May 05, 2022

Pubmed-indexed Papers on Covid Vaccine Injury

Subjects on this page:

Myocarditis and pericarditis

Inflammation of the heart muscle (myocardium) or sack around the heart (pericardium). This inflammation can reduce the heart’s ability to pump and cause rapid irregular heart rhythms (arrhythmias). Signs and symptoms include chest pain, fatigue, shortness of breath and rapid or irregular heartbeats. In a small percentage of cases, persons with myocarditis can be at risk for sudden death following strenuous activity. Some sufferers of myocarditis may require heart surgery or a heart transplant in later life.

  1. Autopsy Histopathologic Cardiac Findings in Two Adolescents Following the Second COVID-19 Vaccine Dose (2022). Arch Pathol Lab Med [PubMed]
  2. Acute myocarditis after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in a 24-year-old man (2022). Rev Port Cardiol [PubMed]
  3. Hypersensitivity myocarditis and COVID-19 vaccines (2022). Kardiol Pol [PubMed]
  4. Biventricular systolic dysfunction in acute myocarditis after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-1273 vaccination (2022). Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging [PubMed]
  5. Clinically Suspected Myocarditis Temporally Related to COVID-19 Vaccination in Adolescents and Young Adults: Suspected Myocarditis After COVID-19 Vaccination (2022). Circulation [PubMed]
  6. 68Ga-DOTATOC digital-PET imaging of inflammatory cell infiltrates in myocarditis following COVID-19 vaccination (2022). Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging [PubMed]
  7. Self-limited myocarditis presenting with chest pain and ST segment elevation in adolescents after vaccination with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine (2022). Cardiol Young [PubMed]
  8. Acute Myocardial Infarction Within 24 Hours After COVID-19 Vaccination: Is Kounis Syndrome the Culprit? (2022). Am J Cardiol [PubMed]
  9. Population-based Incidence of Myopericarditis After COVID-19 Vaccination in Danish Adolescents (2022). Pediatr Infect Dis J [PubMed]
  10. Definite Acute Myocarditis After Coronavirus Disease 2019 mRNA Vaccination (2022). Circ J [PubMed]
  11. mRNA Coronavirus Disease 2019 Vaccine-Associated Myopericarditis in Adolescents: A Survey Study (2022). J Pediatr [PubMed]
  12. Myocarditis Following a COVID-19 Messenger RNA Vaccination: A Japanese Case Series (2022). Intern Med [PubMed]
  13. Young Male With Myocarditis Following mRNA-1273 Vaccination Against Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) (2022). Circ J [PubMed]
  14. Recurrence of Myopericarditis Following mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination in a Male Adolescent (2022). CJC Open [PubMed]
  15. Should T2 mapping be used in cases of recurrent myocarditis to differentiate between the acute inflammation and chronic scar? (2022). J Pediatr [PubMed]
  16. Clinical and histopathological spectrum of delayed adverse cutaneous reactions following COVID-19 vaccination (2022). J Cutan Pathol [PubMed]
  17. Risks of myocarditis, pericarditis, and cardiac arrhythmias associated with COVID-19 vaccination or SARS-CoV-2 infection (2022). Nat Med [PubMed]
  18. Cardiac MRI Findings of Myocarditis After COVID-19 mRNA Vaccination in Adolescents (2022). AJR Am J Roentgenol [PubMed]
  19. Features of Inflammatory Heart Reactions Following mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination at a Global Level (2022). Clin Pharmacol Ther [PubMed]
  20. Myocarditis and pericarditis in adolescents after first and second doses of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines (2022). Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes [PubMed]
  21. Myocarditis following COVID-19 vaccination – A case series (2021). Vaccine [PubMed]
  22. Untimely Myocardial Infarction or COVID-19 Vaccine Side Effect (2021). Cureus [PubMed]
  23. Fulminant myocarditis and systemic hyperinflammation temporally associated with BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination in two patients (2021). Int J Cardiol [PubMed]
  24. Myocarditis and pericarditis in association with COVID-19 mRNA-vaccination: cases from a regional pharmacovigilance centre (2021). Glob Cardiol Sci Pract [PubMed]
  25. Multimodality imaging and histopathology in a young man presenting with fulminant lymphocytic myocarditis and cardiogenic shock after mRNA-1273 vaccination (2021). BMJ Case Rep [PubMed]
  26. Case Report: Acute Fulminant Myocarditis and Cardiogenic Shock After Messenger RNA Coronavirus Disease 2019 Vaccination Requiring Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (2021). Front Cardiovasc Med [PubMed]
  27. STEMI Mimic: Focal Myocarditis in an Adolescent Patient After mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine (2021). J Emerg Med [PubMed]
  28. Acute myocarditis after the second dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine: Serendipity or atypical causal relationship? (2021). Anatol J Cardiol [PubMed]
