folate can mitigate Mercury toxicity.

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Published: 2019
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Children of mothers with asthma are at increased risk of developing autism, highlighting the importance of studying environmental risk factors during pregnancy.

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Parental asthma and risk of autism spectrum disorder in offspring: a population and family-based case-control study

Citation

Gong T, Lundholm C, Rejno G, et al. Clinical and Experimental Allergy. 2019 Feb 11.

 

Summary

This large observational study reports that children of mothers with asthma are at increased risk of developing autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The study looked at all children born in Sweden between 1992 and 2007, including almost 23,000 children with ASD. The researchers posit that maternal immune activation during pregnancy may represent a biological mechanism explaining the association. The increased ASD risk could not be explained by socioeconomic, demographic, or genetic factors, underscoring “the importance of investigating other maternal environmental factors.”

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Published: 2019
SYNOPSIS

Lower IQ in children is strongly associated with higher levels of maternal fluoride exposure during pregnancy.

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Association between maternal fluoride exposure during pregnancy and IQ scores in offspring in Canada

CITATION

Green R, Lanphear B, Hornung R, et al. JAMA Pediatrics. 2019;173(10):940-948.

SUMMARY

In this Canadian study, maternal exposure to higher levels of fluoride during pregnancy was strongly associated with lower IQ in children. In addition, the study found that women living in areas with fluoridated tap water had significantly higher average concentrations of fluoride in their urine compared to women without fluoridated tap water. Fluoridated cities in Canada use the same fluoride concentration (0.7 milligrams per liter) as the U.S. has used since 2015—a concentration recommended by the CDC as “optimal.” The authors raise concerns about the safety of maternal exposure to “optimally fluoridated water” and note that, at the population level, their results translate to “millions of IQ levels lost.”

 

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Published: 2018
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An allergic response to thimerosal, nickel, mercury and cobalt often manifests as hand eczema.

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Hand eczema in children. Clinical and epidemiological study of the population referred to a tertiary hospital

CITATION

Ortiz-Salvador JM, Subiabre-Ferrer D, Rabasco AG, Esteve-Martínez A, Zaragoza-Ninet V, de Miquel VA. Anales de Pediatria (Barc.) 2018;88:309-314.

SUMMARY

Hand eczema is a common condition in children. The most common cause is atopic dermatitis, although cases of allergic contact dermatitis manifesting as hand eczema are not uncommon. Using children with hand eczema exclusively, researchers conducted patch-testing. The most frequent allergens detected were thimerosal, nickel, mercury and cobalt.

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Published: 2018
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The preponderance of the evidence indicates that mercury exposure is causal and/or contributory to ASD.

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Current knowledge on endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) from animal biology to humans, from pregnancy to adulthood: Highlights from a national Italian meeting

CITATION

Street ME, et al. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018;19:1647.

SUMMARY

This manuscript reviews the reports of a multidisciplinary national meeting on the effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Section 3 specifically discusses EDCs and neurodevelopmental diseases in humans, with a focus on autism. Recent studies point to an equal contribution of environmental factors (particularly environmental toxicants) and genetic susceptibility, but only a few industrial chemicals (e.g., lead [Pb], methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], and toluene) are recognized causes of neurodevelopmental disorders and subclinical brain dysfunction. Recent discoveries indicate that heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) may exhibit endocrine-disrupting activity in animal models, probably by interfering with zinc-fingers of nuclear estrogen receptors. The authors review research on mercury, PCBs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, phthalates, BPAs and pesticides.

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Published: 2018
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Food proteins in vaccines can sensitize the immune system and trigger development of food allergies and other chronic conditions such as autism and type 1 diabetes.

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Milk containing vaccines cause milk allergies, EoE, autism and type 1 diabetes

CITATION

Arumugham V. BMJ. 2018;361:k2396. [Letter in response to Schulze MB et al., Food based dietary patterns and chronic disease prevention, BMJ 2018;361:k2396.]

SUMMARY

Responding to an article about food and chronic illness, the author criticizes the researchers for overlooking “a major cause of why food has become dangerous,” noting that vaccines contain food proteins that can “program the immune system to recognize food as pathogens.” Injection of vaccines containing cow’s milk proteins can cause sensitization to several bovine proteins (casein, folate receptor and insulin). In addition, studies suggest an association between vaccine-induced sensitization to cow’s milk proteins and the development of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), autism and type 1 diabetes.

 

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Published: 2018
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The neonatal hepatitis B vaccination induced an anti-inflammatory response lasting for 4–5 weeks.

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IL-4 mediates the delayed neurobehavioral impairments induced by neonatal hepatitis B vaccination that involves the down-regulation of the IL-4 receptor in the hippocampus

CITATION

Yang XWJ, Xing Z, Zhang H, et al. Cytokine. 2018; 110:137-149.

