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Thimerosal

Thimerosal changes protein conformation and increase the rate of fibrillation in physiological conditions: Spectroscopic studies using bovine serum albumin (BSA)
Published: 2018
SYNOPSIS

Thimerosal contributes to the formation of abnormal proteins associated with Alzheimer’s and other diseases.

CITATION

Santos JCN, da Silva IM, Braga TC, de Fátima Å, Figueiredo IM, Santos JCC. Thimerosal changes protein conformation and increase the rate of fibrillation in physiological conditions: Spectroscopic studies using bovine serum albumin (BSA). International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2018;113:1032-1040.

SUMMARY

A series of experiments suggests that the effects of the vaccine preservative thimerosal on the structure of important protein molecules in the blood are one likely cause of thimerosal’s toxicity, contributing to the development of neurodegenerative and other diseases. Using a cow protein as a proxy to assess thimerosal’s impact on human serum albumin (a protein made by the liver), the study found that thimerosal accelerates the build-up of abnormal protein deposits that are associated with at least 25 diseases, including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and type 2 diabetes. When bound to albumin, thimerosal also may result in “more efficient distribution” of mercury in the body.

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A dose-response relationship between organic mercury exposure from thimerosal-containing vaccines and neurodevelopmental disorders
Published: 2014
SYNOPSIS

Neurodevelopmental disorders are much more common in children who received mercury-containing vaccines.

CITATION

Geier DA, Hooker BS, Kern JK, King PG, Sykes LK, Geier MR. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014;11:9156-9170.

SUMMARY

On a per microgram of organic-mercury (Hg) basis, pervasive developmental disorder, specific developmental disorder, tic disorder and hyperkinetic syndrome of childhood cases were significantly more likely than controls to receive increased organic-Hg exposure. This study provides new epidemiological evidence supporting a significant relationship between increasing organic-Hg exposure from vaccines and the subsequent risk of a neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosis.

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Transcriptomic analyses of neurotoxic effects in mouse brain after intermittent neonatal administration of thimerosal
Published: 2014
SYNOPSIS

Chinese scientists find mice injected with thimerosal (vaccine mercury) have behavioral impairments similar to autism.

CITATION

Li X, Qu F, Xie W, et al. Toxicological Sciences. 2014;139:452–465.

SUMMARY

“Thimerosal-treated mice exhibited neural development delay, social interaction deficiency, and inclination of depression. Apparent neuropathological changes were also observed in adult mice neonatally treated with thimerosal. High-throughput RNA sequencing of autistic-behaved mice brains revealed the alternation of a number of canonical pathways involving neuronal development, neuronal synaptic function, and the dysregulation of endocrine system.”

Effect of thimerosal on the neurodevelopment of premature rats.
Published: 2013
SYNOPSIS

An animal model of early life exposure to thimerosal finds it adversely impacts learning and memory and may be associated with the development of autism in susceptible individuals.

CITATION

Chen YN, Wang J, Zhang J, Li SJ, He L, Shao DD, Du HY. World J Pediatr. 2013 Nov;9(4):356-60. doi: 10.1007/s12519-013-0443-z. Epub 2013 Nov 14.

SUMMARY

Thimerosal is a preservative used in vaccines and contains approximately 49% mercury. This animal model study was undertaken to investigate the neurodevelopmental effect of exposure to thimerosal in premature rats. Four groups of premature rats received four different doses of thimerosal (32.8, 65.6, 98.4 or 131.2 μg/kg) injected into the gluteus maximus on postnatal day 1. A fifth group served as a control and received a saline injection. Tests were performed 44-48 days post injection to determine spatial learning and memory function. On day 49 the animals were euthanized and prepared for immunohistochemical staining to determine the expression of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4), serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) and apoptosis (programmed cell death) in the prefrontal cortex. The DRD4 receptor is associated with memory function while the 5-HT2AR receptor correlates with episodic memory. Previous rat studies have demonstrated that early life exposure to thimerosal alters the dopamine and serotonin systems. Similarly, this study found a significant decrease in the expression of DRD4, 5-HT2AR and learning at the highest dose of thimerosal. The decrease in receptor expression correlated with increased levels of apoptosis. In all but the lowest exposure group, memory function was significantly decreased when compare to the control group. The authors close by saying, “In conclusion, our results are consistent with previous studies in mice, rats, rhesus macaques, and humans, demonstrate that exposure to mercury from thimerosal- containing vaccines in susceptible populations, such as premature infants, may be associated with neurodevelopmental disorders like autism.”

