Science Library Category:

Diseases/Outcomes

Published: 2018
SYNOPSIS

The preponderance of the evidence indicates that Hg exposure is causal and/or contributory to ASD.

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Current Knowledge on Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) from Animal Biology to Humans, from Pregnancy to Adulthood: Highlights from a National Italian Meeting

CITATION

Maria Elisabeth Street, et al. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2018, 19, 1647.

SUMMARY

This manuscript reviews the reports of a multidisciplinary national meeting on the effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Section 3 specifically discusses EDCs and neurodevelopmental diseases in humans, with a focus on autism. Recent studies point to an equal contribution of environmental factors, particularly environmental toxicants, and genetic susceptibility, but only a few industrial chemicals (e.g., lead (Pb), methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), arsenic (As), and toluene) are recognized causes of neurodevelopmental disorders and subclinical brain dysfunction. The recent discovery that heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) may exhibit endocrine-disrupting activity in animal models, probably by interfering with zinc-fingers of nuclear estrogen receptors. The authors review research on mercury, PCBs, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers, Phthalates, BPAs, and pesticides.

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Published: 2017
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Authors review cases of autoimmune reactions following vaccinations to determine underlying cause.

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Vaccination and autoimmune diseases: is prevention of adverse health effects on the horizon?

CITATION

Vadalà M, Poddighe D, Laurino C, Palmieri B. European Association for Predictive Preventive & Personalized Medicine Journal, 2017 Jul 20;8(3):295-311.

SUMMARY

In this review, we discuss the possible underlying mechanisms of autoimmune reactions following vaccinations and review cases of autoimmune diseases that have been correlated with vaccination. Molecular mimicry and bystander activation are reported as possible mechanisms by which vaccines can cause autoimmune reactions. The individuals who might be susceptible to develop these reactions could be especially not only those with previous post-vaccination phenomena and those with allergies but also in individuals who are prone to develop autoimmune diseases, such as those with a family history of autoimmunity or with known autoantibodies, and the genetic predisposed individuals.

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Published: 2016
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Israeli, Canadian, and Colombian scientists show that Gardasil vaccine triggers brain inflammation and autoimmunity in mice.

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Behavioral abnormalities in female mice following administration of aluminum adjuvants and the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine Gardasil

CITATION

Rotem Inbar, Ronen Weiss, Lucija Tomljenovic, Maria-Teresa Arango, Yael Deri, Christopher A Shaw, Joab Chapman, Miri Blank, Yehuda Shoenfeld. Immunol Res, July 2016.

SUMMARY

“Vaccine adjuvants and vaccines may induce autoimmune and inflammatory manifestations in susceptible individuals. To date most human vaccine trials utilize aluminum (Al) adjuvants as placebos despite much evidence showing that Al in vaccine-relevant exposures can be toxic to humans and animals…It appears that Gardasil via its Al adjuvant and HPV antigens has the ability to trigger neuroinflammation and autoimmune reactions, further leading to behavioral changes…In light of these findings, this study highlights the necessity of proceeding with caution with respect to further mass-immunization practices with a vaccine of yet unproven long-term clinical benefit in cervical cancer prevention”

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Published: 2016
SYNOPSIS

There is a significant increase in neurodevelopmental delays in children exposed to both Thimerosal (in vaccines) and methylmercury (in fish).

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Neurodevelopment of Amazonian children exposed to ethylmercury (from Thimerosal in vaccines) and methylmercury (from fish)

CITATION

Rejane C. Marques, Luciana Abreu, José V.E. Bernardi, José G. Dórea. Environmental Research, 149 (2016), 259–265.

SUMMARY

Amazonian children exposed to high and low levels of both ethyl and methylmercury were assessed using the Mental Developmental Index and Psychomotor Developmental Index. Statistically significant differences were seen in the high exposure group at 24 months in the mental developmental index only. Combined exposures led to developmental delays including the age of talking and the age of walking.

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Published: 2016
SYNOPSIS

Mercury exposure is implicated in neuroinflammatory disorders including autism.

TITLE

The levels of blood mercury and inflammatory-related neuropeptides in the serum are correlated in children with autism spectrum disorder

CITATION

Gehan Ahmed Mostafa, Geir Bjørklund, Mauricio A. Urbina, Laila Yousef AL-Ayadhi. Metabolic Brain Disease, June 2016, Volume 31, Issue 3, pp 593–599.

