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COVID-19

Increased risk for Covid-19 in patients with Vitamin D deficiency.
Published: 2021
SYNOPSIS

Vit D deficiency increased likelihood of being COVID-19 positive by 4.6 times.

CITATION

Katz, J., Yue, S., & Xue, W. (2020). Increased risk for COVID-19 in patients with vitamin D deficiency. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.)84, 111106. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2020.111106

SUMMARY

This is a retrospective database analysis showing patients with vitamin D deficiency were 4.6 times more likely to be positive for COVID-19 (indicated by the ICD-10 diagnostic code COVID19) than patients with no deficiency. The association decreased slightly after adjusting for sex and malabsorption. The association decreased significantly but remained robust after adjusting for race, periodontal disease.

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Diabetes and Covid-19 among hospitalized patients in Saudi Arabia: a single-centre retrospective study.
Published: 2021
SYNOPSIS

Hospitalized COVID-19 patients with diabetes had a 85.7% lower death rate when given Vit D.

CITATION

Alguwaihes AM, Al-Sofiani ME, Megdad M, Albader SS, Alsari MH, Alelayan A, Alzahrani SH, Sabico S, Al-Daghri NM, Jammah AA. Diabetes and Covid-19 among hospitalized patients in Saudi Arabia: a single-centre retrospective study. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2020 Dec 5;19(1):205. doi: 10.1186/s12933-020-01184-4. PMID: 33278893; PMCID: PMC7718833. Summary

SUMMARY

A total of 439 patients were included (median age 55 years; 68.3% men). The most prevalent comorbidities were vitamin D deficiency. While diabetes mellitus (DM) patients have a higher mortality rate than their non-DM counterparts, hospitalized patients showed 85.7%  lower mortality with vitamin D.

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Nutrients, Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels on Admission to the Intensive Care Unit May Predispose COVID-19 Pneumonia Patients to a Higher 28-Day Mortality Risk: A Pilot Study on a Greek ICU Cohort.
Published: 2021
SYNOPSIS

Observational study showing improved immune system activity if supplementation was given to Vit D insufficient and deficient patients.

CITATION

Vassiliou AG, Jahaj E, Pratikaki M, Orfanos SE, Dimopoulou I, Kotanidou A. Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels on Admission to the Intensive Care Unit May Predispose COVID-19 Pneumonia Patients to a Higher 28-Day Mortality Risk: A Pilot Study on a Greek ICU Cohort. Nutrients. 2020 Dec 9;12(12):3773. doi: 10.3390/nu12123773. PMID: 33316914; PMCID: PMC7764169.

SUMMARY

We aimed to examine whether low intensive care unit (ICU) admission vitamin D levels are associated with worse outcomes of COVID-19 pneumonia. This was a prospective observational study of SARS-CoV2 positive critically ill patients treated in a multidisciplinary ICU. Thirty (30) Greek patients were included, in whom vitamin D level was measured on ICU admission. Eighty (80%) percent of patients had vitamin D deficiency, and the remaining insufficiency. All patients who died within 28 days belonged to the low vitamin D group. Survival analysis showed that the low vitamin D group had a higher 28-day survival absence probability. Critically ill COVID-19 patients who died in the ICU within 28 days appeared to have lower ICU admission vitamin D levels compared to survivors. It seems plausible, therefore, that low vitamin D levels may predispose COVID-19 patients to an increased 28-day mortality risk.

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Nutrients, High-Dose Cholecalciferol Booster Therapy is Associated with a Reduced Risk of Mortality in Patients with COVID-19: A Cross-Sectional Multi-Centre Observational Study.
Published: 2021
SYNOPSIS

An 80% decrease in death among hospitalized (late treatment) patients in the UK given Vitamin D.

CITATION

Ling SF, Broad E, Murphy R, Pappachan JM, Pardesi-Newton S, Kong MF, Jude EB. High-Dose Cholecalciferol Booster Therapy is Associated with a Reduced Risk of Mortality in Patients with COVID-19: A Cross-Sectional Multi-Centre Observational Study. Nutrients. 2020 Dec 11;12(12):3799. doi: 10.3390/nu12123799. PMID: 33322317; PMCID: PMC7763301.

SUMMARY

This is a late treatment retrospective study showing 80% lower mortality with cholecalciferol booster therapy of 986 hospitalized patients in the UK finding that cholecalciferol booster therapy, regardless of baseline serum levels, was associated with a reduced risk of mortality in acute COVID-19 inpatients. An 80% decrease in mortality in the primary cohort (444 patients).

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The Association Between the Level of Serum 25(OH) Vitamin D, Obesity, and underlying Diseases with the risk of Developing COVID‐19 Infection: A case‐control study of hospitalized patients in Tehran, Iran.
Published: 2021
SYNOPSIS

Low levels of Vitamin D and obesity positively correlated with symptomatic COIVD

CITATION

Abdollahi, A, Sarvestani, HK, Rafat, Z, et al. The association between the level of serum 25(OH) vitamin D, obesity, and underlying diseases with the risk of developing COVID‐19 infection: A case–control study of hospitalized patients in Tehran, Iran. J Med Virol. 2021; 93: 2359– 2364. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26726

SUMMARY

The aim of this study was to explore an association between the serum vitamin D level, obesity, and underlying health conditions, as well as the vulnerability to COVID‐19 in the Iranian population. A significant negative correlation  was observed between the serum vitamin D level and developing coronavirus infection.

