This study explores the D-4 escape measles mutant, a strain that has emerged in countries that have intense vaccination.
Measles virus is a paradigmatic RNA virus, as the antigenic composition of the vaccination has not needed to be updated since its discovery. The vaccine confers protection by inducing neutralizing antibodies that interfere with the function of the hemagglutinin protein. Viral strains are indistinguishable serologically, although characteristic nucleotide sequences differentiate 24 genotypes. In this work, we describe a distant evolutionary branch within genotype D4. Designated subgenotype D4.2, this virus is distinguishable by neutralization with vaccine-induced monoclonal antibodies that target the neutralizing epitope (NE). The subgenotype D4.2 viruses have a higher predominance in countries with intermediary levels of vaccine coverage. Our studies demonstrate that subgenotype D4.2 lacks epitopes associated with half of the known antigenic sites, which significantly impacts our understanding of measles virus evolution.
The 112-Year Odyssey of Pertussis and Pertussis Vaccines—Mistakes Made and Implications for the Future
Because of linked-epitope suppression, all children who were primed by DTaP vaccines will be more susceptible to pertussis throughout their lifetimes, and there is no easy way to decrease this increased lifetime susceptibility.
Cherry, James D. , Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, piz005, 2019 Feb 22.
In the last 13 years, major pertussis epidemics have occurred in the United States, and numerous studies have shown the deficiencies of DTaP vaccines, including the small number of antigens that the vaccines contain and the type of cellular immune response that they elicit. The type of cellular response a predominantly, T2 response results in less efficacy and shorter duration of protection. Because of the small number of antigens (3–5 in DTaP vaccines vs >3000 in DTwP vaccines), linked-epitope suppression occurs. Because of linked-epitope suppression, all children who were primed by DTaP vaccines will be more susceptible to pertussis throughout their lifetimes, and there is no easy way to decrease this increased lifetime susceptibility.