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The Relationship Between the Level of Copper, Lead, Mercury and Autism Disorders: A Meta-Analysis
Published: 2020
SYNOPSIS

There is, nevertheless, a significant relationship between mercury concentration and autism. Thus, the concentration for mercury can be listed as a pathogenic cause (disease-causing) for autism.

CITATION

Jafari Mohammadabadi H, Rahmatian A, Sayehmiri F, Rafiei M. The Relationship Between the Level of Copper, Lead, Mercury and Autism Disorders: A Meta-Analysis. Pediatric Health Med Ther. 2020;11:369-378 https://doi.org/10.2147/PHMT.S210042

SUMMARY

In this study, 18 articles conducted in different countries from 1982 to 2019 were collected to determine the authenticity or lack of relationship between the concentrations of copper, lead, and mercury and autism and to provide a reliable pattern in the field for the researchers and planners. Results: In these 18 studies, 1797 patients (981 cases and 816 controls) aged 2 to 16 years were examined. Concentration of the samples (blood, hair, and nails) for both case and control groups was evaluated. There was no significant relationship between copper concentration and autism; there was a significant relationship between mercury concentration and autism; there was also a significant relationship between lead concentration and autism.

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A Case-Control Study of Mercury Burden in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders
Published: 2019
SYNOPSIS

CITATION Jeff Bradstreet, M.D., David A. Geier, B.A., Jerold J. Kartzinel, M.D., James B. Adams, Ph.D. Mark R. Geier, M.D., Ph.D. Behavioural Neurology, Volume 2015, Article ID 545674. SUMMARY Researchers found the mean levels of mercury, lead and aluminum in hair of the autistic patients were significantly higher than controls. Mercury, lead and aluminum levels […]

CITATION

Jeff Bradstreet, M.D., David A. Geier, B.A., Jerold J. Kartzinel, M.D., James B. Adams, Ph.D. Mark R. Geier, M.D., Ph.D. Behavioural Neurology, Volume 2015, Article ID 545674.

SUMMARY

Researchers found the mean levels of mercury, lead and aluminum in hair of the autistic patients were significantly higher than controls. Mercury, lead and aluminum levels were positively correlated with material fish consumptions, living nearby gasoline stations, and the usage of aluminum pans, respectively.

Current knowledge on endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) from animal biology to humans, from pregnancy to adulthood: Highlights from a national Italian meeting
Published: 2018
SYNOPSIS

The preponderance of the evidence indicates that mercury exposure is causal and/or contributory to ASD.

CITATION

Street ME, et al. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018;19:1647.

SUMMARY

This manuscript reviews the reports of a multidisciplinary national meeting on the effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Section 3 specifically discusses EDCs and neurodevelopmental diseases in humans, with a focus on autism. Recent studies point to an equal contribution of environmental factors (particularly environmental toxicants) and genetic susceptibility, but only a few industrial chemicals (e.g., lead [Pb], methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], and toluene) are recognized causes of neurodevelopmental disorders and subclinical brain dysfunction. Recent discoveries indicate that heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) may exhibit endocrine-disrupting activity in animal models, probably by interfering with zinc-fingers of nuclear estrogen receptors. The authors review research on mercury, PCBs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, phthalates, BPAs and pesticides.

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Altered urinary porphyrins and mercury exposure as biomarkers for autism severity in Egyptian children with autism spectrum disorder
Published: 2016
SYNOPSIS

Children with ASD have higher urinary levels of mercury and lead.

CITATION

Khaled EM, Meguid NA, Bjørklund G, et al. Metabolic Brain Disease 2016. DOI 10.1007/s11011-016-9870-6.

SUMMARY

Results of this case-control study showed that children with ASD had higher urinary levels of mercury and lead as well as porphyrins that are characteristic of mercury toxicity as compared to non-ASD control children. Porphyrins are complex molecules that are processed in the body through a series of chemical reactions. Mercury poisons the enzymes that are needed in the process, causing a buildup in the body of excess levels of specific porphyrins. The porphyrins for mercury toxicity also correlated with autism severity in ASD patients.