  29. Acute pericarditis and cardiac tamponade after Covid-19 vaccination (2021). Singapore Med J [PubMed]
  30. Important Insights into Myopericarditis after the Pfizer mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination in Adolescents (2021). J Pediatr [PubMed]
  31. Myocarditis Following mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine (2021). Pediatr Emerg Care [PubMed]
  32. Acute Myocarditis Following the Administration of the Second BNT162b2 COVID-19 Vaccine Dose (2021). Cureus [PubMed]
  33. Biopsy-proven lymphocytic myocarditis following first mRNA COVID-19 vaccination in a 40-year-old male: case report (2021). Clin Res Cardiol [PubMed]
  34. Acute Perimyocarditis Following First Dose of mRNA Vaccine Against COVID-19 (2021). Dtsch Arztebl Int [PubMed]
  35. Epidemiology and Clinical Features of Myocarditis/Pericarditis before the Introduction of mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine in Korean Children: a Multicenter Study (2021). J Korean Med Sci [PubMed]
  36. Acute Myocardial Injury Following COVID-19 Vaccination: A Case Report and Review of Current Evidence from Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System Database (2021). J Prim Care Community Health [PubMed]
  37. Acute myocarditis following administration of BNT162b2 vaccine (2021). IDCases [PubMed]
  38. Myocarditis following COVID-19 vaccination (2021). Radiol Case Rep [PubMed]
  39. Lymphohistocytic myocarditis after Ad26.COV2.S viral vector COVID-19 vaccination (2021). Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc [PubMed]
  40. Myocarditis Associated with mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). Radiology [PubMed]
  41. Unusual Presentation of Acute Perimyocarditis Following SARS-COV-2 mRNA-1237 Moderna Vaccination (2021). Cureus [PubMed]
  42. COVID-19 vaccine-induced myocarditis: Case report with literature review (2021). Diabetes Metab Syndr [PubMed]
  43. Myocarditis Associated With COVID-19 Vaccination: Echocardiography, Cardiac Tomography, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings (2021). Circ Cardiovasc Imaging [PubMed]
  44. A Case Report for Myopericarditis after BNT162b2 COVID-19 mRNA Vaccination in a Korean Young Male (2021). J Korean Med Sci [PubMed]
  45. Temporal relation between second dose BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 vaccine and cardiac involvement in a patient with previous SARS-COV-2 infection (2021). Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc [PubMed]
  46. Myocarditis Occurring After Immunization With mRNA-Based COVID-19 Vaccines (2021). JAMA Cardiol [PubMed]
  47. Acute Myocarditis after COVID-19 vaccination: A case report (2021). Rev Med Interne [PubMed]
  48. Acute myocarditis after a second dose of the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine: a report of two cases (2021). Clin Imaging [PubMed]
  49. Case Report: Probable Myocarditis After Covid-19 mRNA Vaccine in a Patient With Arrhythmogenic Left Ventricular Cardiomyopathy (2021). Front Cardiovasc Med [PubMed]
  50. Perimyocarditis Following COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). Clin Med Insights Cardiol [PubMed]
  51. Acute Myocardial Infarction and Myocarditis following COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). QJM [PubMed]
  52. In brief: Myocarditis with the Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines (2021). Med Lett Drugs Ther [PubMed]
  53. A Series of Patients With Myocarditis Following SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination With mRNA-1279 and BNT162b2 (2021). JACC Cardiovasc Imaging [PubMed]
  54. Intravenous injection of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine can induce acute myopericarditis in mouse model (2021). Clin Infect Dis [PubMed]
  55. Myocarditis following COVID-19 vaccination (2021). Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc [PubMed]
  56. COVID-19 Vaccine and Myocarditis (2021). Am J Cardiol [PubMed]
  57. Acute myocarditis after coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination (2021). Anatol J Cardiol [PubMed]
  58. Acute myocarditis after administration of the BNT162b2 vaccine against COVID-19 (2021). Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) [PubMed]
  59. COVID 19 Vaccine for Adolescents. Concern about Myocarditis and Pericarditis (2021). Pediatr Rep [PubMed]
  60. A Late Presentation of COVID-19 Vaccine-Induced Myocarditis (2021). Cureus [PubMed]
  61. Myocarditis after COVID-19 mRNA vaccines (2021). QJM [PubMed]
  62. Myocarditis following COVID-19 vaccination: magnetic resonance imaging study (2021). Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging [PubMed]
  63. Myopericarditis after messenger RNA Coronavirus Disease 2019 Vaccination in Adolescents 12 to 18 Years of Age (2021). J Pediatr [PubMed]
