Science Library Category:

Methyl Mercury

Published: 2018
SYNOPSIS

An allergic response to thimerosal, nickel, mercury and cobalt often manifests as hand eczema.

TITLE

Hand eczema in children. Clinical and epidemiological study of the population referred to a tertiary hospital

CITATION

Ortiz-Salvador JM, Subiabre-Ferrer D, Rabasco AG, Esteve-Martínez A, Zaragoza-Ninet V, de Miquel VA. Anales de Pediatria (Barc.) 2018; 88:309—314.

SUMMARY

Hand eczema is a common condition in children. The most common cause is atopic dermatitis, although cases of allergic contact dermatitis manifesting as hand eczema are not uncommon. Using children with hand eczema exclusively, researchers conducted patch-testing. The most frequent allergens detected were thimerosal, nickel, mercury and cobalt.

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Published: 2018
SYNOPSIS

The preponderance of the evidence indicates that Hg exposure is causal and/or contributory to ASD.

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Current Knowledge on Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) from Animal Biology to Humans, from Pregnancy to Adulthood: Highlights from a National Italian Meeting

CITATION

Maria Elisabeth Street, et al. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2018, 19, 1647.

SUMMARY

This manuscript reviews the reports of a multidisciplinary national meeting on the effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Section 3 specifically discusses EDCs and neurodevelopmental diseases in humans, with a focus on autism. Recent studies point to an equal contribution of environmental factors, particularly environmental toxicants, and genetic susceptibility, but only a few industrial chemicals (e.g., lead (Pb), methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), arsenic (As), and toluene) are recognized causes of neurodevelopmental disorders and subclinical brain dysfunction. The recent discovery that heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) may exhibit endocrine-disrupting activity in animal models, probably by interfering with zinc-fingers of nuclear estrogen receptors. The authors review research on mercury, PCBs, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers, Phthalates, BPAs, and pesticides.

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Published: 2018
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Aluminum and Mercury sulfates may contribute to neurodegeneration and progressive age-related functional decline such as Alzheimers Disease.

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Synergism in aluminum and mercury neurotoxicity

CITATION

Peter N Alexandrov, Aileen I Pogue, and Walter J Lukiw. Integrative Food, Nutrition and Metabolism, 2018 Volume 5(3): 1-7, doi: 10.15761/IFNM.1000214.

SUMMARY

In this paper the authors analyzed the effects of aluminum and/or mercury, either alone or together, on their ability to induce inflammatory signaling in human cells and in a cell culture that is the same brain cell types targeted by the inflammatory neurodegeneration that characterizes Alzheimer’s disease. They report that neurotoxic metal sulfates obtainable via our environment or diet are significantly potent.

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Published: 2018
SYNOPSIS

Mercury-associated diagnoses among children diagnosed with pervasive development disorders.

TITLE

Symptoms observed in pervasive developmental disorders such as autism overlap with symptoms of mercury poisoning.

CITATION

David A. Geier, Janet K. Kern, Lisa K. Sykes, Mark R. Geier. Metabolic Brain Disease, March 2018. doi: 10.1007/s11011-018-0211-9.

SUMMARY

Research indicates that environmental triggers are contributing to the childhood epidemics of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). The mercury-containing vaccine preservative thimerosal is a biologically plausible candidate to induce PDD. This study reveals that 12 symptom categories associated with mercury poisoning directly overlap with symptoms observed in children who have a PDD.

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Published: 2017
SYNOPSIS

Mercury in the body produces a selenium deficiency state that increases toxicity.

TITLE

Rethinking mercury: the role of selenium in the pathophysiology of mercury toxicity

CITATION

Spiller HA. Rethinking mercury: the role of selenium in the pathophysiology of mercury toxicity. Clinical Toxicology. 2018;56(5):313-326.

SUMMARY

This study makes the case that mercury’s multifaceted interactions with selenium are a central feature of mercury toxicity. The authors argue that “the previously suggested ‘protective effect’ of selenium against mercury toxicity may in fact be backwards”—because of mercury’s affinity for selenium, mercury can actually produce a selenium deficiency state that promotes oxidative stress and inhibits the body’s regenerative mechanisms. Depending on the form of mercury and other factors, selenium supplementation may have some benefits for restoring adequate selenium status and mitigating the toxicity of mercury, but it does not appear to promote increased elimination of mercury.

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Published: 2016
SYNOPSIS

Children with ASD have higher urinary levels of mercury and lead.

