Science Library Category:

Aluminum

Published: 2018
SYNOPSIS

Aluminum and Mercury sulfates may contribute to neurodegeneration and progressive age-related functional decline such as Alzheimers Disease.

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Synergism in aluminum and mercury neurotoxicity

CITATION

Peter N Alexandrov, Aileen I Pogue, and Walter J Lukiw. Integrative Food, Nutrition and Metabolism, 2018 Volume 5(3): 1-7, doi: 10.15761/IFNM.1000214.

SUMMARY

In this paper the authors analyzed the effects of aluminum and/or mercury, either alone or together, on their ability to induce inflammatory signaling in human cells and in a cell culture that is the same brain cell types targeted by the inflammatory neurodegeneration that characterizes Alzheimer’s disease. They report that neurotoxic metal sulfates obtainable via our environment or diet are significantly potent.

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Published: 2018
SYNOPSIS

Aluminum nanoparticles are toxic on their own and in combination with other metal nanoparticles.

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Combined subchronic toxicity of aluminum (III), titanium (IV) and silicon (IV) oxide nanoparticles and its alleviation with a complex of bioprotectors

CITATION

IA Minigalieva, BA Katsnelson, LI Privalova, et al. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, March 2018;19(3):837.

SUMMARY

The use of nanoparticles—including metallic nanoparticles—has exploded in industry, commerce and medicine over the past several decades. A Russian research team assessed the “nano-toxicity” of three types of metal nanoparticles (titanium, silicon and aluminum oxide) alone and in combination. Repeated injection into rats showed that all three were “toxic for several target organs.” However, “for the majority of these effects,” the aluminum oxide nanoparticles “proved to be the most noxious,” even though the aluminum dose was half that of the titanium and silicon doses. No other publications have reported on these metal nanoparticles’ combined toxicity, despite their “potentially hazardous nano-impacts on human health.”

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Published: 2016
SYNOPSIS

Alzheimer’s victims have very high brain aluminum levels, a potent neurotoxin.

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Aluminium in brain tissue in familial Alzheimer’s disease

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Ambreen Mirza, Andrew King, Claire Troakes, Christopher Exley. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, November 2016.

SUMMARY

“Aluminium has been shown to be present in brain tissue in sporadic Alzheimer’s disease. We have made the first ever measurements of aluminium in brain tissue from 12 donors diagnosed with familial Alzheimer’s disease. The concentrations of aluminium were extremely high, for example, there were values in excess of 10??g/g tissue dry wt. in 5 of the 12 individuals. Overall, the concentrations were higher than all previous measurements of brain aluminium except cases of known aluminium-induced encephalopathy. We have supported our quantitative analyses using a novel method of aluminium-selective fluorescence microscopy to visualise aluminium in all lobes of every brain investigated. The unique quantitative data and the stunning images of aluminium in familial Alzheimer’s disease brain tissue raise the spectre of aluminium’s role in this devastating disease.”

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Published: 2016
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Israeli, Canadian, and Colombian scientists show that Gardasil vaccine triggers brain inflammation and autoimmunity in mice.

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Behavioral abnormalities in female mice following administration of aluminum adjuvants and the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine Gardasil

CITATION

Rotem Inbar, Ronen Weiss, Lucija Tomljenovic, Maria-Teresa Arango, Yael Deri, Christopher A Shaw, Joab Chapman, Miri Blank, Yehuda Shoenfeld. Immunol Res, July 2016.

SUMMARY

“Vaccine adjuvants and vaccines may induce autoimmune and inflammatory manifestations in susceptible individuals. To date most human vaccine trials utilize aluminum (Al) adjuvants as placebos despite much evidence showing that Al in vaccine-relevant exposures can be toxic to humans and animals…It appears that Gardasil via its Al adjuvant and HPV antigens has the ability to trigger neuroinflammation and autoimmune reactions, further leading to behavioral changes…In light of these findings, this study highlights the necessity of proceeding with caution with respect to further mass-immunization practices with a vaccine of yet unproven long-term clinical benefit in cervical cancer prevention”

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Published: 2016
SYNOPSIS

Aluminum in vaccines is highly neurotoxic and exposure levels given to infants have dramatically increased.