  64. A review of COVID-19 vaccination and the reported cardiac manifestations (2021). Singapore Med J [PubMed]
  65. Myocarditis after BNT162b2 vaccination in a healthy male (2021). Am J Emerg Med [PubMed]
  66. COVID-19 mRNA Vaccine and Myocarditis (2021). Eur J Case Rep Intern Med [PubMed]
  67. Acute Myocarditis Following mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination (2021). CJC Open [PubMed]
  68. Myopericarditis in a previously healthy adolescent male following COVID-19 vaccination: A case report (2021). Acad Emerg Med [PubMed]
  69. Myocarditis after vaccination against covid-19 (2021). BMJ [PubMed]
  70. Shedding the Light on Post-Vaccine Myocarditis and Pericarditis in COVID-19 and Non-COVID-19 Vaccine Recipients (2021). Vaccines (Basel) [PubMed]
  71. mRNA COVID vaccine and myocarditis in adolescents (2021). Hong Kong Med J [PubMed]
  72. Pericarditis after administration of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (2021). Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) [PubMed]
  73. Epidemiology of Acute Myocarditis/Pericarditis in Hong Kong Adolescents Following Comirnaty Vaccination (2021). Clin Infect Dis [PubMed]
  74. Perimyocarditis following first dose of the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 (Moderna) vaccine in a healthy young male: a case report (2021). BMC Cardiovasc Disord [PubMed]
  75. Myocarditis After SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination: A Vaccine-Induced Reaction? (2021). Can J Cardiol [PubMed]
  76. Postmortem investigation of fatalities following vaccination with COVID-19 vaccines (2021). Int J Legal Med [PubMed]
  77. Acute Myocarditis Associated with COVID-19 Vaccination: A Case Report (2021). J Cardiol Cases [PubMed]
  78. Acute Myocarditis Following COVID-19 mRNA Vaccination in Adults Aged 18 Years or Older (2021). JAMA Intern Med [PubMed]
  79. Severe COVID-19 vaccine associated myocarditis: Zebra or unicorn? (2021). Int J Cardiol [PubMed]
  80. Association of Myocarditis With BNT162b2 Messenger RNA COVID-19 Vaccine in a Case Series of Children (2021). JAMA Cardiol [PubMed]
  81. [Pericarditis after administration of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine] (2021). Rev Esp Cardiol [PubMed]
  82. Myocarditis Following COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). Radiology [PubMed]
  83. Myocarditis Temporally Associated With COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). Circulation [PubMed]
  84. Myocarditis should be considered in those with a troponin rise and unobstructed coronary arteries following Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccination (2021). QJM [PubMed]
  85. Myocarditis and Other Cardiovascular Complications of the mRNA-Based COVID-19 Vaccines (2021). Cureus [PubMed]
  86. Cardiac complications following mRNA COVID-19 vaccines: A systematic review of case reports and case series (2021). Rev Med Virol [PubMed]
  87. Chest Pain with New Abnormal Electrocardiogram Development after Injection of COVID-19 Vaccine Manufactured by Moderna (2021). Intern Med [PubMed]
  88. Myocarditis-induced Sudden Death after BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination in Korea: Case Report Focusing on Histopathological Findings (2021). J Korean Med Sci [PubMed]
  89. Myocarditis and Pericarditis After COVID-19 mRNA Vaccination: Practical Considerations for Care Providers (2021). Can J Cardiol [PubMed]
  90. Acute myocarditis following Comirnaty vaccination in a healthy man with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection (2021). Radiol Case Rep [PubMed]
  91. Myocarditis With COVID-19 mRNA Vaccines (2021). Circulation [PubMed]
  92. Myocarditis following mRNA vaccination against SARS-CoV-2, a case series (2021). Am Heart J Plus [PubMed]
  93. Myopericarditis After the Pfizer Messenger Ribonucleic Acid Coronavirus Disease Vaccine in Adolescents (2021). J Pediatr [PubMed]
  94. Myocarditis in the Setting of Recent COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). Case Rep Cardiol [PubMed]
  95. Acute myocarditis associated with anti-COVID-19 vaccination (2021). Clin Exp Vaccine Res [PubMed]
  96. A case report: symptomatic pericarditis post-COVID-19 vaccination (2021). Eur Heart J Case Rep [PubMed]
  97. Use of mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine After Reports of Myocarditis Among Vaccine Recipients: Update from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices – United States, June 2021 (2021). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep [PubMed]
  98. Possible Association Between COVID-19 Vaccine and Myocarditis: Clinical and CMR Findings (2021). JACC Cardiovasc Imaging [PubMed]
  99. Recurrence of Acute Myocarditis Temporally Associated with Receipt of the mRNA Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Vaccine in a Male Adolescent (2021). J Pediatr [PubMed]
