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Infant Mortality

Relative trends in hospitalizations and mortality among infants by the number of vaccine doses and age, based on the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), 1990-2010
Published: 2012
SYNOPSIS

Infants who received more vaccines had much higher hospitalization and death rates than infants who received fewer vaccines.

CITATION

GS Goldman, NZ Miller. Human and Experimental Toxicology, 2012, 31(10) 1012–1021.

SUMMARY

“The hospitalization rate increased linearly from 11.0% (107 of 969) for 2 doses to 23.5% (661 of 2817) for 8 doses and decreased linearly from 20.1% (154 of 765) for children aged < 0.1 year to 10.7% (86 of 801) for children aged 0.9 year. Our findings show a positive correlation between the number of vaccine doses administered and the percentage of hospitalizations and deaths. Since vaccines are given to millions of infants annually, it is imperative that health authorities have scientific data from synergistic toxicity studies on all combinations of vaccines that infants might receive. Finding ways to increase vaccine safety should be the highest priority."

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Infant mortality rates regressed against number of vaccine doses routinely given: is there a biochemical or synergistic toxicity?
Published: 2011
SYNOPSIS

Using the Tukey-Kramer test, statistically significant differences in mean IMRs (infant mortality rates) were found between nations giving 12-14 vaccine doses and those giving 21-23, and 24-26 doses.”

CITATION

Neil Z Miller and Gary S Goldman; Human and Experimental Toxicology. 2011 Sep; 30(9): 1420–1428. doi: 10.1177/0960327111407644.

SUMMARY

The infant mortality rate (IMR) is one of the most important indicators of the socio-economic well-being and public health conditions of a country. The US childhood immunization schedule specifies 26 vaccine doses for infants aged less than 1 year—the most in the world—yet 33 nations have lower IMRs. Using linear regression, the immunization schedules of these 34 nations were examined and a correlation was found between IMRs and the number of vaccine doses routinely given to infants.

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An investigation of infant deaths following initial hepatitis B vaccination based on the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), 1992-2002
Published: 2007
SYNOPSIS

Neonatal deaths following hepatitis B vaccination should be investigated as possible vaccine-related deaths.

CITATION

Soldatenkova VA, Yazbak FE. Medical Veritas. 2007;4:1414-1421.

SUMMARY

This study argues that all unexpected neonatal deaths occurring after initial hepatitis B vaccination should be systematically investigated. Over one-fifth (22%) of neonatal hepatitis B vaccine injuries reported to the U.S. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) from 1992 to 2002 were deaths (38/170) that, in nearly all cases, occurred within hours or days of vaccination. Although most of the deaths were officially classified as sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) or “unexplained” rather than as vaccine-related deaths, the authors note “a statistically significant increase in [the] proportion of neonatal SIDS since implementation of universal vaccination of newborns against hepatitis B.” The VAERS reports also are suggestive of higher risks for premature, small, or slightly ill infants.

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Evaluation of non-specific effects of infant immunization on early infant mortality in southern Indian population.
Published: 2005
SYNOPSIS

Among girls, those who received both BCG and DTP experienced higher mortality than those who received only one of the two vaccines (hazards ratio 2.4; 95% confidence interval 1.2-5.0).

CITATION

Moulton LH, Rahmathullah L, Halsey NA, Thulasiraj RD, Katz J, Tielsch JM. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 2005 Oct;10(10):947-55.

SUMMARY

In a study of children under 2 years of age in Guinea-Bissau, Kristensen et al. (2000) found immunization with Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccine to be associated with lower mortality, but stated that oral polio vaccine (OPV) and diphtheria, tetanus, polio (DTP) vaccines were associated with higher mortality. More recently, it has been suggested that this effect may be gender-specific, existing primarily among girls. This evaluation, focused on relating timing of BCG and DTP vaccine receipt to mortality from 1 week to 6 months of age, with emphasis on gender differentials found that girls that received both BCG and DTP experienced higher mortality than those who received only one of the two vaccines.

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Routine vaccinations and child survival: follow up study in Guinea Bissau, West Africa.
Published: 2000
SYNOPSIS

One dose of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine was associated with a mortality ratio of 1.84 (1.10 to 3.10) and two to three doses with a ratio of 1.38 (0.73 to 2.61) compared with children who had received no dose of these vaccines.”

CITATION

Kristensen I, Aaby P, Jensen H. British Medical Journal. 2000 Dec 9;321(7274):1435-8.

SUMMARY

Research on vaccines in developing countries recommended by the World Health Organization has emphasised serological responses and protection against specific diseases. The aim of the research has been to optimise vaccine schedules for control, elimination, or eradication of disease. In modelling exercises, vaccination against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, and polio has been assumed to save 1.5­2.0% of the children in areas with high infant mortality. However, these assumptions are not supported by data. Mortality was lower in the group vaccinated with any vaccine compared with those not vaccinated, however, recipients of one dose of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis or polio vaccines had higher mortality than children who had received none of these vaccines.

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