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Vitamin D Status is Associated With In-hospital Mortality and Mechanical Ventilation: A Cohort of COVID-19 Hospitalized Patients
Published: 2021
SYNOPSIS

Patients with higher Vitamin D levels had significantly lower death rate.

CITATION

Angeliki M. Angelidi, Matthew J. Belanger, Michael K. Lorinsky, Dimitrios Karamanis, Natalia Chamorro-Pareja, Jennifer Ognibene, Leonidas Palaiodimos, Christos S. Mantzoros, Vitamin D Status is Associated With In-hospital Mortality and Mechanical Ventilation: A Cohort of COVID-19 Hospitalized Patients, Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 2021, ISSN 0025-6196, Https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2021.01.001.

SUMMARY

Retrospective of 144 patients in the USA admitted with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, those with Vitamin D levels in the accepted normal range had significantly lower mortality.

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Commentary: Informed consent disclosure to vaccine trial subjects of risk of COVID-19 vaccines worsening clinical disease
Published: 2020
SYNOPSIS

The risk antibody‐dependent enhancement (ADE) during COVID-19 vaccine trials was sufficiently obscured in clinical trial protocols and consent forms that adequate patient comprehension of this risk is unlikely to occur, obviating truly informed consent by subjects in these trials.

CITATION

Timothy Cardozo; Ronald Veazy; Informed consent disclosure to vaccine trial subjects of risk of COVID-19 vaccines worsening clinical disease.  International Journal of Clinical Practice. October 28, 2020; https://doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.13795

SUMMARY

COVID‐19 vaccines designed to elicit neutralizing antibodies may sensitize vaccine recipients to more severe disease than if they were not vaccinated. Vaccines for SARS, MERS and RSV have never been approved, and the data generated in the development and testing of these vaccines suggest a serious mechanistic concern: that vaccines designed empirically using the traditional approach (consisting of the unmodified or minimally modified coronavirus viral spike to elicit neutralizing antibodies), be they composed of protein, viral vector, DNA or RNA and irrespective of delivery method, may worsen COVID‐19 disease via antibody‐dependent enhancement (ADE). This risk is sufficiently obscured in clinical trial protocols and consent forms for ongoing COVID‐19 vaccine trials that adequate patient comprehension of this risk is unlikely to occur, obviating truly informed consent by subjects in these trials.

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Prospects for a safe COVID-19 vaccine
Published: 2020
SYNOPSIS

Although animal models of SARS-CoV-2 infection may elucidate mechanisms of immune protection, we need observations of enhanced disease in people receiving candidate COVID-19 vaccines to understand the risk of immune enhancement of disease. Neither principles of immunity nor preclinical studies provide a basis for prioritizing among the COVID-19 vaccine candidates with respect to safety at this time.

CITATION

Barton F. Haynes, Lawrence Corey, Prabhavathi Fernandes, Peter B. Gilbert, Peter J. Hotez, Srinivas Rao, Michael R. Santos, Hanneke Schuitemaker, Michael Watson and Ann Arvin; Science Translational Medicine  04 Nov 2020: Vol. 12, Issue 568, eabe0948 DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.abe0948

SUMMARY

Rapid development of an efficacious vaccine against the viral pathogen severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, is essential, but rigorous studies are required to determine the safety of candidate vaccines. Here, on behalf of the Accelerating COVID-19 Therapeutic Interventions and Vaccines (ACTIV) Working Group, we evaluate research on the potential risk of immune enhancement of disease by vaccines and viral infections, including coronavirus infections, together with emerging data about COVID-19 disease. Vaccine-associated enhanced disease has been rarely encountered with existing vaccines or viral infections. Although animal models of SARS-CoV-2 infection may elucidate mechanisms of immune protection, we need observations of enhanced disease in people receiving candidate COVID-19 vaccines to understand the risk of immune enhancement of disease. Neither principles of immunity nor preclinical studies provide a basis for prioritizing among the COVID-19 vaccine candidates with respect to safety at this time. Rigorous clinical trial design and post-licensure surveillance should provide a reliable strategy to identify adverse events, including the potential for enhanced severity of COVID-19 disease, after vaccination.

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Impact of catch-up vaccination on aluminum exposure due to new laws and post social distancing
Published: 2020
SYNOPSIS

Delay or catch-up vaccination due to COVID19 social distancing should be done judiciously if at all, to minimize aluminum toxicity.

CITATION

Lyons-Weiler, J. G McFarland and E La Joie. 2020. Impact of catch-up vaccination on aluminum exposure due to new laws and post social distancing; Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology Volume 62, December 2020, 126649 http://sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0946672X20302145

SUMMARY

This study utilized the established clearance and accumulation models to calculate expected per-body-weight whole-body toxicity of aluminum from vaccines considering for children of all ages under CDC’s Catch-Up schedule from birth to ten years, assuming social distancing for 6 months. Our updated Pediatric Dose Limit (PDL) model assumes a linear improvement in renal function from birth to two years. The results indicate that due diligence in considering alternative spacing and use of non-aluminum containing vaccines when possible will reduce whole body toxicity and may reduce risk of morbidity associated with exposure to aluminum. The study concludes that careful consideration of expected aluminum exposures during regular and Catch-Up vaccination is found to be especially important for infants and children below 2 years of age.  We urge caution in the mass re-starting of vaccination under CDC’s Catch-Up schedule for children under 12 months and offer alternative strategies to minimize per-day/week/month exposure to aluminum hydroxide following the COVID-19 period of isolation.

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