Nutrients, Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels on Admission to the Intensive Care Unit May Predispose COVID-19 Pneumonia Patients to a Higher 28-Day Mortality Risk: A Pilot Study on a Greek ICU Cohort.
Observational study showing improved immune system activity if supplementation was given to Vit D insufficient and deficient patients.
Vassiliou AG, Jahaj E, Pratikaki M, Orfanos SE, Dimopoulou I, Kotanidou A. Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels on Admission to the Intensive Care Unit May Predispose COVID-19 Pneumonia Patients to a Higher 28-Day Mortality Risk: A Pilot Study on a Greek ICU Cohort. Nutrients. 2020 Dec 9;12(12):3773. doi: 10.3390/nu12123773. PMID: 33316914; PMCID: PMC7764169.
We aimed to examine whether low intensive care unit (ICU) admission vitamin D levels are associated with worse outcomes of COVID-19 pneumonia. This was a prospective observational study of SARS-CoV2 positive critically ill patients treated in a multidisciplinary ICU. Thirty (30) Greek patients were included, in whom vitamin D level was measured on ICU admission. Eighty (80%) percent of patients had vitamin D deficiency, and the remaining insufficiency. All patients who died within 28 days belonged to the low vitamin D group. Survival analysis showed that the low vitamin D group had a higher 28-day survival absence probability. Critically ill COVID-19 patients who died in the ICU within 28 days appeared to have lower ICU admission vitamin D levels compared to survivors. It seems plausible, therefore, that low vitamin D levels may predispose COVID-19 patients to an increased 28-day mortality risk.
Evaluating clinical effectiveness of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination against pneumonia among middle-aged and older adults in Catalonia: results from the EPIVAC cohort study
The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) offers no clinical benefits for adults, instead increasing pneumonia and hospitalization risks, particularly in vulnerable subgroups.
Vila-Corcoles A, Ochoa-Gondar O, de Diego C, Satue E, Aragón M, Vila-Rovira A, Gomez-Bertomeu F, Margarolas R, Figuerola-Massana E, Raga X, Perez MO, Ballester F. Evaluating clinical effectiveness of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination against pneumonia among middle-aged and older adults in Catalonia: results from the EPIVAC cohort study. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2018;18:196.
This recent study conducted in over two million middle-aged and older adults in Catalonia found that individuals who received the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) were sicker than non-PCV13-vaccinated individuals. PCV13 vaccination was associated with an increased risk of all-cause pneumonia, an increased risk of hospitalization for pneumonia and increased case fatality for both pneumococcal pneumonia and all pneumonia. The vaccine was also associated with an increased risk of all-cause pneumonia in subgroups such as the elderly and immune-compromised. One mechanism possibly explaining the results is that the PCV13 vaccine may alter the flora in the sinuses and respiratory tract and lead to more infections with microorganisms not covered by the vaccine. The researchers’ conclusion is that PCV13 vaccination has no clinical benefit for adults.