Science Library Category:

Environmental Factors

Published: 2018
SYNOPSIS

Long-term exposure to air pollution impedes cognitive performance.

TITLE

The impact of exposure to air pollution on cognitive performance

Citation

Zhang X, Chen X, Zhang X. The impact of exposure to air pollution on cognitive performance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2018;115(37):9193-9197.

 

Summary

Long-term exposure to air pollution impedes cognitive performance in verbal and math tests. Effects are stronger as people become older, especially for men. Air pollution substantial health and economic costs.

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Published: 2018
SYNOPSIS

Roundup, glyphosate and glyphosate metabolites damage DNA in human blood cells, and Roundup has the strongest effects.

TITLE

The mechanism of DNA damage induced by Roundup 360 PLUS, glyphosate and AMPA in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells—genotoxic risk assessement [sic]

Citation

Wozniak E, Sicinska P, Michalowicz J, et al. The mechanism of DNA damage induced by Roundup 360 PLUS, glyphosate and AMPA in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells—genotoxic risk assessement [sic]. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2018;120:510-522.

 

Summary

A study assessing the effects of Roundup, glyphosate and a glyphosate metabolite found that all three damaged DNA in human blood cells, with Roundup having the strongest effects, even at very low concentrations.

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Published: 2018
SYNOPSIS

In children under age two, four postnatal risk factors (acetaminophen use, antibiotic use, ear infections and early weaning) were associated with an increased risk of autism.

TITLE

Acetaminophen, antibiotics, ear infection, breastfeeding, vitamin D drops, and autism: an epidemiological study

Citation

Bittker SS, Bell KR. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment. 2018;14:1399-1414.

 

Summary

This study suggests that increased use of acetaminophen and antibiotics in children under age two, along with an increased incidence of ear infections in the first two years and early weaning, are associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The researchers conducted a large parent Internet survey covering over 1,500 three- to twelve-year-old children who either had or did not have ASD. The findings replicate other studies focused on these postnatal ASD risk factors.

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Published: 2017
SYNOPSIS

Combined exposure to heavy metals and pesticides can lead to more severe effects on human health compared to their individual effects.

TITLE

Synergistic effects of heavy metals and pesticides in living systems

Citation

Singh N, Gupta VK, Kumar A, Sharma B. Synergistic effects of heavy metals and pesticides in living systems. Frontiers in Chemistry. 2017;5:70.

 

Summary

Combined exposure to heavy metals and pesticides can lead to more severe effects on human health compared to their individual effects. This review reports that various combinations (pesticides combined with pesticides, pesticides combined with heavy metals, and heavy metals combined with heavy metals) all act synergistically and exhibit more toxicity than a single toxin alone. More work is needed to study the biotransformation of heavy metals and pesticides in combination and the mechanisms by which they affect toxicity.

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Published: 2016
SYNOPSIS

Children with ASD have higher urinary levels of mercury and lead.

TITLE

Altered urinary porphyrins and mercury exposure as biomarkers for autism severity in Egyptian children with autism spectrum disorder

CITATION

Khaled EM, Meguid NA, Bjørklund G, et al. Metabolic Brain Disease 2016. DOI 10.1007/s11011-016-9870-6.

SUMMARY

Results of this case-control study showed that children with ASD had higher urinary levels of mercury and lead as well as porphyrins that are characteristic of mercury toxicity as compared to non-ASD control children. Porphyrins are complex molecules that are processed in the body through a series of chemical reactions. Mercury poisons the enzymes that are needed in the process, causing a buildup in the body of excess levels of specific porphyrins. The porphyrins for mercury toxicity also correlated with autism severity in ASD patients.

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Published: 2016
SYNOPSIS

Thimerosal reduces people’s ability to make all-important vitamin B12 compounds that help the body detoxify and control inflammation—and B12 deficiencies and severely impaired detoxification are hallmarks of autism.

TITLE

Alternatively spliced methionine synthase in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells: Cobalamin and GSH dependence and inhibitory effects of neurotoxic metals and thimerosal

CITATION

Waly M, Power-Charnitsky V-A, Hodgson N, … Deth R. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2016, Article ID 6143753.

SUMMARY

Thimerosal inhibited cellular production of cobalamin necessary for detoxification and amelioration of oxidative stress. This caused lower methionine synthase activity and an impaired methylation capacity. Autistic subjects in general show cobalamin deficiencies and severely impaired methylation.

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Published: 2015
SYNOPSIS

Thimerosal exposure led to the death of neuroblastoma and liver cells due to inhibition of thioredoxin-based cellular metabolism. This is similar to neuronal damage associated with autistic disorder.

TITLE

Toxicological effects of thiomersal and ethylmercury: Inhibition of the thioredoxin system and NADP+-dependent dehydrogenases of the pentose phosphate pathway

CITATION

Juan Rodrigues, Vasco Branc, Jun Lu, Arne Holmgren, Cristina Carvalho. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 286 (2015) 216–223.

SUMMARY

This study demonstrates that Thimerosal and especially Ethylmercury affect specifically the antioxidant thioredoxin cycle and the production of NADPH by impairing the oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway, therefore showing that Trx, TrxR, G6PDH and 6PGDH are important molecular targets for these mercurial compounds. The impairment of these enzymes originates detrimental effects which are especially relevant to the central nervous system.

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Published: 2014
SYNOPSIS

Genetic and environmental factors can interact to trigger vaccine adverse events, but researchers’ understanding of genetic susceptibility is still limited.

TITLE

The ontology of genetic susceptibility factors (OGSF) and its application in modeling genetic susceptibility to vaccine adverse events

CITATION

Lin Y, He Y. The ontology of genetic susceptibility factors (OGSF) and its application in modeling genetic susceptibility to vaccine adverse events. J Biomed Semantics 2014;5:19.

 

SUMMARY

Vaccination can trigger adverse events in population subgroups with genetic susceptibility, often in interaction with environmental factors. These authors argue for the need for a “consensus-based robust…framework for systematically representing and studying…genetic susceptibility and the genetic factors contributing to the susceptibility.”

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Published: 2013
SYNOPSIS

Israeli and Italian researchers demonstrate that exposure to aluminum in vaccines can lead to autoimmune and brain dysfunction.

TITLE

Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) 2013: Unveiling the pathogenic, clinical and diagnostic aspects

CITATION

Perricone C, Colafrancesco S, Mazor RD, Soriano A, Agmon-Levin N, Shoenfeld Y. Journal of Autoimmunity. 2013;47:1-16.

SUMMARY

Environmental factors play a critical role in the induction of autoimmunity, with an interplay between genetic susceptibility and environment. Several neurologic demyelinating diseases have been reported following vaccination, notably Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) (an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system). A number of the most common vaccines appear to have some involvement with autoimmunity.

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Published: 2005
SYNOPSIS

Many heavy metals increase the apparent toxicity of low levels of mercury.

TITLE

Mercury toxicity: Genetic susceptibility and synergistic effects

CITATION

Haley BE. Medical Veritas. 2005;2:535–542.

SUMMARY

This article discusses mercury intoxication and several normally appearing factors that increase the susceptibility to mercury toxicity. Boys with autism represent a subset of the population that is more susceptible to the toxic effects of mercury and thimerosal because they are not efficient excretors of these toxic materials. Research confirms that a lead-toxic person would be more susceptible to mercury toxicity than a healthy, non-toxic person. Researchers routinely observe that many heavy metals increase the apparent toxicity of low levels of mercury. In other words, the synergistic effects of other heavy metals, diet, antibiotics, etc. on mercury toxicity make it impossible to define a “safe level of mercury exposure.”

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