SUMMARY

Experiments showed that IL-4 mediates the delayed neurobehavioral impairments induced by neonatal hepatitis B vaccination, which involves the permeability of neonatal blood–brain barrier and the down-regulation of IL-4 receptor. This finding suggests that clinical events concerning neonatal IL-4 over-exposure, including neonatal hepatitis B vaccination and allergic asthma in human infants, may have adverse implications for brain development and cognition.

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Published: 2018
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Autistic children with gastrointestinal symptoms have an imbalance in their immune response that affects behavior and quality of life.

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Differential immune responses and microbiota profiles in children with autism spectrum disorders and co-morbid gastrointestinal symptoms

CITATION

Rose DR, Yang H, Serena G, Sturgeon C, Ma B, Careaga M, Hughes HK, Angkustsiri K, Rose M, Hertz-Picciotto I, Van de Water J, Hansen RL, Ravel J, Fasano A, Ashwood P. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 2018;70:354-368.

SUMMARY

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and concurrent gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms have a more imbalanced immune response, a more disturbed gut microbiome and worse behavioral outcomes (such as irritability, agitation, social withdrawal, lethargy, hyperactivity and noncompliance) than ASD children without GI symptoms. The study additionally looked at typically developing children with and without GI symptoms and found that ASD+GI children stood out compared to those two groups as well. Children with ASD plus GI symptoms may have a “propensity” toward leaky gut that contributes to their other symptoms and clinical outcomes.

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Published: 2018
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The prevalence of diagnosed ADHD in U.S. children and adolescents significantly increased over two decades, from 6.1% (1997-1998) to 10.2% (2015-2016).

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Twenty-year trends in diagnosed attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder among US children and adolescents, 1997-2016

Citation

Xu G, Strathearn L, Liu B, Yang B, Bao W. JAMA Network Open. 2018;1(4):e181471.

 

Summary

Among U.S. children and adolescents, the estimated prevalence of diagnosed ADHD increased significantly between 1997-1998 and 2015-2016, from 6.1% to 10.2%. The continuous increase in the prevalence of diagnosed ADHD was consistent across all subgroups.

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Published: 2018
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Fluoride and aluminum, alone or in combination, can produce the condition of “immunoexcitotoxicity” that leads to the pathological changes seen in autism. 

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Immunoexcitotoxicity as the central mechanism of etiopathology and treatment of autism spectrum disorders: a possible role of fluoride and aluminum

Citation

Strunecka A, Blaylock RL, Patocka J, Strunecky O. Surgical Neurology International. 2018;9:74.

 

Summary

Children experience sequential immune stimulation from a growing number of neurotoxic metals and chemicals, vaccines and persistent viral infections. This excessive immune activation is the “initiating and sustaining event” in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), triggering inflammation and a cascade of excitotoxicity (damaged nerve cells). The fluoride added to drinking water and the aluminum in vaccines—singly or synergistically as aluminofluoride—can be potent factors in producing the condition of “immunoexcitotoxicity” that leads to the pathological changes seen in ASD.

 

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Published: 2018
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The first-ever measurements of aluminum in the brain tissue of donors with multiple sclerosis detected pathologically significant levels of aluminum in every single individual.

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Aluminium in brain tissue in multiple sclerosis

Citation

Mold M, Chmielecka A, Rodriguez MRR, …Exley C. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018;15(8):1777.

 

Summary

The researchers examined the aluminum content of brain tissue from 14 donors diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS), 11 of whom were below age 60. Collecting the first-ever measurements of aluminum in MS brain tissue, the researchers found that all 14 donors had at least one sample with a pathologically significant concentration of aluminum. The universally high aluminum content and the aluminum’s location in the brain suggest a role for aluminum in the neurodegeneration observed in MS.

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Published: 2018
SYNOPSIS

Vaccination can trigger a series of cascading events that disturbs the balance between “protective immunity” and “destructive inflammation.”

TITLE

Vaccines and neuroinflammation

Citation

Giannotta G, Giannotta N. International Journal of Public Health & Safety. 2018;3:3.

 

Summary

This study explores molecular mechanisms capable of explaining “post-vaccination inflammatory syndrome” and the neuroinflammation observed in children with autism. Focusing especially on vaccines (such as HPV vaccines) that contain biopersistent aluminum adjuvants, the authors describe how “continuously escalating doses of this poorly biodegradable adjuvant…may become insidiously unsafe,” especially in children who are vaccinated repeatedly or who have an immature or altered blood-brain barrier. Vaccination can trigger a series of cascading events (involving overexpression of the signaling molecules that regulate inflammation and activation of brain cells called microglia) that disturbs the balance between “protective immunity” and “destructive inflammation.”

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