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Altered urinary porphyrins and mercury exposure as biomarkers for autism severity in Egyptian children with autism spectrum disorder

CITATION

Eman M. Khaled, Nagwa A. Meguid, Geir Bjørklund, Amr Gouda, Mohamed H. Bahary, Adel Hashish, Nermin M. Sallam, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Mona A. El-Bana. Metabolic Brain Disease, (2016), DOI 10.1007/s11011-016-9870-6.

SUMMARY

Results of this case-control study showed that children with ASD had higher urinary levels of mercury and lead as well as porphyrins that are characteristic of mercury toxicity as compared to non-ASD control children. Porphyrins are complex molecules that are processed in the body through a series of chemical reactions. Mercury poisons the enzymes that are needed in the process, causing a buildup in the body of excess levels of specific porphyrins. The porphyrins for mercury toxicity also correlated with autism severity in ASD patients.

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Published: 2016
SYNOPSIS

Mercury exposure is implicated in neuroinflammatory disorders including autism.

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The levels of blood mercury and inflammatory-related neuropeptides in the serum are correlated in children with autism spectrum disorder

CITATION

Gehan Ahmed Mostafa, Geir Bjørklund, Mauricio A. Urbina, Laila Yousef AL-Ayadhi. Metabolic Brain Disease, June 2016, Volume 31, Issue 3, pp 593–599.

SUMMARY

Blood mercury levels and tachykinins (neuropeptides that cause inflammation) were correlated in children with ASD and statistically significantly higher than neurotypical control children. It has been shown that mercury exposure can elicit tachykinin formation which has been implicated in neuroinflammatory disorders including autism.

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Published: 2015
SYNOPSIS

In general, autistic children accumulated metals at a much higher level than children who did not have a diagnosis of autism.

TITLE

Assessment of Hair Aluminum, Lead, and Mercury in a Sample of Autistic Egyptian Children: Environmental Risk Factors of Heavy Metals in Autism

CITATION

Farida El Baz Mohamed, Eman Ahmed Zaky, Adel Bassuoni EI-Sayed, Reham Mohammed Elhossieny, Sally Soliman Zahra, Waleed Sal ah Eldin, Walaa Yousef Youssef, Rania Abdelmgeed Khaled, Azza Mohamed Youssef. Behavioural Neurology, Volume 2015, Article ID 545674.

SUMMARY

Researchers found the mean levels of mercury, lead and aluminum in hair of the autistic patients were significantly higher than controls. Mercury, lead and aluminum levels were positively correlated with material fish consumptions, living nearby gasoline stations, and the usage of aluminum pans, respectively.

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Published: 2015
SYNOPSIS

Thimerosal and methylmercury caused cell death in human neurons.

TITLE

Toxicity of organic and inorganic mercury species in differentiated human neurons and human astrocytes

CITATION

Hanna Lohren, Lara Blagojevic, Romy Fitkau, Franziska Ebert, Stefan Schildknecht, Marcel Leist, Tanja Schwerdtle. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 32 (2015) 200–208.

SUMMARY

Thimerosal and methylmercury caused cell death in differentiated human neurons and astrocytes. Differentiated neurons showed a massive uptake of ethylmercury (degradation product of thimerosal). This affirms the type of neural damage seen in patients with autism.

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Published: 2015
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Thimerosal exposure led to the death of neuroblastoma and liver cells due to inhibition of thioredoxin-based cellular metabolism. This is similar to neuronal damage associated with autistic disorder.

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Toxicological effects of thiomersal and ethylmercury: Inhibition of the thioredoxin system and NADP+-dependent dehydrogenases of the pentose phosphate pathway

CITATION

Juan Rodrigues, Vasco Branc, Jun Lu, Arne Holmgren, Cristina Carvalho. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 286 (2015) 216–223.

SUMMARY

This study demonstrates that Thimerosal and especially Ethylmercury affect specifically the antioxidant thioredoxin cycle and the production of NADPH by impairing the oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway, therefore showing that Trx, TrxR, G6PDH and 6PGDH are important molecular targets for these mercurial compounds. The impairment of these enzymes originates detrimental effects which are especially relevant to the central nervous system.

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Published: 2015
SYNOPSIS

Thimerosal exposure in humans many neurodevelopment deficits even at levels currently administered in vaccines.

TITLE

Thimerosal: Clinical, epidemiologic and biochemical studies

CITATION

David A. Geier, Paul G. King, Brian S. Hooker, José G. Dórea, Janet K. Kern,
Lisa K. Sykes, Mark R. Geier.Clinica Chimica Acta, 444 (2015) 212–220 February 2015.

SUMMARY

This review article includes a section on numerous papers linking thimerosal exposure via infant vaccines to autism. The publication also includes a critique of studies supported or conducted by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) that deny any associations between exposure to thimerosal in vaccines and the subsequent development of autism. The CDC has been criticized by Congress for inherent conflicts of interest related to its vaccine development activities and role in vaccine safety oversight.