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A two-phase study evaluating the relationship between Thimerosal-containing vaccine administration and the risk for an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in the United States
Published: 2013
SYNOPSIS

Infants receiving mercury-containing vaccines had much higher rates of autism than infants receiving vaccines without mercury.

CITATION

Geier DA, Hooker BS, Kern JK, King PG, Sykes LK, Geier MR. Translational Neurodegeneration. 2013;2:25.

SUMMARY

“The present study provides new epidemiological evidence supporting an association between increasing organic-Hg [mercury] exposure from Thimerosal-containing childhood vaccines and the subsequent risk of ASD [autism] diagnosis.”

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Neurologic adverse events following vaccination
Published: 2012
SYNOPSIS

Polish scientists propose new vaccine schedule, express concern at high rate of vaccine adverse events.

CITATION

Sienkiewicz D, Kulak W, Okurowska-Zawada B, Paszko-Patej G. Progress in Health Sciences. 2012;2.

SUMMARY

“[I]t is not reasonable to assume that manipulation of the immune system through an increasing number of vaccinations during critical periods of brain development will not result in adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. European countries have different models of vaccination that have been modified in recent decades. In Scandinavian countries, which have the lowest infant mortality, vaccinations are voluntary and infants receive their first vaccination at 3 months of age. In the first year of life, they receive 9 recommended vaccinations, and at 18 months – MMR. The acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) is used, as well as IPV. BCG and Hepatitis B vaccines are administered to children from high risk groups. Similar vaccination schedules exist in other European countries, where the vaccination of neonates was abandoned and a ban on the use of thimerosal in vaccines was introduced. Note also that Scandinavian countries have the lowest rates of autism compared to other developed countries in which children are vaccinated much earlier and with greater number of vaccines.”

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Maternal Thimerosal Exposure Results in Aberrant Cerebellar Oxidative Stress, Thyroid Hormone Metabolism, and Motor Behavior in Rat Pups; Sex- and Strain-Dependent Effects
Published: 2011
SYNOPSIS

Harvard researchers find vaccine mercury impacts neurodevelopment in rats.

CITATION

Z. L. Sulkowski & T. Chen & S. Midha & A. M. Zavacki & Elizabeth M. Sajdel-Sulkowska. Cerebellum, (2012) 11:575–586.

SUMMARY

“Our data indicate that maternal TM exposure results in a delayed auditory maturation and impaired motor learning in rat pups. Factors that may contribute to these abnormalities include increased cerebellar oxidative stress and decreased D2 activity resulting local intracerebellar T3 deficiency and altered TH-dependent gene expression. Indeed, provided here is the first evidence of altered TH-dependent gene expression following TM exposure. Our data thus demonstrate a negative neurodevelopmental impact of perinatal TM exposure, which appears to be both strain- and sex-dependent. Although, additional studies are needed, data derived from TM exposure in rats may provide clues relevant to understanding neurodevelopmental consequences of TM exposure in humans.”

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Influence of pediatric vaccines on amygdala growth and opioid ligand binding in rhesus macaque infants: A pilot study
Published: 2010
SYNOPSIS

Baby monkeys given U.S. vaccine schedule had brain abnormalities in region responsible for social and emotional development.

CITATION

Laura Hewitson, Brian J. Lopresti, Carol Stott, N. Scott Mason and Jaime Tomko1. ACTA Neurobiological Experimentals, 2010 70: 147–164.

SUMMARY

“The data suggest that vaccine exposure may be associated with significant disturbances in central opioidergic pathways in this model… Volumetric analyses identified significantly greater total brain volume in exposed compared with unexposed animals at both measured time points. These results raise the possibility that multiple vaccine exposures during the previous 3-4 months may have had a significant impact on brain growth and development.”

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Delayed acquisition of neonatal reflexes in newborn primates receiving a thimerosal-containing Hepatitis B vaccine: Influence of gestational age and birth weight
Published: 2009
SYNOPSIS

Newborn monkeys given a mercury-containing hepatitis b vaccine had significant delays in neonatal reflexes and neurological development.

CITATION

Laura Hewitson, Lisa A. Houser, Carol Stott, Gene Sackett, Jaime L. Tomko, David Atwood, Lisa Blue, E. Railey White, Andrew J. Wakefield. NeuroToxicology, 2009; doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2009.09.008.