SUMMARY

Blood mercury levels and tachykinins (neuropeptides that cause inflammation) were correlated in children with ASD and statistically significantly higher than neurotypical control children. It has been shown that mercury exposure can elicit tachykinin formation which has been implicated in neuroinflammatory disorders including autism.

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Published: 2015
SYNOPSIS

Authors review current evidence about how vaccine adjuvants may trigger autoimmunity.

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On vaccine’s adjuvants and autoimmunity: Current evidence and future perspectives

CITATION

Pellegrino P, Clementi E, Radice S. Autoimmunity Reviews, 2015 Oct; 14(10):880-8.

SUMMARY

In this review, we discuss the possible underlying mechanisms of autoimmune reactions following vaccinations and review cases of autoimmune diseases that have been correlated with vaccination. Molecular mimicry and bystander activation are reported as possible mechanisms by which vaccines can cause autoimmune reactions. The individuals who might be susceptible to develop these reactions could be especially not only those with previous post-vaccination phenomena and those with allergies but also in individuals who are prone to develop autoimmune diseases, such as those with a family history of autoimmunity or with known autoantibodies, and the genetic predisposed individuals.

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Published: 2015
SYNOPSIS

A review of the literature shows evidence of vaccine-induced autoimmunity and adjuvant-induced autoimmunity in both experimental models as well as human patients.

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Vaccines, adjuvants and autoimmunity

CITATION

Guimarães LE, Baker B, Perricone C, Shoenfeld Y. Pharmacol Research, 2015 Oct; 100:190-209.

SUMMARY

In this review of the literature, there is evidence of vaccine-induced autoimmunity and adjuvant-induced autoimmunity in both experimental models as well as human patients. Adjuvants and infectious agents may exert their immune-enhancing effects through various functional activities, encompassed by the adjuvant effect. These mechanisms are shared by different conditions triggered by adjuvants leading to the autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA syndrome).

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Published: 2015
SYNOPSIS

Thimerosal exposure in humans many neurodevelopment deficits even at levels currently administered in vaccines.

TITLE

Thimerosal: Clinical, epidemiologic and biochemical studies

CITATION

David A. Geier, Paul G. King, Brian S. Hooker, José G. Dórea, Janet K. Kern,
Lisa K. Sykes, Mark R. Geier.Clinica Chimica Acta, 444 (2015) 212–220 February 2015.

SUMMARY

This review article includes a section on numerous papers linking thimerosal exposure via infant vaccines to autism. The publication also includes a critique of studies supported or conducted by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) that deny any associations between exposure to thimerosal in vaccines and the subsequent development of autism. The CDC has been criticized by Congress for inherent conflicts of interest related to its vaccine development activities and role in vaccine safety oversight.

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Published: 2015
SYNOPSIS

Authors define individuals at risk of developing autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants–ASIA syndrome.

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Predicting post-vaccination autoimmunity: who might be at risk?

CITATION

Soriano A, Nesher G, Shoenfeld Y. Pharmacological Research, 2015 Feb; 92:18-22. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2014.08.002. Epub 2014 Sep 30.

SUMMARY

It has been postulated that autoimmunity could be triggered or enhanced by the vaccine immunogen contents, as well as by adjuvants, which are used to increase the immune reaction to the immunogen. Fortunately, vaccination-related ASIA is uncommon. Yet, by defining individuals at risk we may further limit the number of individuals developing post-vaccination ASIA.

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Published: 2015
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Vaccines implicated in epidemic of food allergies.

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Evidence that Food Proteins in Vaccines Cause the Development of Food Allergies and Its Implications for Vaccine Policy

CITATION

Vinu Arumugham. (2015) Journal of Developing Drugs 4: 137. doi:10.4172/2329-6631.10001372015.

SUMMARY

“Numerous studies have demonstrated that food proteins contained in vaccines/injections induce food allergy. The IOM’s authoritative report has concluded the same. Allergen quantities in vaccines are unregulated. Today kids are more atopic. C-section births bias the newborn’s immune system towards IgE synthesis due to sub-optimal gut microbiome [19]. C-section birth rates have gone up 50% in the last few decades. The vaccine schedule has increased the number of vaccine shots to 30-40 and up to five vaccines are simultaneously administered to children. Vaccines also contain adjuvants such as aluminum compounds and pertussis toxin that bias towards IgE synthesis. Given these conditions, the predictable and observed outcome is a food allergy epidemic.”

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Published: 2014
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Neurodevelopmental disorders are much more common in children who received mercury-containing vaccines.