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Aluminum in Childhood Vaccines Is Unsafe

CITATION

Neil Z. Miller. Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons, Winter 2016.

SUMMARY

“Infants and young children throughout the world receive high quantities of aluminum from multiple inoculations. Incremental changes to the vaccination schedule during the past several years significantly increased the quantity of aluminum in childhood shots. Numerous studies provide compelling evidence that injected aluminum can be detrimental to health. Aluminum is capable of remaining in cells long after vaccination and may cause neurologic and autoimmune disorders. During early development, the child’s brain is more susceptible to toxins and the kidneys are less able to eliminate them. Thus, children have a greater risk than adults of adverse reactions to aluminum in vaccines. Millions of children every year are injected with vaccines containing mercury and aluminum despite well-established experimental evidence of the potential for additive or synergistic toxicity when an organism is exposed to two or more toxic metals.”

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Published: 2016
SYNOPSIS

There is a significant increase in neurodevelopmental delays in children exposed to both Thimerosal (in vaccines) and methylmercury (in fish).

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Neurodevelopment of Amazonian children exposed to ethylmercury (from Thimerosal in vaccines) and methylmercury (from fish)

CITATION

Rejane C. Marques, Luciana Abreu, José V.E. Bernardi, José G. Dórea. Environmental Research, 149 (2016), 259–265.

SUMMARY

Amazonian children exposed to high and low levels of both ethyl and methylmercury were assessed using the Mental Developmental Index and Psychomotor Developmental Index. Statistically significant differences were seen in the high exposure group at 24 months in the mental developmental index only. Combined exposures led to developmental delays including the age of talking and the age of walking.

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Published: 2015
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Authors review current evidence about how vaccine adjuvants may trigger autoimmunity.

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On vaccine’s adjuvants and autoimmunity: Current evidence and future perspectives

CITATION

Pellegrino P, Clementi E, Radice S. Autoimmunity Reviews, 2015 Oct; 14(10):880-8.

SUMMARY

In this review, we discuss the possible underlying mechanisms of autoimmune reactions following vaccinations and review cases of autoimmune diseases that have been correlated with vaccination. Molecular mimicry and bystander activation are reported as possible mechanisms by which vaccines can cause autoimmune reactions. The individuals who might be susceptible to develop these reactions could be especially not only those with previous post-vaccination phenomena and those with allergies but also in individuals who are prone to develop autoimmune diseases, such as those with a family history of autoimmunity or with known autoantibodies, and the genetic predisposed individuals.

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Published: 2015
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In general, autistic children accumulated metals at a much higher level than children who did not have a diagnosis of autism.

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Assessment of Hair Aluminum, Lead, and Mercury in a Sample of Autistic Egyptian Children: Environmental Risk Factors of Heavy Metals in Autism

CITATION

Farida El Baz Mohamed, Eman Ahmed Zaky, Adel Bassuoni EI-Sayed, Reham Mohammed Elhossieny, Sally Soliman Zahra, Waleed Sal ah Eldin, Walaa Yousef Youssef, Rania Abdelmgeed Khaled, Azza Mohamed Youssef. Behavioural Neurology, Volume 2015, Article ID 545674.

SUMMARY

Researchers found the mean levels of mercury, lead and aluminum in hair of the autistic patients were significantly higher than controls. Mercury, lead and aluminum levels were positively correlated with material fish consumptions, living nearby gasoline stations, and the usage of aluminum pans, respectively.

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Published: 2015
SYNOPSIS

Levels of mercury, lead, and aluminum in the hair of autistic children are higher than controls. Environmental exposure to these toxic heavy metals, at key times in development, may play a causal role in autism.