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Published: 2015
SYNOPSIS

Researchers found a link between environmental mercury exposure and an increased risk of autism and some individuals are more susceptible than others.

TITLE

Increased Susceptibility to Ethylmercury-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction in a Subset of Autism Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines

CITATION

Shannon Rose, Rebecca Wynne, Richard E. Frye, Stepan Melnyk, and S. Jill James.Journal of Toxicology, Volume 2015, Article ID 573701, 13 pages.

SUMMARY

The association of autism spectrum disorders with oxidative stress, redox imbalance, and mitochondrial dysfunction has become increasingly recognized. In this study, researchers compared mitochondrial respiration in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from individuals with autism and unaffected controls exposed to ethylmercury, an environmental toxin known to deplete glutathione and induce oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction . We also tested whether pretreating the autism LCLs with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) to increase glutathione concentrations conferred protection from ethylmercury. Their findings suggest that the epidemiological link between environmental mercury exposure and an increased risk of developing autism may be mediated through mitochondrial dysfunction and support
the notion that a subset of individuals with autism may be vulnerable to environmental influences with detrimental effects on development through mitochondrial dysfunction.

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Published: 2014
SYNOPSIS

Neurodevelopmental disorders are much more common in children who received mercury-containing vaccines.

TITLE

A Dose-Response Relationship between Organic Mercury Exposure from Thimerosal-Containing Vaccines and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

CITATION

David A. Geier, Brian S. Hooker, Janet K. Kern, Paul G. King, Lisa K. Sykes, and Mark R. Geier, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2014, 11, 9156-9170; doi:10.3390/ijerph110909156

SUMMARY

On a per microgram of organic-mercury (Hg) basis, Pervasive Developmental Disorder, specific developmental disorder, tic disorder and hyperkinetic syndrome of childhood cases were significantly more likely than controls to receive increased organic-Hg exposure. This study provides new epidemiological evidence supporting a significant relationship between increasing organic-Hg exposure from vaccines and the subsequent risk of an Neurodevelopmental Disorder diagnosis.

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Published: 2014
SYNOPSIS

Chinese scientists find mice injected with thimerosal (vaccine mercury) have behavioral impairments similar to autism.

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Transcriptomic Analyses of Neurotoxic Effects in Mouse Brain After Intermittent Neonatal Administration of Thimerosal

CITATION

Xiaoling Li,, et al., Toxicological Sciences 139(2), 452–465 2014
doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfu049.

SUMMARY

“Thimerosal-treated mice exhibited neural development delay, social interaction deficiency, and inclination of depression. Apparent neuropathological changes were also observed in adult mice neonatally treated with thimerosal. High-throughput RNA sequencing of autistic-behaved mice brains revealed the alternation of a number of canonical path- ways involving neuronal development, neuronal synaptic function, and the dysregulation of endocrine system.”

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Published: 2013
SYNOPSIS

Infants receiving mercury-containing vaccines had much higher rates of autism than infants receiving vaccines without mercury.

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A two-phase study evaluating the relationship between Thimerosal-containing vaccine administration and the risk for an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in the United States

CITATION

David A. Geier, Brian S. Hooker, Janet K. Kern, Paul G. King, Lisa K. Sykes, Mark R. Geier. Translational Neurodegeneration, 2013, 2:25.

SUMMARY

“The present study provides new epidemiological evidence supporting an association between increasing organic-Hg [mercury] exposure from Thimerosal-containing childhood vaccines and the subsequent risk of ASD [autism] diagnosis.”

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Published: 2005
SYNOPSIS

The mercury used as a vaccine preservative is far more neurotoxic than the mercury found in fish.

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Comparison of Blood and Brain Mercury Levels in Infant Monkeys Exposed to Methylmercury or Vaccines Containing Thimerosal

CITATION

Thomas M. Burbacher, Danny D. Shen, Noelle Liberato, Kimberly S. Grant, Elsa Cernichiari, and Thomas Clarkson. Environmental Health Perspectives, Volume 113, Number 8, August 2005.

SUMMARY

The mercury used in vaccines (and still in the flu vaccine given to pregnant women) is far more toxic than the mercury found in fish, because it stays in the brain at much higher levels. “Data from the present study support the prediction that, although little accumulation of Hg in the blood occurs over time with repeated vaccinations, accumulation of Hg in the brain of infants will occur. Thus, conclusion regarding the safety of thimerosal drawn from blood Hg clearance data in human infants receiving vaccines may not be valid, given the significantly slower half-life of Hg in the brain as observed in the infant macaques. There was a much higher proportion of inorganic Hg in the brain of thimerosal monkeys than in the brains of MeHg monkeys (up to 71% vs. 10%). Absolute inorganic Hg concentrations in the brains of the thimerosal-exposed monkeys were approximately twice that of the MeHg monkeys.”

