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Childhood Vaccine

Persistent circulation of vaccine serotypes and serotype replacement after five years of UK infant immunisation with PCV13.
Published: 2019
SYNOPSIS

PCV13 has reduced serotype 19A carriage among vaccinated children however, disease is not fully controlled. We also found, no impact of PCV13 on serotype 3 carriage or disease, and emergence of non-PCV13 serotype disease.

CITATION

Kandasamy, R., Voysey, M., Collins, S., et al.  The Journal of Infectious Diseases, jiz178, 20 April 2019.

SUMMARY

Following programmatic introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), there is residual carriage and disease due to PCV13 covered serotypes.

988 PCV13-immunised children aged 13-48 months were enrolled between February 2014 and August 2015 (late-PCV13), and had nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage compared with 567 PCV7-immunised children enrolled into a study between November 2010 and September 2011 (early-PCV13). Nasopharyngeal pneumococci were molecular-serotyped by microarray. Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) cases were identified through enhanced national surveillance. Blood collected from the late-PCV13 cohort was assessed for levels of serotype-specific serum IgG by multiplex immunoassay.

Compared with PCV7-immunised children, carriage among PCV13-immunised children was significantly lower for serotypes 19A (OR=0.08, 95% CI 0.02-0.25), 6C (OR=0.11, 95% CI 0.03-0.32) and 7F (8 vs 0 cases).

IPD incidence in children <5 years was significantly lower for serotypes 1 (IRR=0.03, 95% CI 0-0.19) and 7F (IRR=0.13, 95% CI 0.05-0.36) but not 19A (IRR=0.6, 95% CI 0.3-1.12) or serotype 3 (IRR=2.3, 95% CI 0.86-6.15) in the late-PCV13 period than in the early-PCV13 period. The most significant rises in IPD incidence were for serotypes 8, 12F, and 24F.

Children from the late-PCV13 period, who had serum analysed, and were not carrying a PCV13 serotype, had high levels of antibody presumed to be due to natural exposure, to serotypes 3 (24/204, 11.76%) and 19A (14/204, 6.86%).

PCV13 has reduced serotype 19A carriage among vaccinated children however, disease is not fully controlled. We also found, no impact of PCV13 on serotype 3 carriage or disease, and emergence of non-PCV13 serotype disease.

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Relative trends in hospitalizations and mortality among infants by the number of vaccine doses and age, based on the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), 1990-2010
Published: 2012
SYNOPSIS

Infants who received more vaccines had much higher hospitalization and death rates than infants who received fewer vaccines.

CITATION

GS Goldman, NZ Miller. Human and Experimental Toxicology, 2012, 31(10) 1012–1021.

SUMMARY

“The hospitalization rate increased linearly from 11.0% (107 of 969) for 2 doses to 23.5% (661 of 2817) for 8 doses and decreased linearly from 20.1% (154 of 765) for children aged < 0.1 year to 10.7% (86 of 801) for children aged 0.9 year. Our findings show a positive correlation between the number of vaccine doses administered and the percentage of hospitalizations and deaths. Since vaccines are given to millions of infants annually, it is imperative that health authorities have scientific data from synergistic toxicity studies on all combinations of vaccines that infants might receive. Finding ways to increase vaccine safety should be the highest priority."

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Infant mortality rates regressed against number of vaccine doses routinely given: is there a biochemical or synergistic toxicity?
Published: 2011
SYNOPSIS

Using the Tukey-Kramer test, statistically significant differences in mean IMRs (infant mortality rates) were found between nations giving 12-14 vaccine doses and those giving 21-23, and 24-26 doses.”

CITATION

Neil Z Miller and Gary S Goldman; Human and Experimental Toxicology. 2011 Sep; 30(9): 1420–1428. doi: 10.1177/0960327111407644.

SUMMARY

The infant mortality rate (IMR) is one of the most important indicators of the socio-economic well-being and public health conditions of a country. The US childhood immunization schedule specifies 26 vaccine doses for infants aged less than 1 year—the most in the world—yet 33 nations have lower IMRs. Using linear regression, the immunization schedules of these 34 nations were examined and a correlation was found between IMRs and the number of vaccine doses routinely given to infants.

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