Interleukin-4 - IL4
IL-4 mediates the delayed neurobehavioral impairments induced by neonatal hepatitis B vaccination that involves the down-regulation of the IL-4 receptor in the hippocampus
The neonatal hepatitis B vaccination induced an anti-inflammatory response lasting for 4–5 weeks.
Yang XWJ, Xing Z, Zhang H, et al. Cytokine. 2018; 110:137-149.
Experiments showed that IL-4 mediates the delayed neurobehavioral impairments induced by neonatal hepatitis B vaccination, which involves the permeability of neonatal blood–brain barrier and the down-regulation of IL-4 receptor. This finding suggests that clinical events concerning neonatal IL-4 over-exposure, including neonatal hepatitis B vaccination and allergic asthma in human infants, may have adverse implications for brain development and cognition.
Three gene variations are associated with adverse reactions to smallpox vaccination.
Reif DM, McKinney BA, Motsinger AA, Chanock SJ, Edwards KM, Rock MT, Moore JH, Crowe Jr. JE. Genetic basis for adverse events following smallpox vaccination. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2008;198(1):16-22.
A pair of NIH-funded studies identified three genetic variations that make people more susceptible to systemic adverse events following smallpox vaccination. By studying the smallpox vaccine, the researchers focused on a vaccine historically noted for frequently causing adverse reactions in population-wide vaccination programs. In the two studies, 16/96 and 24/46 individuals experienced systemic adverse events after vaccination, and three candidate genes (MTHFR, IRF1 and IL4) had the strongest association with the adverse events. In susceptible individuals, “vaccination appears to trigger an acute inflammatory response that is excessive.”