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A Dose-Response Relationship between Organic Mercury Exposure from Thimerosal-Containing Vaccines and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

CITATION

David A. Geier, Brian S. Hooker, Janet K. Kern, Paul G. King, Lisa K. Sykes, and Mark R. Geier, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2014, 11, 9156-9170; doi:10.3390/ijerph110909156

SUMMARY

On a per microgram of organic-mercury (Hg) basis, Pervasive Developmental Disorder, specific developmental disorder, tic disorder and hyperkinetic syndrome of childhood cases were significantly more likely than controls to receive increased organic-Hg exposure. This study provides new epidemiological evidence supporting a significant relationship between increasing organic-Hg exposure from vaccines and the subsequent risk of an Neurodevelopmental Disorder diagnosis.

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Published: 2013
SYNOPSIS

Israeli and Italian researchers demonstrate that exposure to aluminum in vaccines can lead to autoimmune and brain dysfunction.

TITLE

Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) 2013: Unveiling the pathogenic, clinical and diagnostic aspects

CITATION

Carlo Perricone, Serena Colafrancesco, Roei D. Mazor, Alessandra Soriano, Yehuda Shoenfeld. Journal of Autoimmunity, October 2013.

SUMMARY

“The data herein illustrate the critical role of environmental factors in the induction of autoimmunity. Indeed, it is the interplay of genetic susceptibility and environment that is the major player for the initiation of breach of tolerance. Several neurologic demyelinating diseases have been reported following vaccination, the main being Guillaine Barre syndrome (GBS). Another demyelinating disease associated with vaccines is the acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). This is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system frequently occurring post-vaccination. Rabies, diphtheria tetanus polio, smallpox, measles, mumps, rubella, Japanese B encephalitis, pertussis, influ-enza, hepatitis B, and the Hog vaccines have been called to be involved.”

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Published: 2013
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Canadian researchers: aluminum in vaccines can cause both autoimmunity and neurological damage.

TITLE

Aluminum in the central nervous system (CNS): toxicity in humans and animals, vaccine adjuvants, and autoimmunity

CITATION

Chris Shaw, L. Tomljenovic. Immunologic Research, (2013) 56:304–316 DOI 10.1007/s12026-013-8403-1.

SUMMARY

“In young children, a highly significant correlation exists between the number of pediatric aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines administered and the rate of autism spectrum disorders. Many of the features of aluminum-induced neurotoxicity may arise, in part, from autoimmune reactions, as part of the ASIA syndrome. Aluminum is added to vaccines to help the vaccine work more effectively, but unlike dietary aluminum which will usually clear rapidly from the body, aluminum used in vaccines and injected is designed to provide a long-lasting cellular exposure. Thus, the problem with vaccine-derived aluminum is really twofold: It drives the immune response even in the absence of a viral or bacterial threat and it can make its way into the central nervous system. It is not really a matter of much debate that aluminum in various forms can be neurotoxic.”

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Published: 2013
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Scientists from Mexico and Israel explain adjuvants (aluminum) used in vaccines can induce autoimmunity.

TITLE

Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (Shoenfeld’s syndrome): clinical and immunological spectrum

CITATION

Olga Vera-Lastra, Gabriela Medina, Maria Del-Pilar Cruz Dominguez, Luis J Jara. Expert Reviews-Clinical Immunology, 9(4), 361-373, 2013.

SUMMARY

“The activation of the immune system by adjuvants, a desirable effect, could trigger manifestations of autoimmunity or autoimmune disease. Recently, a new syndrome was introduced, autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA), that includes postvaccination phenomena, macrophagic myofasciitis, Gulf War syndrome and siliconosis. Various adjuvants used in vaccines enhance a specific immune response against antigens and may produce autoimmunity and AID both in experimental models and humans. The clinical and laboratory data support an association between adjuvants and autoimmune diseases.”

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Published: 2013
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This article highlights the connection between infant and prenatal thimerosal exposure and neurological disorders.

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Low-Dose Mercury Exposure in Early Life: Relevance of Thimerosal to Fetuses, Newborns and Infants

CITATION

José G. Dórea. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 2013, 20, 4060-4069.

SUMMARY

This review article highlights the scientifically affirmed connection between infant and prenatal thimerosal exposure and neurological disorders, including tic disorder, which has been shown to be much more prevalent in children with autism. The author also delineates the use of thimerosal in vaccines in developing countries at a greater exposure level than developed countries such as the U.S.