  100. Myocarditis after BNT162b2 mRNA Vaccine against Covid-19 in Israel (2021). N Engl J Med [PubMed]
  101. Cardiac Imaging of Acute Myocarditis Following COVID-19 mRNA Vaccination (2021). J Korean Med Sci [PubMed]
  102. Perimyocarditis in Adolescents After Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine (2021). J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc [PubMed]
  103. Myocarditis after Covid-19 mRNA Vaccination (2021). N Engl J Med [PubMed]
  104. Influenza Vaccination and Myo-Pericarditis in Patients Receiving Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: Investigating the Likelihood of Interaction through the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System and VigiBase (2021). Vaccines (Basel) [PubMed]
  105. Case report: acute myocarditis following the second dose of mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (2021). Eur Heart J Case Rep [PubMed]
  106. The Novel Platform of mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines and Myocarditis: Clues into the Potential Underlying Mechanism (2021). Vaccine [PubMed]
  107. Temporal association between the COVID-19 Ad26.COV2.S vaccine and acute myocarditis: A case report and literature review (2021). Cardiovasc Revasc Med [PubMed]
  108. COVID-19 vaccines and myocarditis (2021). Arch Cardiovasc Dis [PubMed]
  109. Weighing the Risks of Perimyocarditis With the Benefits of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccination in Adolescents (2021). J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc [PubMed]
  110. Patients With Acute Myocarditis Following mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). JAMA Cardiol [PubMed]
  111. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance findings in young adult patients with acute myocarditis following mRNA COVID-19 vaccination: a case series (2021). J Cardiovasc Magn Reson [PubMed]
  112. Myocarditis after Covid-19 Vaccination in a Large Health Care Organization (2021). N Engl J Med [PubMed]
  113. Myocarditis and Pericarditis following COVID-19 Vaccination: Inequalities in Age and Vaccine Types (2021). J Pers Med [PubMed]
  114. Myocarditis Following Immunization With mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines in Members of the US Military (2021). JAMA Cardiol [PubMed]
  115. A case series of acute pericarditis following COVID-19 vaccination in the context of recent reports from Europe and the United States (2021). Vaccine [PubMed]
  116. Myocarditis, Pericarditis and Cardiomyopathy After COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). Heart Lung Circ [PubMed]
  117. Eosinophilic Myocarditis Following Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Vaccination (2021). Circ J [PubMed]
  118. Myocarditis and Pericarditis Following mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination: What Do We Know So Far? (2021). Children (Basel) [PubMed]
  119. Transient Cardiac Injury in Adolescents Receiving the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine (2021). Pediatr Infect Dis J [PubMed]
  120. Reply to “Letter to the editor: Myocarditis should be considered in those with a troponin rise and unobstructed coronary arteries following PfizerBioNTech COVID-19 vaccination” (2021). QJM [PubMed]
  121. T2 mapping should be utilised in cases of suspected myocarditis to confirm an acute inflammatory process (2021). QJM [PubMed]
  122. Myocarditis Following COVID-19 mRNA Vaccine: A Case Series and Incidence Rate Determination (2021). Clin Infect Dis [PubMed]
  123. Acute Myocardial Infarction Within 24 Hours After COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). Am J Cardiol [PubMed]
  124. Symptomatic Acute Myocarditis in 7 Adolescents After Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). Pediatrics [PubMed]
  125. Safety of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine in a Nationwide Setting (2021). N Engl J Med [PubMed]
  126. Myocarditis following COVID-19 mRNA vaccination (2021). Vaccine [PubMed]
  127. COVID-19 Vaccination-Associated Myocarditis in Adolescents (2021). Pediatrics [PubMed]
  128. In-Depth Evaluation of a Case of Presumed Myocarditis After the Second Dose of COVID-19 mRNA Vaccine (2021). Circulation [PubMed]
  129. [Acute myocarditis in a young adult two days after Pfizer vaccination] (2021). G Ital Cardiol (Rome) [PubMed]
  130. Occurrence of acute infarct-like myocarditis following COVID-19 vaccination: just an accidental co-incidence or rather vaccination-associated autoimmune myocarditis? (2021). Clin Res Cardiol [PubMed]
  131. Insights from a murine model of COVID-19 mRNA vaccination-induced myopericarditis: Could accidental intravenous vaccine injection induce myopericarditis? (2021). Clin Infect Dis [PubMed]
  132. Myocarditis and Pericarditis After Vaccination for COVID-19 (2021). JAMA [PubMed]
  133. Acute Myopericarditis after COVID-19 Vaccine in Teenagers (2021). Case Rep Cardiol [PubMed]


