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Chronic Fatigue Syndrome-CFS

Mercury-induced autoimmunity: Drifting from micro to macro concerns on autoimmune disorders
Published: 2020
SYNOPSIS

In susceptible individuals, chronic low Hg exposure may trigger local and systemic inflammation, even exacerbating the already existing autoimmune response in patients with autoimmunity.

CITATION

Bjorklund, G., M. Peana, M. Dadar, S. Chirumbolo, J. Aaseth, and N. Martins. 2020. ‘Mercury-induced autoimmunity: Drifting from micro to macro concerns on autoimmune disorders’, Clin Immunol: 108352.

SUMMARY

Mercury (Hg) is widely recognized as a neurotoxic metal, besides it can also act as a proinflammatory agent and immunostimulant, depending on individual exposure and susceptibility. Mercury exposure may arise from internal body pathways, such as via dental amalgams, preservatives in drugs and vaccines, and seafood consumption, or even from external pathways, i.e., occupation, environmental pollution, and handling of metallic items and cosmetics containing Hg. In susceptible individuals, chronic low Hg exposure may trigger local and systemic inflammation, even exacerbating the already existing autoimmune response in patients with autoimmunity. Mercury exposure can trigger dysfunction of the autoimmune responses and aggravate immunotoxic effects associated with elevated serum autoantibodies titers. The purpose of the present report is to provide a critical overview of the many issues associated with Hg exposure and autoimmunity. In addition, the paper also focuses on individual susceptibility and other health effects of Hg.

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Myalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome following immunization: macrophagic myofasciitis and animal studies support linkage to aluminum adjuvant persistency and diffusion in the immune system
Published: 2019
SYNOPSIS

We present epidemiological, clinical and experimental evidence that Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) constitutes a major type of adverse effect of vaccines, especially those containing poorly degradable particulate aluminum adjuvants.

CITATION

Romain K. Gherardi, Guillemette Crepeaux, Francois-Jerome Authier; Autoimmunity Reviews, Volume 18, Issue 7, July 2019, Pages 691-705.

SUMMARY

Evidence showed Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) constitutes a major type of adverse effect of vaccines, especially those containing poorly degradable particulate aluminum adjuvants. It was supported by an epidemiological study comparing vaccinated vs unvaccinated militaries and revealed affected patients suffer from cognitive dysfunction affecting attention, memory and inter-hemispheric connexions, well correlated to brain perfusion defects and associated with a stereotyped and distinctive pattern of cerebral glucose hypometabolism. Instead of being rapidly solubilized in the extracellular space, injected aluminum particles are quickly captured by immune cells and transported to distant organs and the brain where they elicit an inflammatory response and exert selective low dose long-term neurotoxicity.

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Investigating the aetiology of adverse events following HPV vaccination with systems vaccinology.
Published: 2019
SYNOPSIS

Controversy about alleged adverse events following immunization (AEFI) with HPV vaccine have led to extensive reductions in vaccine acceptance. By making comparisons, authors conclude that any causal links between HPV vaccine and AEFIs, as well as the underlying molecular basis for the links will be revealed and can provide an objective basis for evaluating HPV vaccine safety and for identifying biomarkers for individuals at risk of developing AEFI with HPV vaccination.

CITATION
Campbell-Tofte J, Vrahatis A, Josefsen K, Mehlsen J, Winther K.; Investigating the aetiology of adverse events following HPV vaccination with systems vaccinology. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2019 Jan;76(1):67-87. doi: 10.1007/s00018-018-2925-6. Epub 2018 Oct 16.
SUMMARY

In contrast to the insidious and poorly immunogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, vaccination with the HPV virus-like particles (vlps) is non-infectious and stimulates a strong neutralizing-antibody response that protects HPV-naïve vaccinees from viral infection and associated cancers. However, controversy about alleged adverse events following immunization (AEFI) with the vlps have led to extensive reductions in vaccine acceptance, with countries like Japan dropping it altogether. The AEFIs are grouped into chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). In this review, we present a hypothesis that the AEFIs might arise from malfunctions within the immune system when confronted with the unusual antigen. In addition, we outline how the pathophysiology of the AEFIs can be cost-effectively investigated with the holistic principles of systems vaccinology in a two-step process. First, comprehensive immunological profiles of HPV vaccinees exhibiting the AEFIs are generated by integrating the data derived from serological profiling for prominent HPV antibodies and serum cytokines, with data from serum metabolomics, peripheral white blood cells transcriptomics and gut microbiome profiling. Next, the immunological profiles are compared with corresponding profiles generated for matched (a) HPV vaccinees without AEFIs; (b) non-HPV-vaccinated individuals with CFS/ME-like symptoms; and (c) non-HPV-vaccinated individuals without CFS/ME. In these comparisons, any causal links between HPV vaccine and the AEFIs, as well as the underlying molecular basis for the links will be revealed. Such a study should provide an objective basis for evaluating HPV vaccine safety and for identifying biomarkers for individuals at risk of developing AEFI with HPV vaccination.

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