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Published: 2005
SYNOPSIS

Many heavy metals increase the apparent toxicity of low levels of mercury.

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Mercury toxicity: Genetic susceptibility and synergistic effects

CITATION

B.E. Haley. Medical Veritas, 2 (2005) 535–542.

SUMMARY

This article discusses mercury intoxication and several normally appearing factors that increase the susceptibility to mercury toxicity. Boys with autism represent a subset of the population that is more susceptible to the toxic effects of mercury and thimerosal because they are not efficient excretors of these toxic materials. Research confirms that a lead toxic person would be more susceptible to mercury toxicity than a healthy, non-toxic person researchers routinely observed that many heavy metals increase the apparent toxicity of low levels of mercury. In other words, the synergistic effects of other heavy metals, diet, antibiotics, etc. on mercury toxicity make it impossible to define a “safe level of mercury exposure.”

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Published: 2005
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In utero exposure to methylmercury from power plants and seafood is associated with lifelong loss of intelligence and billions of dollars in lost productivity.

TITLE

Public health and economic consequences of methyl mercury toxicity to the developing brain

CITATION

Trasande L, Landrigan PJ, Schechter C. Public health and economic consequences of methyl mercury toxicity to the developing brain. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2005;113(5):590-596.

SUMMARY

This study shows that the IQ losses associated with methylmercury toxicity cost the U.S. economy billions of dollars in lost productivity each year. Hundreds of thousands of American children in any given year have cord blood levels of methylmercury associated with lowered intelligence, traceable to in utero exposure to power plant emissions or to maternal seafood consumption. The loss of intelligence that results “causes diminished economic productivity that persists over the entire lifetime of these children”—amounting to about $8.7 billion annually.

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Published: 2004
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Scientists identify vaccine mercury’s role in blocking crucial neurodevelopmental pathways.

TITLE

Activation of methionine synthase by insulin-like growth factor-1 and dopamine: a target for neurodevelopmental toxins and thimerosal

CITATION

M Waly, H Olteanu, R Banerjee, S-W Choi, JB Mason, BS Parker, S Sukumar, S Shim,
A Sharma, JM Benzecry, V-A Power-Charnitsky and RC Deth. Molecular Psychiatry , (2004) 9, 358–370.

SUMMARY

“The ethylmercury-containing preservative thimerosal inhibited both IGF-1- and dopamine-stimulated methylation with an IC50 of 1nM and eliminated MS activity. Our findings outline a novel growth factor signaling pathway that regulates MS activity and thereby modulates methylation reactions, including DNA methylation. The potent inhibition of this pathway by ethanol, lead, mercury, aluminum and thimerosal suggest that it may be an important target of neurodevelopmental toxins.”

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Published: 2000
SYNOPSIS

Vaccines with mercury significantly raised the body levels of mercury in infants.

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Iatrogenic exposure to mercury after hepatitis B vaccination in preterm infants

CITATION

Gregory V. Stajich, Gaylord P. Lopez, Sokei W. Harry, and William R. Sexson. Journal of Pediatrics, 2000, 136, 679-81.

SUMMARY

“Thimerosal, a derivative of mercury, is used as a preservative in hepatitis B vaccines. We measured total mercury levels before and after the administration of this vaccine in 15 preterm and 5 term infants. Comparison of pre- and post-vaccination mercury levels showed a significant increase in both preterm and term infants after vaccination. Additionally, post-vaccination mercury levels were significantly higher in preterm infants as compared with term infants. Because mercury is known to be a potential neurotoxin to infants, further study of its pharmacodynamics is warranted.”

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Published: 1994
SYNOPSIS

Thimerosal used in vaccines increases risks of side effects.

TITLE

Thimerosal induces toxic reaction in non-sensitized animals

CITATION

Uchida T, Naito S, Kato H, Hatano I, Harashima A, Terada Y, Ohkawa T, Chino F, Eto K. Thimerosal induces toxic reaction in non-sensitized animals. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology. 1994;104(3):296-301.

SUMMARY

A two-decades-old study in mice showed that thimerosal in vaccines may “augment” vaccine side effects in humans. Injection of a thimerosal-containing solution into mice resulted in hypersensitive reactions, including severe swelling and acute inflammation at the injection site with an hour of receiving the injection.

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