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Assessment of Hair Aluminum, Lead, and Mercury in a Sample of Autistic Egyptian Children: Environmental Risk Factors of Heavy Metals in Autism

CITATION

Farida El Baz Mohamed, Eman Ahmed Zaky, Adel Bassuoni El-Sayed, Reham Mohammed Elhossieny, Sally Soliman Zahra, Waleed Salah Eldin, Walaa Yousef Youssef, Rania Abdelmgeed Khaled, and Azza Mohamed Youssef. Behavioural Neurology, Volume 2015, Article ID 545674, 9 pages September 2015.

SUMMARY

The etiological factors involved in the etiology of autism remain elusive and controversial, but both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated. The aim of this study was to assess the levels and possible environmental risk factors and sources of exposure to mercury, lead, and aluminum in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as compared to their
matched controls. Researchers found, autistic case children show significantly higher levels of hair mercury as compared to non-autistic control children. In general, autistic children accumulated metals at a much higher level that control children who did not have a diagnosis of autism.

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Published: 2015
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Supplementation with Allium cepa L. significantly improved muscle coordination and memory deficit and decreased abnormal aluminium deposition in the brains of exposed animals.

TITLE

Neuroprotective effect of Allium cepa L. in aluminium chloride induced neurotoxicity

CITATION

Tanveer Singh and Rajesh Kumar Goel. NeuroToxicology, 49 (2015) 1–7.

SUMMARY

Chronic aluminium administration resulted in significant motor incoordination and memory deficits, which were also endorsed biochemically as there was increased oxidative stress as well as elevated aluminium levels in the brain. Supplementation with A. cepa in aluminium exposed animals significantly improved muscle coordination and memory deficits as well as reduced oxidative stress and decreased abnormal aluminium deposition in the brain.

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Published: 2014
SYNOPSIS

Newborns have been overexposed to aluminum.

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Aluminum exposure and toxicity in neonates: a practical guide to halt aluminum overload in the prenatal and perinatal periods.

CITATION

Fanni D, et al. World Journal of Pediatrics, 2014 May; 10(2):101-7.

SUMMARY

During the last years, human newborns have been overexposed to biologically reactive aluminum, with possible relevant consequences on their future health and on their susceptibility to a variety of diseases. Children, newborns and particularly preterm neonates are at an increased risk of aluminum toxicity because of their relative immaturity. Based on recent original publications and classical data of the literatures, we reviewed the aluminum content in mother’s food during the intrauterine life as well as in breast milk and infant formula during lactation. We also determined the possible role of aluminum parenteral nutrition solutions, in adjuvants of vaccines and in pharmaceutical products.

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Published: 2014
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UC-Boulder professor: the autism epidemic is real and therefore must be the product of an environmental factor.

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A comparison of temporal trends in United States autism prevalence to trends in suspected environmental factors

CITATION

Cynthia D Nevison, Environmental Health 2014, 13:73.

SUMMARY

“Diagnosed autism prevalence has risen dramatically in the U.S over the last several decades and continued to trend upward as of birth year 2005. The increase is mainly real and has occurred mostly since the late 1980s. In contrast, children’s exposure to most of the top ten toxic compounds has remained flat or decreased over this same time frame. Environmental factors with increasing temporal trends can help suggest hypotheses for drivers of autism that merit further investigation”

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Published: 2013
SYNOPSIS

Israeli and Italian researchers demonstrate that exposure to aluminum in vaccines can lead to autoimmune and brain dysfunction.

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Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) 2013: Unveiling the pathogenic, clinical and diagnostic aspects

CITATION

Carlo Perricone, Serena Colafrancesco, Roei D. Mazor, Alessandra Soriano, Yehuda Shoenfeld. Journal of Autoimmunity, October 2013.

SUMMARY

“The data herein illustrate the critical role of environmental factors in the induction of autoimmunity. Indeed, it is the interplay of genetic susceptibility and environment that is the major player for the initiation of breach of tolerance. Several neurologic demyelinating diseases have been reported following vaccination, the main being Guillaine Barre syndrome (GBS). Another demyelinating disease associated with vaccines is the acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). This is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system frequently occurring post-vaccination. Rabies, diphtheria tetanus polio, smallpox, measles, mumps, rubella, Japanese B encephalitis, pertussis, influ-enza, hepatitis B, and the Hog vaccines have been called to be involved.”