SUMMARY

“In summary, this study provides preliminary evidence of abnormal early neurodevelopmental responses in male infant rhesus macaques receiving a single dose of Th-containing HB vaccine at birth and indicates that further investigation is merited.”

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Neonatal administration of a vaccine preservative, thimerosal, produces lasting impairment of nociception and apparent activation of opioid system in rats.
Published: 2009
SYNOPSIS

Thimerosal injections cause increased mercury in brain, liver and kidney of rats and induces long-term reduction in pain sensitivity (hypoalgesia). Might this contribute to self-injurious behavior in autism?

CITATION

Olczak M1, Duszczyk M, Mierzejewski P, Majewska MD. Brain Res. 2009 Dec 8;1301:143-51. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2009.09.003. Epub 2009 Sep 9.

SUMMARY

The preservative thimerosal added to vaccines is approximately 49% mercury by weight. Once inside the body it converts to a persistent inorganic mercury. Thimerosal has been used for decades despite not undergoing sufficient safety studies. This study utilized an animal model to investigate the distribution of mercury in brain, kidney and liver after injection of thimerosal (THIM) in newborn rats at various timeframes postnatally. The schedule used was meant to be similar to that given to humans. One group of rats that had not previously gotten thimerosal as newborns (naïve group) received a single dose as an adult. It was determined that the kidneys accumulated the largest amount of mercury, followed by the liver then the brain. Individuals with autism have been known to engage in self-injurious behaviors (SIB) and to demonstrate a decrease sensitivity to pain (hypoalgesia). Studies of individuals with autism have reported a reduction in SIB when treated with naloxone. Naloxone is an opioid receptor antagonist which would allow a person to more profoundly feel their pain upon participation in SIBs. A secondary consideration of this study was to determine if thimerosal exposure modulates sensitivity to painful stimuli. Using a hot plate test, it was demonstrated that thimerosal induces hypoalgesia. The long-term impairment in pain sensitivity seen among the neonates exceeded that of the naïve adults that received a single acute dose indicating young rats are more sensitive than adults. If rats were given a dose of naloxone prior to the hot plate test, it significantly mitigated the thimerosal induced hypoalgesia thereby indicating a role of the opioid system. The authors conclude, “…our study shows that administration of THIM to suckling or adult rats causes persistent impairment of pain sensitivity, which appears to involve increased activity of endogenous opioids.”

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Thimerosal exposure in infants and neurodevelopmental disorders: An assessment of computerized medical records in the Vaccine Safety Datalink
Published: 2008
SYNOPSIS

A CDC-sponsored database showed much higher rates of neurodevelopmental disabilities from mercury-containing vaccines.

CITATION

Young HA, Geier DA, Geier MR. Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 2008;121:626-631.

SUMMARY

“Consistent significantly increased rate ratios were observed for autism, autism spectrum disorders, tics, attention deficit disorder, and emotional disturbances with Hg [mercury] exposure from TCVs [thimerosal-containing vaccines]. By contrast, none of the control outcomes had significantly increased rate ratios with Hg exposure from TCVs.”

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Comparison of Blood and Brain Mercury Levels in Infant Monkeys Exposed to Methylmercury or Vaccines Containing Thimerosal
Published: 2005
SYNOPSIS

The mercury used as a vaccine preservative is far more neurotoxic than the mercury found in fish.

CITATION

Thomas M. Burbacher, Danny D. Shen, Noelle Liberato, Kimberly S. Grant, Elsa Cernichiari, and Thomas Clarkson. Environmental Health Perspectives, Volume 113, Number 8, August 2005.

SUMMARY

The mercury used in vaccines (and still in the flu vaccine given to pregnant women) is far more toxic than the mercury found in fish, because it stays in the brain at much higher levels. “Data from the present study support the prediction that, although little accumulation of Hg in the blood occurs over time with repeated vaccinations, accumulation of Hg in the brain of infants will occur. Thus, conclusion regarding the safety of thimerosal drawn from blood Hg clearance data in human infants receiving vaccines may not be valid, given the significantly slower half-life of Hg in the brain as observed in the infant macaques. There was a much higher proportion of inorganic Hg in the brain of thimerosal monkeys than in the brains of MeHg monkeys (up to 71% vs. 10%). Absolute inorganic Hg concentrations in the brains of the thimerosal-exposed monkeys were approximately twice that of the MeHg monkeys.”