Cardiomyopathy is a disease of the heart muscle that makes it harder for the heart to pump blood to the rest of the body. Cardiomyopathy can lead to heart failure.

  1. Takotsubo (stress) cardiomyopathy after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination (2021). BMJ Case Rep [PubMed]
  2. Takotsubo syndrome after receiving the COVID-19 vaccine (2021). J Cardiol Cases [PubMed]
  3. Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy After mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). Heart Lung Circ [PubMed]
  4. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy after vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 in a patient on maintenance hemodialysis (2021). CEN Case Rep [PubMed]
  5. Myocarditis, Pericarditis and Cardiomyopathy After COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). Heart Lung Circ [PubMed]

Thrombosis, thrombocytopenia and hemorrhage

Alterations in the blood’s ability to form clots can lead to the development of clots, or paradoxically, to bleeding. This may include a lower-than-normal number of platelets in the blood, which can also result in easy bruising. People have experienced strokes and bleeding in the brain, heart attacks, blood clots to the lungs and lack of oxygen to organs, all of which can cause death. Case reports include thrombosis of the major arteries (carotid, distal aorta, iliac, splenic) and limb ischemia. Thrombosis of the venous system include cerebral venous thrombosis as well as splanchnic, renal, superior ophthalmic, portal and palmar vein thrombosis.

