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Mercury

The Relationship Between the Level of Copper, Lead, Mercury and Autism Disorders: A Meta-Analysis
Published: 2020
SYNOPSIS

There is, nevertheless, a significant relationship between mercury concentration and autism. Thus, the concentration for mercury can be listed as a pathogenic cause (disease-causing) for autism.

CITATION

Jafari Mohammadabadi H, Rahmatian A, Sayehmiri F, Rafiei M. The Relationship Between the Level of Copper, Lead, Mercury and Autism Disorders: A Meta-Analysis. Pediatric Health Med Ther. 2020;11:369-378 https://doi.org/10.2147/PHMT.S210042

SUMMARY

In this study, 18 articles conducted in different countries from 1982 to 2019 were collected to determine the authenticity or lack of relationship between the concentrations of copper, lead, and mercury and autism and to provide a reliable pattern in the field for the researchers and planners. Results: In these 18 studies, 1797 patients (981 cases and 816 controls) aged 2 to 16 years were examined. Concentration of the samples (blood, hair, and nails) for both case and control groups was evaluated. There was no significant relationship between copper concentration and autism; there was a significant relationship between mercury concentration and autism; there was also a significant relationship between lead concentration and autism.

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One man’s swordfish story: The link between Alzheimer’s disease and mercury exposure
Published: 2020
SYNOPSIS

It is critical to address biological etiologies such as mercury toxicity in the elderly population diagnosed with Alzheimer’s, but end organ damage may not be reversible.

CITATION

Foley MM, Seidel I, Sevier J, Wendt J, Kogan M. One man’s swordfish story: The link between Alzheimer’s disease and mercury exposure. Complement Ther Med. 2020 Aug;52:102499. doi: 10.1016/j.ctim.2020.102499. Epub 2020 Jul 2. PMID: 32951747.

SUMMARY

It is well-documented that when mercury levels surpass the permissible value, individuals experience a myriad of symptoms that include chronic fatigue, dizziness, and loss of appetite. Mercury is also known to be one of the most potent neurotoxins. This case study depicts a 91- year-old who presented with cognitive decline diagnosed as Alzheimer’s disease. This patient was found to have severely elevated mercury levels caused by consuming high mercury containing fish. Following diet adjustment and detoxification, this patient’s cognitive impairment significantly improved in proportion to the decline in methylmercury level. One year later, his cognition and functional status rapidly and unexpectedly declined. A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed multiple new lacunar subacute strokes. Thus, it is critical to address biological etiologies such as mercury toxicity in the elderly population diagnosed with Alzheimer’s, but end organ damage may not be reversible.

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Mercury-induced autoimmunity: Drifting from micro to macro concerns on autoimmune disorders
Published: 2020
SYNOPSIS

In susceptible individuals, chronic low Hg exposure may trigger local and systemic inflammation, even exacerbating the already existing autoimmune response in patients with autoimmunity.

CITATION

Bjorklund, G., M. Peana, M. Dadar, S. Chirumbolo, J. Aaseth, and N. Martins. 2020. ‘Mercury-induced autoimmunity: Drifting from micro to macro concerns on autoimmune disorders’, Clin Immunol: 108352.

SUMMARY

Mercury (Hg) is widely recognized as a neurotoxic metal, besides it can also act as a proinflammatory agent and immunostimulant, depending on individual exposure and susceptibility. Mercury exposure may arise from internal body pathways, such as via dental amalgams, preservatives in drugs and vaccines, and seafood consumption, or even from external pathways, i.e., occupation, environmental pollution, and handling of metallic items and cosmetics containing Hg. In susceptible individuals, chronic low Hg exposure may trigger local and systemic inflammation, even exacerbating the already existing autoimmune response in patients with autoimmunity. Mercury exposure can trigger dysfunction of the autoimmune responses and aggravate immunotoxic effects associated with elevated serum autoantibodies titers. The purpose of the present report is to provide a critical overview of the many issues associated with Hg exposure and autoimmunity. In addition, the paper also focuses on individual susceptibility and other health effects of Hg.

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In utero exposure to mercury and childhood overweight or obesity: counteracting effect of maternal folate status
Published: 2019
SYNOPSIS

In this US urban, multi-ethnic population, elevated in utero Hg exposure was associated with a higher risk of over weight / obesity in childhood, and such risk was enhanced by maternal over weight / obesity and/or diabetes and reduced by adequate maternal folate.

CITATION

Wang et al. BMC Medicine (2019) 17:216 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1442-2

SUMMARY

Low-dose mercury (Hg) exposure has been associated with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and obesity in adults, but it is unknown the metabolic consequence of in utero Mercury exposure. This study aimed to investigate the association between in utero Mercury exposure and child overweight or obesity (OWO) and to explore if adequate maternal folate can mitigate Mercury toxicity.

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Rethinking mercury: the role of selenium in the pathophysiology of mercury toxicity
Published: 2017
SYNOPSIS

Mercury in the body produces a selenium deficiency state that increases toxicity.

CITATION

Spiller HA. Rethinking mercury: the role of selenium in the pathophysiology of mercury toxicity. Clinical Toxicology. 2018;56(5):313-326.

SUMMARY

This study makes the case that mercury’s multifaceted interactions with selenium are a central feature of mercury toxicity. The authors argue that “the previously suggested ‘protective effect’ of selenium against mercury toxicity may in fact be backwards”—because of mercury’s affinity for selenium, mercury can actually produce a selenium deficiency state that promotes oxidative stress and inhibits the body’s regenerative mechanisms. Depending on the form of mercury and other factors, selenium supplementation may have some benefits for restoring adequate selenium status and mitigating the toxicity of mercury, but it does not appear to promote increased elimination of mercury.