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Published: 2013
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Researchers found higher accumulations of aluminum in the brains of patients with Alzheimers disease.

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Selective accumulation of aluminum in cerebral arteries in Alzheimer’s disease (AD)

CITATION

S. Bhattacharjee, Yuhai Zhao, James M. Hill, Frank Culicchia, Theodore P. A. Kruck, Maire E. Percy, Aileen I. Pogue, J.R. Walton, and Walter J. Lukiw1,2 Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 2013 Sep; 126: 35–37.

SUMMARY

In an effort to improve our understanding of a pathological aluminum entry system into the brain, this study examined the aluminum content of 8 arteries that supply blood to the hippocampus, including the aorta and several cerebral arteries. In contrast to age-matched controls, in AD patients we found a gradient of increasing aluminum concentration from the aorta to the posterior cerebral artery that supplies blood to the hippocampus.

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Published: 2013
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Canadian researchers: aluminum in vaccines can cause both autoimmunity and neurological damage.

TITLE

Aluminum in the central nervous system (CNS): toxicity in humans and animals, vaccine adjuvants, and autoimmunity

CITATION

Chris Shaw, L. Tomljenovic. Immunologic Research, (2013) 56:304–316 DOI 10.1007/s12026-013-8403-1.

SUMMARY

“In young children, a highly significant correlation exists between the number of pediatric aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines administered and the rate of autism spectrum disorders. Many of the features of aluminum-induced neurotoxicity may arise, in part, from autoimmune reactions, as part of the ASIA syndrome. Aluminum is added to vaccines to help the vaccine work more effectively, but unlike dietary aluminum which will usually clear rapidly from the body, aluminum used in vaccines and injected is designed to provide a long-lasting cellular exposure. Thus, the problem with vaccine-derived aluminum is really twofold: It drives the immune response even in the absence of a viral or bacterial threat and it can make its way into the central nervous system. It is not really a matter of much debate that aluminum in various forms can be neurotoxic.”

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Published: 2013
SYNOPSIS

British scientists sounds the alarm on aluminum toxicity and question lack of research on aluminum used in vaccines.

TITLE

Human exposure to aluminium

CITATION

Christopher Exley. Environmental Science Processes & Impacts, The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2013, 15, 1807.

SUMMARY

“The immunopotency of aluminium has been known for at least 100 years and still today forms the basis for the use of aluminium salts as adjuvants in vaccinations and allergy therapies. What is then surprising is the uncertainty regarding their mechanism of action and burgeoning evidence of their toxicity in potentially susceptible individuals.”

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Published: 2012
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Canadian researchers review literature on autoimmunity and neurological risks from vaccine adjuvant aluminum, express doubts regarding safety testing.

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Mechanisms of aluminum adjuvant toxicity and autoimmunity in pediatric populations

CITATION

L Tomljenovic, CA Shaw. Lupus, (2012) 21, 223–230.

SUMMARY

“Immune challenges during early development, including those vaccine-induced, can lead to permanent detrimental alterations of the brain and immune function. Experimental evidence also shows that simultaneous administration of as little as two to three immune adjuvants can overcome genetic resistance to autoimmunity. In spite of the widespread agreement that vaccines are largely safe and serious adverse complications are extremely rare, a close scrutiny of the scientific literature does not support this view. For example, to date, the clinical trials that could adequately address vaccine safety issues have not been con- ducted (i.e., comparing health outcomes in vaccinated versus non-vaccinated children). Infants and young children should not be viewed as ”small adults.” Their unique physiology makes them much more vulnerable to noxious environ- mental insults in comparison with the adult population. In spite of this, children are routinely exposed to much higher levels of Al vaccine adjuvants than adults, even though adequate safety data on these compounds are lacking. That Al vaccine adjuvants can induce significant autoimmune conditions in humans can hardly be disputed, although still debatable is how common such side effects are. However, the existing data (or lack thereof) raise questions on whether the current vaccines aimed at pediatric populations can be accepted as having adequate safety profiles. Because infants and children represent those who may be most at risk for complications following vaccination, a more rigorous evaluation of potential vaccine-related adverse health impacts in pediatric populations than what has been provided to date is urgently needed.”