  1. Successful Treatment of Vaccine-Induced Immune Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia in a 26-Year-Old Female Patient (2022). Acta Haematol [PubMed]
  2. Three cases of acute venous thromboembolism in females after vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 (2022). J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord [PubMed]
  3. COVID-19 Vaccine-Induced Immune Thrombosis with Thrombocytopenia (VITT) and the Shades of Grey in Thrombus Formation (2022). Semin Thromb Hemost [PubMed]
  4. Middle-age Asian male with cerebral venous thrombosis after COVID-19 AstraZeneca vaccination (2022). Am J Emerg Med [PubMed]
  5. A case of unusual mild clinical presentation of COVID-19 vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia with splanchnic vein thrombosis (2022). Ann Hepatol [PubMed]
  6. Thrombosis formation after COVID-19 vaccination Immunological Aspects: Review article (2022). Saudi J Biol Sci [PubMed]
  7. A case series of vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia in a London teaching hospital (2022). Br J Clin Pharmacol [PubMed]
  8. Refractory vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) managed with delayed therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) (2022). J Clin Apher [PubMed]
  9. Thrombosis and Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Causing Isolated Symptomatic Carotid Occlusion after Covid-19 Vaccine (2022). Thromb Haemost [PubMed]
  10. Response to bilateral adrenal haemorrhage in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain in vaccine-induced thrombosis with thrombocytopenia (2022). QJM [PubMed]
  11. Relapse of immune thrombocytopenia after COVID-19 vaccination (2022). Eur J Haematol [PubMed]
  12. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis after mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccination (2022). Neurol Sci [PubMed]
  13. Unusual Site of Deep Vein Thrombosis After mRNA Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) Vaccination (2022). Circ J [PubMed]
  14. Genital necrosis with cutaneous thrombosis after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination (2022). J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol [PubMed]
  15. Concerning the unexpected prothrombotic state following some coronavirus disease 2019 vaccines (2022). J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) [PubMed]
  16. Age- and Sex-Specific Incidence of Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis Associated With Ad26.COV2.S COVID-19 Vaccination (2022). JAMA Intern Med [PubMed]
  17. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis associated with vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (2022). Neuroradiol J [PubMed]
  18. Cerebral Venous Thrombosis Developing after COVID-19 Vaccination: VITT, VATT, TTS, and More (2022). Semin Thromb Hemost [PubMed]
  19. Myocardial Infarction, Stroke, and Pulmonary Embolism After BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine in People Aged 75 Years or Older (2022). JAMA [PubMed]
  20. Fatal vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) post Ad26.COV2.S: first documented case outside US (2022). Infection [PubMed]
  21. CAd26.COV2‑S vaccination can reveal inherited thrombophilia: a case of massive cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in a young man with normal platelet count (2022). Pol Arch Intern Med [PubMed]
  22. The roles of platelets in COVID-19-associated coagulopathy and vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (2022). Trends Cardiovasc Med [PubMed]
  23. Secondary thrombocytopenia after SARS-CoV-2 vaccine: Report of a case of hemorrhage and hematoma after minor oral surgery (2022). J Stomatol Oral Maxillofac Surg [PubMed]
  24. Case report: cerebral sinus vein thrombosis in two patients with AstraZeneca SARS-CoV-2 vaccination (2022). J Neurol [PubMed]
  25. Coronavirus (COVID-19) Vaccine-Induced Immune Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia (VITT) (2022). StatPearls [PubMed]
  26. Clinical and biological features of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis following ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination (2022). J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry [PubMed]
  27. Multiple Sites of Arterial Thrombosis in A 35-Year Old Patient after ChAdOx1 (AstraZeneca) Vaccination, Requiring Emergent Femoral and Carotid Surgical Thrombectomy (2022). Ann Vasc Surg [PubMed]
  28. ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine-associated thrombocytopenia: three cases of immune thrombocytopenia after 107 720 doses of ChAdOx1 vaccination in Thailand (2022). Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis [PubMed]
  29. Imaging and Hematologic Findings in Thrombosis and Thrombocytopenia after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AstraZeneca) Vaccination (2022). Radiology [PubMed]
  30. Intracerebral hemorrhage associated with vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia following ChAdOx1 nCOVID-19 vaccine in a pregnant woman (2021). Haematologica [PubMed]
  31. An observational study to identify the prevalence of thrombocytopenia and anti-PF4/polyanion antibodies in Norwegian health care workers after COVID-19 vaccination (2021). J Thromb Haemost [PubMed]
  32. First report of a de novo iTTP episode associated with an mRNA-based anti-COVID-19 vaccination (2021). J Thromb Haemost [PubMed]
  33. Thrombocytopenia including immune thrombocytopenia after receipt of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) (2021). Vaccine [PubMed]
  34. Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients With Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis in SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine-Induced Immune Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia (2021). JAMA Neurol [PubMed]
  35. Newly diagnosed immune thrombocytopenia in a pregnant patient after coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination (2021). J Obstet Gynaecol Res [PubMed]
  36. Thrombosis in peripheral artery disease and thrombotic thrombocytopenia after adenoviral COVID-19 vaccination (2021). Eur Heart J [PubMed]
  37. Predicted and Observed Incidence of Thromboembolic Events among Koreans Vaccinated with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Vaccine (2021). J Korean Med Sci [PubMed]
  38. COVID-19 vaccine-associated acute cerebral venous thrombosis and pulmonary artery embolism (2021). QJM [PubMed]
  39. Adjunct Immune Globulin for Vaccine-Induced Immune Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia (2021). N Engl J Med [PubMed]
  40. Portal Vein Thrombosis due to Vaccine-Induced Immune Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia (VITT) after Covid Vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (2021). Ultraschall Med [PubMed]
  41. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura after vaccination with COVID-19 vaccine (ChAdOx1 nCov-19) (2021). Blood [PubMed]
  42. Petechial skin rash associated with CoronaVac vaccination: first cutaneous side effect report before phase 3 results (2021). Eur J Hosp Pharm [PubMed]
  43. COVID-19 vaccine, immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia, jaundice, hyperviscosity: concern on cases with underlying liver problem (2021). Ann Hepatol [PubMed]
  44. Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis in the U.S. Population, After Adenovirus-Based SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination, and After COVID-19 (2021). J Am Coll Cardiol [PubMed]
  45. Central Venous Sinus Thrombosis with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Following an mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination: Are These Reports Merely Co-Incidental? (2021). Am J Case Rep [PubMed]
  46. Fatal cerebral venous sinus thrombosis after COVID-19 vaccination (2021). Intensive Care Med [PubMed]
  47. Prothrombotic immune thrombocytopenia after COVID-19 vaccination (2021). Blood [PubMed]
  48. A rare case of COVID-19 vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopaenia (VITT) involving the veno-splanchnic and pulmonary arterial circulation, from a UK district general hospital (2021). BMJ Case Rep [PubMed]
  49. Idiopathic Ipsilateral External Jugular Vein Thrombophlebitis After Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Vaccination (2021). AJR Am J Roentgenol [PubMed]
  50. Antiphospholipid antibodies and risk of post-COVID-19 vaccination thrombophilia: The straw that breaks the camel’s back? (2021). Cytokine Growth Factor Rev [PubMed]
  51. Vaccine-Induced Immune Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia with Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation and Death following the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Vaccine (2021). J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis [PubMed]
  52. Acute Ischemic Stroke Revealing ChAdOx1 nCov-19 Vaccine-Induced Immune Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia: Impact on Recanalization Strategy (2021). J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis [PubMed]
  53. Transient Thrombocytopenia With Glycoprotein-Specific Platelet Autoantibodies After Ad26.COV2.S Vaccination: A Case Report (2021). Ann Intern Med [PubMed]
  54. Thrombocytopenia with acute ischemic stroke and bleeding in a patient newly vaccinated with an adenoviral vector-based COVID-19 vaccine (2021). J Thromb Haemost [PubMed]
  55. Neurosurgical Considerations Regarding Decompressive Craniectomy for Intracerebral Hemorrhage after SARS-CoV-2-Vaccination in Vaccine Induced Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia-VITT (2021). J Clin Med [PubMed]
  56. Anti-PF4 antibody negative cerebral venous sinus thrombosis without thrombocytopenia following immunization with COVID-19 vaccine in an elderly non-comorbid Indian male, managed with conventional heparin-warfarin based anticoagulation (2021). Diabetes Metab Syndr [PubMed]
  57. Thromboses of major arteries and ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination (2021). Neurol Res Pract [PubMed]
  58. Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine-induced cerebral venous thrombosis and thrombocytopaenia: A missed opportunity for a rapid return of experience (2021). Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med [PubMed]
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Vasculitis, including Henoch-Schonlein purpura