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Published: 2012
SYNOPSIS

Canadian researchers review literature on autoimmunity and neurological risks from vaccine adjuvant aluminum, express doubts regarding safety testing.

TITLE

Mechanisms of aluminum adjuvant toxicity and autoimmunity in pediatric populations

CITATION

L Tomljenovic, CA Shaw. Lupus, (2012) 21, 223–230.

SUMMARY

“Immune challenges during early development, including those vaccine-induced, can lead to permanent detrimental alterations of the brain and immune function. Experimental evidence also shows that simultaneous administration of as little as two to three immune adjuvants can overcome genetic resistance to autoimmunity. In spite of the widespread agreement that vaccines are largely safe and serious adverse complications are extremely rare, a close scrutiny of the scientific literature does not support this view. For example, to date, the clinical trials that could adequately address vaccine safety issues have not been con- ducted (i.e., comparing health outcomes in vaccinated versus non-vaccinated children). Infants and young children should not be viewed as ”small adults.” Their unique physiology makes them much more vulnerable to noxious environ- mental insults in comparison with the adult population. In spite of this, children are routinely exposed to much higher levels of Al vaccine adjuvants than adults, even though adequate safety data on these compounds are lacking. That Al vaccine adjuvants can induce significant autoimmune conditions in humans can hardly be disputed, although still debatable is how common such side effects are. However, the existing data (or lack thereof) raise questions on whether the current vaccines aimed at pediatric populations can be accepted as having adequate safety profiles. Because infants and children represent those who may be most at risk for complications following vaccination, a more rigorous evaluation of potential vaccine-related adverse health impacts in pediatric populations than what has been provided to date is urgently needed.”

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Published: 2010
SYNOPSIS

It is feasible that vaccinations may also contribute to the mosaic of autoimmunity.

TITLE

Vaccines and autoimmune diseases of the adult.

CITATION

Orbach H, Agmon-Levin N, Zandman-Goddard G. Discovery Medicine, 2014 May; 10(2):101-7.

SUMMARY

Infectious agents contribute to the environmental factors involved in the development of autoimmune diseases possibly through molecular mimicry mechanisms. Hence, it is feasible that vaccinations may also contribute to the mosaic of autoimmunity. Evidence for the association of vaccinations and the development of these diseases is presented in this review.

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Published: 2009
SYNOPSIS

Swedish researchers found that children who had natural measles infection had much lower rates of allergy than children vaccinated against measles.

TITLE

Allergic Disease and Atopic Sensitization in Children in Relation to Measles Vaccination and Measles Infection

CITATION

Rosenlund H1, Bergstrom A, Alm JS, Swartz J, Scheynius A, van Hage M, Johansen K, Brunekreef B, von Mutius E, Ege MJ, Riedler J, Braun-Fahrlander C, Waser M, Pershagen G, PARSIFAL Study Group. Pediatrics, 2009.

SUMMARY

“However, in these analyses, measles infection [natural measles] was inversely associated with any allergic symptom or physician’s diagnosis of allergy.”

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Published: 2007
SYNOPSIS

Test scores among young men declined between 1998 and 2003/04.

TITLE

Secular declines in cognitive test scores: A reversal of the Flynn Effect

CITATION

Thomas W. Teasdale and David R. Owen. Intelligence, 36 (2008) 121–126.

SUMMARY

Scores on cognitive tests have been very widely reported to have increased through the decades of the last century, a generational phenomenon termed the ‘Flynn Effect’ since it was most comprehensively documented by James Flynn in the 1980’s. We here report data from a population, namely young adult males in Denmark, showing that whereas there were modest increases between 1988 and 1998, scores on all four tests declined between 1998 and 2003/2004.

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Published: 2005
SYNOPSIS

Many heavy metals increase the apparent toxicity of low levels of mercury.

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Mercury toxicity: Genetic susceptibility and synergistic effects

CITATION

B.E. Haley. Medical Veritas, 2 (2005) 535–542.

SUMMARY

This article discusses mercury intoxication and several normally appearing factors that increase the susceptibility to mercury toxicity. Boys with autism represent a subset of the population that is more susceptible to the toxic effects of mercury and thimerosal because they are not efficient excretors of these toxic materials. Research confirms that a lead toxic person would be more susceptible to mercury toxicity than a healthy, non-toxic person researchers routinely observed that many heavy metals increase the apparent toxicity of low levels of mercury. In other words, the synergistic effects of other heavy metals, diet, antibiotics, etc. on mercury toxicity make it impossible to define a “safe level of mercury exposure.”

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