Rapidly-replicating viruses that have evolved with bat immune systems will likely cause enhanced virulence following emergence into secondary hosts with immune systems that diverge from those unique to bats.
Bats host virulent zoonotic viruses without experiencing disease. A mechanistic understanding of the impact of bats’ hosting capacities, including uniquely constitutive immune pathways, on cellular-scale viral dynamics is needed to elucidate zoonotic emergence. We carried out virus infectivity assays on bat cell lines expressing induced and constitutive immune phenotypes, then developed a theoretical model of our in vitro system, which we fit to empirical data. Best fit models recapitulated expected immune phenotypes for representative cell lines, supporting robust antiviral defenses in bat cells that correlated with higher estimates for within-host viral propagation rates. In general, heightened immune responses limit pathogen-induced cellular morbidity, which can facilitate the establishment of rapidly-propagating persistent infections within-host. Rapidly-replicating viruses that have evolved with bat immune systems will likely cause enhanced virulence following emergence into secondary hosts with immune systems that diverge from those unique to bats.
Relative trends in hospitalizations and mortality among infants by the number of vaccine doses and age, based on the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), 1990-2010
Infants who received more vaccines had much higher hospitalization and death rates than infants who received fewer vaccines.
GS Goldman, NZ Miller. Human and Experimental Toxicology, 2012, 31(10) 1012–1021.
“The hospitalization rate increased linearly from 11.0% (107 of 969) for 2 doses to 23.5% (661 of 2817) for 8 doses and decreased linearly from 20.1% (154 of 765) for children aged < 0.1 year to 10.7% (86 of 801) for children aged 0.9 year. Our findings show a positive correlation between the number of vaccine doses administered and the percentage of hospitalizations and deaths. Since vaccines are given to millions of infants annually, it is imperative that health authorities have scientific data from synergistic toxicity studies on all combinations of vaccines that infants might receive. Finding ways to increase vaccine safety should be the highest priority."
Aluminum and silica in drinking water and the risk of Alzheimer’s disease or cognitive decline: findings from 15-year follow-up of the PAQUID cohort
Higher aluminum intake from drinking water is associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline, dementia and Alzheimer’s disease.
Rondeau V, Jacqmin-Gadda H, Commenges D, Helmer C, Dartigues JF. Aluminum and silica in drinking water and the risk of Alzheimer’s disease or cognitive decline: findings from 15-year follow-up of the PAQUID cohort. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2009;169(4):489-496.
A long-term study in Southern France found that a higher intake of aluminum from drinking water was linked to an increased risk of cognitive decline, dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Conversely, an increase in silica intake (10 mg/day) reduced the risk of dementia. A unique feature of the study, which followed elderly individuals for 15 years, was its measurement of individual daily intake of drinking water (both tap and bottled water), in addition to assessing the geographical concentrations of aluminum and silica.