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Assessment of hair aluminum, lead, and mercury in a sample of autistic Egyptian children: Environmental risk factors of heavy metals in autism
Published: 2015
SYNOPSIS

Autistic children accumulate metals at a much higher level than children who do not have a diagnosis of autism.

CITATION

El Baz Mohamed F, Zaky EA, Bassuoni EI-Sayed A, et al. Behavioural Neurology. 2015, Article ID 545674.

SUMMARY

Researchers found the mean levels of mercury, lead and aluminum in hair of autistic patients were significantly higher than in controls. Mercury, lead and aluminum levels were positively correlated with maternal fish consumption, living near gasoline stations and the usage of aluminum pans, respectively.

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Autism: A form of lead and mercury toxicity
Published: 2014
SYNOPSIS

Blood levels of mercury and lead are much higher in autistic children as compared to normal controls.

CITATION

Yassa HA. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. 2014;38:1016-1024.

SUMMARY

The aim of this study was to find out the relation between exposure to lead and/or mercury as heavy metals and autistic symptoms and assess use of chelating agents for dealing with heavy metals and improving autistic symptoms. The results showed significantly higher levels of mercury and lead among children with autism compared to children without autism, and a significant decline in the blood levels of lead and mercury with the use of DMSA as a chelating agent. In addition, there was a decline in autistic symptoms with the decrease in the lead and mercury levels in blood.

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Mercury toxicity: Genetic susceptibility and synergistic effects
Published: 2005
SYNOPSIS

Many heavy metals increase the apparent toxicity of low levels of mercury.

CITATION

Haley BE. Medical Veritas. 2005;2:535–542.

SUMMARY

This article discusses mercury intoxication and several normally appearing factors that increase the susceptibility to mercury toxicity. Boys with autism represent a subset of the population that is more susceptible to the toxic effects of mercury and thimerosal because they are not efficient excretors of these toxic materials. Research confirms that a lead-toxic person would be more susceptible to mercury toxicity than a healthy, non-toxic person. Researchers routinely observe that many heavy metals increase the apparent toxicity of low levels of mercury. In other words, the synergistic effects of other heavy metals, diet, antibiotics, etc. on mercury toxicity make it impossible to define a “safe level of mercury exposure.”

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Public health and economic consequences of methyl mercury toxicity to the developing brain
Published: 2005
SYNOPSIS

In utero exposure to methylmercury from power plants and seafood is associated with lifelong loss of intelligence and billions of dollars in lost productivity.

CITATION

Trasande L, Landrigan PJ, Schechter C. Public health and economic consequences of methyl mercury toxicity to the developing brain. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2005;113(5):590-596.

SUMMARY

This study shows that the IQ losses associated with methylmercury toxicity cost the U.S. economy billions of dollars in lost productivity each year. Hundreds of thousands of American children in any given year have cord blood levels of methylmercury associated with lowered intelligence, traceable to in utero exposure to power plant emissions or to maternal seafood consumption. The loss of intelligence that results “causes diminished economic productivity that persists over the entire lifetime of these children”—amounting to about $8.7 billion annually.

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Activation of methionine synthase by insulin-like growth factor-1 and dopamine: a target for neurodevelopmental toxins and thimerosal
Published: 2004
SYNOPSIS

Scientists identify vaccine mercury’s role in blocking crucial neurodevelopmental pathways.

CITATION

M Waly, H Olteanu, R Banerjee, S-W Choi, JB Mason, BS Parker, S Sukumar, S Shim,
A Sharma, JM Benzecry, V-A Power-Charnitsky and RC Deth. Molecular Psychiatry , (2004) 9, 358–370.

SUMMARY

“The ethylmercury-containing preservative thimerosal inhibited both IGF-1- and dopamine-stimulated methylation with an IC50 of 1nM and eliminated MS activity. Our findings outline a novel growth factor signaling pathway that regulates MS activity and thereby modulates methylation reactions, including DNA methylation. The potent inhibition of this pathway by ethanol, lead, mercury, aluminum and thimerosal suggest that it may be an important target of neurodevelopmental toxins.”

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