Vasculitis is an inflammation of the blood vessels that can cause thrombosis and be life-threatening.

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Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS)

A neurological disorder in which the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks part of the peripheral nervous system — the network of nerves located outside of the brain and spinal cord. GBS can range from a very mild case with brief weakness to nearly devastating paralysis, leaving the person unable to breathe independently. Fortunately, many people recover from even the most severe cases of GBS. After recovery, some people will continue to have some degree of weakness.

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Facial nerve palsy

This is an immune attack on the nerves that move the muscles of the upper and lower parts of the face. People will often have weakness on one side of the face.

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Acute myelitis, neuromyelitis, inflammatory neuropathy

These conditions are immune or inflammatory attacks on the spinal cord or brain that can cause paralysis.

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This is general brain dysfunction which can be complicated by seizures. People often seem confused and may have troubles with balance, headaches or vomiting.

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Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

A disease that effects the nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. The underlying mechanism is the destruction by the immune system of the insulating covers of nervous system cells (which is called myelin). Since immune destruction can happen anywhere in the brain or body, people with MS have a wide range of symptoms including changes in sensation, weakness, balance, vision or speech. They can also experience thinking or emotional problems.

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A seizure is a sudden, uncontrolled electrical disturbance in the brain. It can cause changes in behavior, movements, or feelings, and in levels of consciousness.

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  1. Depression following ChAdOx1-S/nCoV-19 vaccine (2021). Eur J Psychiatry [PubMed]

Other syndromes

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Hepatitis occurs when the body’s immune system attacks the liver.

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Other auto-immune disease or reactivation of auto-immune disease

Auto-immune disease is when the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks part of the body. Some people experienced new auto-immune disease whereas others experienced a worsening of a known condition.

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  23. Systemic capillary leak syndrome after ChAdOx1 nCOV-19 (Oxford-AstraZeneca) vaccination (2021). CMAJ [PubMed]
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Anaphylaxis, allergic reactions, and asthma

Anaphylaxis is a severe, potentially life-threatening allergic reaction. With anaphylaxis and other allergies, including asthma, the body’s immune system reacts abnormally to a foreign substance.

