Compelling data have shown that gut microbiota (GM) are closely liaised with various types of autoimmune diseases in the form of dysbiosis- alteration of individual species and/or global communities of the GM (dysbiosis) which can give rise to different outcomes of autoimmune conditions. Certainly, gut microbiome could possibly be applied as a biomarker for autoimmune diseases prediction.
In the past few years, compelling data have shown the potential crosstalk between dysbiosis of gut microbiota (GM) and impairment of systemic immune system. Since then, ideas on how GM partake in autoimmune conditions was put forward. Although genetic variability have been proven to contribute towards the pathogenesis of autoimmune conditions, epigenetics control have gained interest among researchers. Current review highlights the crosstalk between autoimmune conditions and GM and its potential regulatory mechanisms. Convincing data from existing literature help in paving ways for more well-defined species in the future studies. The studies should focus on identifying the distinct species involve in different types of autoimmune diseases and their definitive role in autoimmunity. Ultimately, these data can be used for the advancement of therapeutic approach in personalized medicine.
Vaccination with bovine, chick, yeast antigens synthesizes cross-reactive antibodies targeting human acetylcholine receptor and MuSK protein to cause Myasthenia Gravis: Confirmed by natural experiment (VAERS data), bioinformatics, case reports, animal experiments and titer study
Animal protein containing vaccines cause autoimmune diseases even when
the vaccine does not contain an adjuvant. Adjuvanted vaccines only make the problem worse.
Vaccines interact to cause autoimmune diseases.
Arumugham, Vinu. Zenodo, 2019, September 16 http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3421559.
Myasthenia Gravis (MG) is a neuromuscular junction disorder, development of which is often reported following the administration of many vaccines. Most cases occur following administration of the influenza vaccines (per the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System-VAERS), most of which are manufactured using embryonated chicken eggs and contain residual egg proteins (AchR proteins). The chick proteins are very similar to the AchR proteins in human beings, so when the antibody production is directed against the chick protein there is a cross reaction with the human AchR, causing MG.
A similar mechanism is involved in Graves’ disease (GD). Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is used to produce recombinant Hepatitis B vaccine (HBV), Human Papillomavirus vaccine (HPV) and injectable insulin products. We show significant protein sequence homology between GD autoepitopes, animal proteins and S. cerevisiae proteins. Humoral immune response directed against S. cerevisiae occurs following HBV, HPV administration and prolonged injectable insulin usage as in type 1 diabetes. Thus leading to the development of GD and numerous other autoimmune disorders.
The findings described add to the evidence that non-target antigens (NTA) in vaccines cause numerous disorders.
Cancer immunology, bioinformatics and chemokine evidence link vaccines contaminated with animal proteins to autoimmune disease: a detailed look at Crohn’s disease and Vitiligo
The contamination of vaccines with animal proteins that resemble human proteins can trigger autoimmunity.
Arumugham V, Trushin MV. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. 2018;10(8):2106-2110.
Vaccines are contaminated with animal proteins that resemble human proteins, and this can result in autoimmunity. This study, which used bioinformatics to analyze animal proteins in vaccines and their similarity to human proteins, adds to growing evidence of vaccines inducing autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes, Crohn’s disease, vitiligo, systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. The authors suggest that the live viruses and aluminum adjuvants in certain vaccines can stimulate the activation of particular T cells that, upon activation, may cause autoimmune disease. Because autoimmune reactions vary from person to person, “not everyone will develop overt disease”; thus, autoimmune illness may represent the tip of a broader “iceberg” of subclinical effects.
Post-licensure safety surveillance study of routine use of quadrivalent meningococcal diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine
Adolescents given meningococcal vaccines have experienced a wide variety of serious adverse events, including new autoimmune conditions and death.
Hansen J, Zhang L, Klein NP, et al. Vaccine 2017;35(49 Pt B):6879-84.
Adolescents receiving the Menactra® meningococcal vaccine (MenACWY-D) in 2005-2006 experienced a variety of adverse events in the six months following vaccination—including death—but the researchers (one of whom was affilated with the vaccine’s manufacturer, Sanofi Pasteur) concluded that only two diagnoses (diabetes and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis) were “possibly related to vaccination.” After comparing 31,000 Kaiser Permanente patients who received the MenACWY-D vaccine to 31,000 matched teens who had received a tetanus-diphtheria (Td) or hepatitis vaccine the previous year, the researchers assessed 1660 outcomes and determined that 1.3% were “significantly elevated” in the meningococcal group. There were two deaths in vaccinees with cancer (“with onset preceding vaccination”) following MenACWY-D vaccination as well as a third cardiac-related death; there was also one fetal death in a young woman who received Menactra® during pregnancy. Many of the adverse events, including difficulty breathing, occurred two or more months following vaccination.
Addition of the Hepatitis B Vaccine in 1988 Increased the Rate of Type 1 Diabetes 1.62X in Children in New Zealand. The incidence of type I diabetes in person 0-19 years old living in Christchurch rose from 11.2 cases per 100,000 children annually in the years before the immunization program, 1982-1987, to 18.1 cases per 100,000 children annually ( P = .0008) in the years following the immunization, 1989-1991.
Classen David C.; Classen, John Barthelow; Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice: September-October 1997 – Volume 6 – Issue 7 – ppg 449-454.
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is believed to be an autoimmune disease induced by a variety of environmental stimuli. Vaccines and infectious agents have been suggested to have an influence, but most of this research has been centered on the ability of these agents to infect the pancreatic islet cells or contain antigens that mimic autoantigens. Classen found that administration of the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) and anthrax vaccines to mice and rats at birth prevented the development of diabetes, whereas administration of the DTP vaccine starting at 8 weeks was associated with an increased incidence of diabetes.