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Published: 2011
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Canadian researchers report vaccine aluminum and autism prevalence related.

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Do aluminum vaccine adjuvants contribute to the rising prevalence of autism?

CITATION

Tomljenovic L, Shaw CA. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 105, 2011, 1489-1499.

SUMMARY

“Dysfunctional immunity and impaired brain function are core deficits in ASD. Aluminum (Al), the most commonly used vaccine adjuvant, is a demonstrated neurotoxin and a strong immune stimulator. Hence, adjuvant Al has the potential to induce neuroimmune disorders. The application of the Hill’s criteria to these data indicates that the correlation between Al in vaccines and ASD may be causal. Because children represent a fraction of the population most at risk for complications following exposure to Al, a more rigorous evaluation of Al adjuvant safety seems warranted.. By satisfying eight of the Hill’s criteria for establishing causality applicable to our study, we show that Al-adjuvanted vaccines may be a significant etiological factor in the rising prevalence of ASD in the Western world. We also show that children from countries with the highest ASD prevalence appear to have a much higher exposure to Al from vaccines, particularly at 2 months of age.”

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Published: 2010
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British and Swedish scientists raise concerns about limited understanding of vaccine aluminum’s impact on the human body, raise risk of autoimmune response.

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The immunobiology of aluminium adjuvants: how do they really work?

CITATION

Christopher Exley, Peter Siesjo, Hakan Eriksson. Trends in Immunology , 2010.

SUMMARY

“Boys vaccinated as neonates had threefold greater odds for autism diagnosis compared to boys never vaccinated or vaccinated after the first month of life. Findings suggest that U.S. male neonates vaccinated with the hepatitis B vac- cine prior to 1999 (from vaccination record) had a threefold higher risk for parental report of autism diagnosis compared to boys not vaccinated as neonates during that same time period.”

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Published: 2009
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Vaccine aluminum injected into mice created significant motor deficits and motor neuron degeneration.

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Aluminum hydroxide injections lead to motor deficits and motor neuron degeneration

CITATION

Christopher A. Shaw and Michael S. Petrik. Journal Inorganic Biochemistry, 2009 November; 103(11): 1555.

SUMMARY

“Aluminum-treated mice showed significantly increased apoptosis of motor neurons and increases in reactive astrocytes and microglial proliferation within the spinal cord and cortex. Morin stain detected the presence of aluminum in the cytoplasm of motor neurons with some neurons also testing positive for the presence of hyper-phosphorylated tau protein, a pathological hallmark of various neurological diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal dementia. A second series of experiments was conducted on mice injected with six doses of aluminum hydroxide. Behavioural analyses in these mice revealed significant impairments in a number of motor functions as well as diminished spatial memory capacity. The demonstrated neurotoxicity of aluminum hydroxide and its relative ubiquity as an adjuvant suggest that greater scrutiny by the scientific community is warranted. Overall, the results reported here mirror previous work that has clearly demonstrated that aluminum, in both oral and injected forms, can be neurotoxic.”

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Published: 2009
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French scientists report aluminum from vaccines causes chronic cognitive dysfunction.

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Long-term persistence of vaccine-derived aluminum hydroxide is associated with chronic cognitive dysfunction

CITATION

Maryline Couette, Marie-Françoise Boisse, Patrick Maison, Pierre Brugieres, Pierre Cesaro, Xavier Chevalier, Romain K. Gherardi, Anne-Catherine Bachoud-Levi, François-Jérôme Authier. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 2009.

SUMMARY

“In conclusion, long-term persistence of vaccine-derived aluminum hydroxide within the body assessed by MMF is associated with cognitive dysfunction, not solely due to chronic pain, fatigue and depression. In conclusion, this work is the first firm demonstration that cognitive dysfunction is a central feature in MMF, this dysfunction being much more frequent and severe than suspected by routine neurological evaluation. Instead of being a non-specific bystander effect of pain, fatigue or depression, MACD seems to reflect an underlying organic, inflammatory or toxic, brain involvement.”