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Transcriptomic analyses of neurotoxic effects in mouse brain after intermittent neonatal administration of thimerosal
Published: 2014
SYNOPSIS

Chinese scientists find mice injected with thimerosal (vaccine mercury) have behavioral impairments similar to autism.

CITATION

Li X, Qu F, Xie W, et al. Toxicological Sciences. 2014;139:452–465.

SUMMARY

“Thimerosal-treated mice exhibited neural development delay, social interaction deficiency, and inclination of depression. Apparent neuropathological changes were also observed in adult mice neonatally treated with thimerosal. High-throughput RNA sequencing of autistic-behaved mice brains revealed the alternation of a number of canonical pathways involving neuronal development, neuronal synaptic function, and the dysregulation of endocrine system.”

A comparison of temporal trends in United States autism prevalence to trends in suspected environmental factors
Published: 2014
SYNOPSIS

UC-Boulder professor says the autism epidemic is real and therefore must be the product of an environmental factor.

CITATION

Nevison CD. Environmental Health. 2014;13:73.

SUMMARY

“Diagnosed autism prevalence has risen dramatically in the U.S over the last several decades and continued to trend upward as of birth year 2005. The increase is mainly real and has occurred mostly since the late 1980s. In contrast, children’s exposure to most of the top ten toxic compounds has remained flat or decreased over this same time frame. Environmental factors with increasing temporal trends can help suggest hypotheses for drivers of autism that merit further investigation.”

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Sorting out the spinning of autism: heavy metals and the question of incidence
Published: 2010
SYNOPSIS

Scientists review literature and raise concerns about denial of environmental toxin link to autism.

CITATION

DeSoto MC, Hitlan RT. ACTA Neurobiological Experimentals. 2010;70:165–176.

SUMMARY

“In this paper, we argue that increasingly over the past decade, positions that deny a link to environmental toxins and autism are based on relatively weak science and are disregarding the bulk of scientific literature. The question about toxic exposure and autism is open, with the weight of evidence favoring a connection that is not well understood. Although it is not possible to say with certainty, it seems likely that the connection would be mediated by genetic susceptibility and ability to detoxify. That is, some people have genotypes that confer higher susceptibility to toxic exposures. If so, then 50 years ago few people would have had enough toxic exposure to have the neurological changes that result in autism.”

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Thimerosal exposure in infants and neurodevelopmental disorders: An assessment of computerized medical records in the Vaccine Safety Datalink
Published: 2008
SYNOPSIS

A CDC-sponsored database showed much higher rates of neurodevelopmental disabilities from mercury-containing vaccines.

CITATION

Young HA, Geier DA, Geier MR. Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 2008;121:626-631.

SUMMARY

“Consistent significantly increased rate ratios were observed for autism, autism spectrum disorders, tics, attention deficit disorder, and emotional disturbances with Hg [mercury] exposure from TCVs [thimerosal-containing vaccines]. By contrast, none of the control outcomes had significantly increased rate ratios with Hg exposure from TCVs.”

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Mercury toxicity: Genetic susceptibility and synergistic effects
Published: 2005
SYNOPSIS

Many heavy metals increase the apparent toxicity of low levels of mercury.

CITATION

Haley BE. Medical Veritas. 2005;2:535–542.

SUMMARY

This article discusses mercury intoxication and several normally appearing factors that increase the susceptibility to mercury toxicity. Boys with autism represent a subset of the population that is more susceptible to the toxic effects of mercury and thimerosal because they are not efficient excretors of these toxic materials. Research confirms that a lead-toxic person would be more susceptible to mercury toxicity than a healthy, non-toxic person. Researchers routinely observe that many heavy metals increase the apparent toxicity of low levels of mercury. In other words, the synergistic effects of other heavy metals, diet, antibiotics, etc. on mercury toxicity make it impossible to define a “safe level of mercury exposure.”

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Iatrogenic exposure to mercury after hepatitis B vaccination in preterm infants
Published: 2000
SYNOPSIS

Vaccines with mercury significantly raised the body levels of mercury in infants.

CITATION

Gregory V. Stajich, Gaylord P. Lopez, Sokei W. Harry, and William R. Sexson. Journal of Pediatrics, 2000, 136, 679-81.

SUMMARY

“Thimerosal, a derivative of mercury, is used as a preservative in hepatitis B vaccines. We measured total mercury levels before and after the administration of this vaccine in 15 preterm and 5 term infants. Comparison of pre- and post-vaccination mercury levels showed a significant increase in both preterm and term infants after vaccination. Additionally, post-vaccination mercury levels were significantly higher in preterm infants as compared with term infants. Because mercury is known to be a potential neurotoxin to infants, further study of its pharmacodynamics is warranted.”

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Thimerosal induces toxic reaction in non-sensitized animals
Published: 1994
SYNOPSIS

Thimerosal used in vaccines increases risks of side effects.

CITATION

Uchida T, Naito S, Kato H, Hatano I, Harashima A, Terada Y, Ohkawa T, Chino F, Eto K. Thimerosal induces toxic reaction in non-sensitized animals. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology. 1994;104(3):296-301.

SUMMARY

A two-decades-old study in mice showed that thimerosal in vaccines may “augment” vaccine side effects in humans. Injection of a thimerosal-containing solution into mice resulted in hypersensitive reactions, including severe swelling and acute inflammation at the injection site with an hour of receiving the injection.

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