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Mercury toxicity: Genetic susceptibility and synergistic effects
Published: 2005
SYNOPSIS

Many heavy metals increase the apparent toxicity of low levels of mercury.

CITATION

Haley BE. Medical Veritas. 2005;2:535–542.

SUMMARY

This article discusses mercury intoxication and several normally appearing factors that increase the susceptibility to mercury toxicity. Boys with autism represent a subset of the population that is more susceptible to the toxic effects of mercury and thimerosal because they are not efficient excretors of these toxic materials. Research confirms that a lead-toxic person would be more susceptible to mercury toxicity than a healthy, non-toxic person. Researchers routinely observe that many heavy metals increase the apparent toxicity of low levels of mercury. In other words, the synergistic effects of other heavy metals, diet, antibiotics, etc. on mercury toxicity make it impossible to define a “safe level of mercury exposure.”

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Thimerosal Neurotoxicity is Associated with Glutathione Depletion: Protection with Glutathione Precursors
Published: 2005
SYNOPSIS

Vaccine mercury depletes a vital antioxidant, glutathione.

CITATION

S.J. James, William Slikker, Stepan Melnyk, Elizabeth New,
Marta Pogribna, Stefanie Jernigan. NeuroToxicology, 26 (2005) 1–8.

SUMMARY

“Thimerosal is an antiseptic containing 49.5% ethyl mercury that has been used for years as a preservative in many infant vaccines and in flu vaccines. Environmental methyl mercury has been shown to be highly neurotoxic, especially to the developing brain. Because mercury has a high affinity for thiol (sulfhydryl (-SH)) groups, the thiol-containing antioxidant, glutathione (GSH), provides the major intracellular defense against mercury-induced neurotoxicity. Cultured neuroblastoma cells were found to have lower levels of GSH and increased sensitivity to thimerosal toxicity compared to glioblastoma cells that have higher basal levels of intracellular GSH. Thimerosal-induced cytotoxicity was associated with depletion of intracellular GSH in both cell lines. Although Thimerosal has been recently removed from most children’s vaccines, it is still present in flu vaccines given to pregnant women, the elderly, and to children in developing countries.”

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Increased risk of developmental neurologic impairment after high exposure to thimerosal-containing vaccine in first month of life
Published: 2000
SYNOPSIS

Infants receiving mercury-containing vaccines developed speech disorders, sleep disorders and autism, according to CDC scientists.

CITATION

Verstraeten TM, Davies R, Gu D, DeStefano F. Proceedings of the Epidemic Intelligence Service Annual Conference, April 2000.

SUMMARY

“This analysis suggests that high exposure to ethylmercury from thimerosal-containing vaccines in the first month of life increases the risk of subsequent development of neurologic development impairment.”

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Iatrogenic exposure to mercury after hepatitis B vaccination in preterm infants
Published: 2000
SYNOPSIS

Vaccines with mercury significantly raised the body levels of mercury in infants.

CITATION

Gregory V. Stajich, Gaylord P. Lopez, Sokei W. Harry, and William R. Sexson. Journal of Pediatrics, 2000, 136, 679-81.

SUMMARY

“Thimerosal, a derivative of mercury, is used as a preservative in hepatitis B vaccines. We measured total mercury levels before and after the administration of this vaccine in 15 preterm and 5 term infants. Comparison of pre- and post-vaccination mercury levels showed a significant increase in both preterm and term infants after vaccination. Additionally, post-vaccination mercury levels were significantly higher in preterm infants as compared with term infants. Because mercury is known to be a potential neurotoxin to infants, further study of its pharmacodynamics is warranted.”

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Thimerosal induces toxic reaction in non-sensitized animals
Published: 1994
SYNOPSIS

Thimerosal used in vaccines increases risks of side effects.

CITATION

Uchida T, Naito S, Kato H, Hatano I, Harashima A, Terada Y, Ohkawa T, Chino F, Eto K. Thimerosal induces toxic reaction in non-sensitized animals. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology. 1994;104(3):296-301.

SUMMARY

A two-decades-old study in mice showed that thimerosal in vaccines may “augment” vaccine side effects in humans. Injection of a thimerosal-containing solution into mice resulted in hypersensitive reactions, including severe swelling and acute inflammation at the injection site with an hour of receiving the injection.

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