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Published: 2008
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Higher aluminum intake from drinking water is associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline, dementia and Alzheimer’s disease.

TITLE

Aluminum and silica in drinking water and the risk of Alzheimer’s disease or cognitive decline: findings from 15-year follow-up of the PAQUID cohort

CITATION

Rondeau V, Jacqmin-Gadda H, Commenges D, Helmer C, Dartigues JF. Aluminum and silica in drinking water and the risk of Alzheimer’s disease or cognitive decline: findings from 15-year follow-up of the PAQUID cohort. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2009;169(4):489-496.

SUMMARY

A long-term study in Southern France found that a higher intake of aluminum from drinking water was linked to an increased risk of cognitive decline, dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Conversely, an increase in silica intake (10 mg/day) reduced the risk of dementia. A unique feature of the study, which followed elderly individuals for 15 years, was its measurement of individual daily intake of drinking water (both tap and bottled water), in addition to assessing the geographical concentrations of aluminum and silica.  

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Published: 2004
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Scientists identify vaccine mercury’s role in blocking crucial neurodevelopmental pathways.

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Activation of methionine synthase by insulin-like growth factor-1 and dopamine: a target for neurodevelopmental toxins and thimerosal

CITATION

M Waly, H Olteanu, R Banerjee, S-W Choi, JB Mason, BS Parker, S Sukumar, S Shim,
A Sharma, JM Benzecry, V-A Power-Charnitsky and RC Deth. Molecular Psychiatry , (2004) 9, 358–370.

SUMMARY

“The ethylmercury-containing preservative thimerosal inhibited both IGF-1- and dopamine-stimulated methylation with an IC50 of 1nM and eliminated MS activity. Our findings outline a novel growth factor signaling pathway that regulates MS activity and thereby modulates methylation reactions, including DNA methylation. The potent inhibition of this pathway by ethanol, lead, mercury, aluminum and thimerosal suggest that it may be an important target of neurodevelopmental toxins.”

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Published: 2001
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French scientists tie aluminum adjuvant in vaccine to macrophagic myofasciitis.

TITLE

Macrophagic myofasciitis lesions assess long-term persistence of vaccine derived aluminum hydroxide in muscle

CITATION

R.K. Gherardi, M. Coquet, P. Cherin, L. Belec, P. Moretto, P.A. Dreyfus. Brain, 2001, 124, 1821-1831.

SUMMARY

“Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an emerging condition of unknown cause, detected in patients with diffuse arthromyalgias and fatigue, and characterized by muscle infiltration by granular periodic acid-Schiff’s reagent-positive macrophages and lymphocytes. Intracytoplasmic inclusions have been observed in macrophages of some patients. To assess their significance, electron microscopy was performed in 40 consecutive cases and chemical analysis was done by microanalysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. Inclusions were constantly detected and corresponded to aluminium hydroxide, an immunostimulatory compound frequently used as a vaccine adjuvant.”

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Published: 1953
SYNOPSIS

Aluminum caused tics and grand mal seizures in monkeys.

TITLE

Experimental Epilepsy in the Monkey Following Multiple Intracerebral Injections of Alumina Cream

CITATION

Joseph G. Chusid, Lenore M. Kopeloff, Ph.D. and Nicholas Kopeloff, Ph.D. The Bulletin, 1953.

SUMMARY

The multiple intracerebral injection of alumina cream (aluminum hydroxide cream) into a principal cerebral sensorimotor cortical area is effective in producing chronic epilepsy in monkeys. In all injected animals a variable degree of contralateral hemiparesis was obvious immediately after operation. In five of the six monkeys injected unilaterally, spontaneous contralateral focal motor seizures were evident three to four weeks after operation. Initially there occurred almost continuous twitch-like movements of varying amplitude and regularity, involving the musculature of the contralateral face and limbs. Excitement, agitation, movement or stress readily aggravated and accentuated this type of motor activity and sometimes led to Jacksonian spread with full-blown generalized convulsive seizure and exhaustion.

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