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  9. Anaphylaxis After the Covid-19 Vaccine in a Patient With Cholinergic Urticaria (2021). Mil Med [PubMed]
  10. CoronaVac COVID-19 Vaccine-Induced Anaphylaxis: Clinical Characteristics and Revaccination Outcomes (2021). J Asthma Allergy [PubMed]
  11. Anaphylaxis after Moderna COVID-19 vaccine (2021). Ther Adv Vaccines Immunother [PubMed]
  12. Allergic Reactions After COVID-19 Vaccination-Putting Risk Into Perspective (2021). JAMA Netw Open [PubMed]
  13. Allergic Reactions Including Anaphylaxis After Receipt of the First Dose of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine – United States, December 14-23, 2020 (2021). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep [PubMed]
  14. Biphasic anaphylaxis after first dose of messenger RNA coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine with positive polysorbate 80 skin testing result (2021). Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol [PubMed]
  15. COVID-19 vaccines increase the risk of anaphylaxis (2021). Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen [PubMed]
  16. COVID vaccination and asthma exacerbation: might there be a link? (2021). Int J Infect Dis [PubMed]
  17. High anaphylaxis rates following vaccination with the Pfizer BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine against COVID-19 in Japanese healthcare workers: a secondary analysis of initial post-approval safety data (2021). J Travel Med [PubMed]
  18. Acute Allergic Reactions to mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines (2021). JAMA [PubMed]
  19. Practical handling of allergic reactions to COVID-19 vaccines: A position paper from German and Austrian Allergy Societies AeDA, DGAKI, GPA and ÖGAI (2021). Allergo J Int [PubMed]
  20. Allergic Reactions Including Anaphylaxis After Receipt of the First Dose of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine (2021). JAMA [PubMed]
  21. Anaphylaxis associated with the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines: Approach to allergy investigation (2021). Clin Immunol [PubMed]
  22. COVID-19 Vaccine Safety in Adolescents Aged 12-17 Years – United States, December 14, 2020-July 16, 2021 (2021). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep [PubMed]
  23. Severe allergic reactions after COVID-19 vaccination with the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine in Great Britain and USA: Position statement of the German Allergy Societies: Medical Association of German Allergologists (AeDA), German Society for Allergology and Clinical Immunology (DGAKI) and Society for Pediatric Allergology and Environmental Medicine (GPA) (2021). Allergo J Int [PubMed]
  24. Risk of severe allergic reactions to COVID-19 vaccines among patients with allergic skin diseases – practical recommendations. A position statement of ETFAD with external experts (2021). J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol [PubMed]
  25. An academic hospital experience screening mRNA COVID-19 vaccine risk using patient allergy history (2021). J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract [PubMed]
  26. The Risk of Allergic Reaction to SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines and Recommended Evaluation and Management: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, GRADE Assessment, and International Consensus Approach (2021). J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract [PubMed]
  27. Allergic reactions and adverse events associated with administration of mRNA-based vaccines. A health-care system experience (2021). Allergy Asthma Proc [PubMed]
  28. Allergic Reactions and Anaphylaxis to LNP-Based COVID-19 Vaccines (2021). Mol Ther [PubMed]
  29. Reports of Anaphylaxis After Receipt of mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines in the US-December 14, 2020-January 18, 2021 (2021). JAMA [PubMed]
  30. Allergic reactions including anaphylaxis after receipt of the first dose of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine – United States, December 14-23, 2020 (2021). Am J Transplant [PubMed]
  31. Reports of anaphylaxis after coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination, South Korea, 26 February to 30 April 2021 (2021). Euro Surveill [PubMed]
  32. Cumulative Adverse Event Reporting of Anaphylaxis After mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech) Injections in Japan: The First-Month Report (2021). Drug Saf [PubMed]
  33. Relationship between pre-existing allergies and anaphylactic reactions post mRNA COVID-19 vaccine administration (2021). Vaccine [PubMed]
  34. Prolonged Anaphylaxis to Pfizer Coronavirus Disease 2019 Vaccine: A Case Report and Mechanism of Action (2021). Crit Care Explor [PubMed]
  35. Allergic Reactions Including Anaphylaxis After Receipt of the First Dose of Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine – United States, December 21, 2020-January 10, 2021 (2021). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep [PubMed]
  36. Pseudo-Anaphylactic Reactions to Pfizer BNT162b2 Vaccine: Report of 3 Cases of Anaphylaxis Post Pfizer BNT162b2 Vaccination (2021). Vaccines (Basel) [PubMed]
  37. Allergic reactions including anaphylaxis after receipt of the first dose of Moderna COVID-19 vaccine – United States, December 21, 2020-January 10, 2021 (2021). Am J Transplant [PubMed]
  38. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a cause of anaphylaxis to the Pfizer/BioNTech mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (2021). Clin Exp Allergy [PubMed]
  39. Immunization practices and risk of anaphylaxis: a current update, comprehensive of COVID-19 vaccination data (2021). Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol [PubMed]
  40. Assessment of Allergic and Anaphylactic Reactions to mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines With Confirmatory Testing in a US Regional Health System (2021). JAMA Netw Open [PubMed]
  41. Anaphylactic reactions to mRNA COVID-19 vaccines: A call for further study (2021). Vaccine [PubMed]
  42. Sex differences in the incidence of anaphylaxis to LNP-mRNA COVID-19 vaccines (2021). Vaccine [PubMed]
  43. COVID-19 vaccine-associated anaphylaxis: A statement of the World Allergy Organization Anaphylaxis Committee (2021). World Allergy Organ J [PubMed]

Lymphadenopathy and axillary adenopathy

This is a swelling of the lymph nodes of unclear significance.

  1. COVID-19 Vaccine-Associated Subclinical Axillary Lymphadenopathy on Screening Mammogram (2022). Acad Radiol [PubMed]
  2. Rare case of contralateral supraclavicular lymphadenopathy after COVID-19 vaccination: Computed tomography and ultrasonography findings (2021). Radiol Case Rep [PubMed]
  3. COVID-19 mRNA Vaccination-Induced Lymphadenopathy Mimics Lymphoma Progression on FDG PET/CT (2021). Clin Nucl Med [PubMed]
  4. COVID-19 Vaccination-Associated Lymphadenopathy on FDG PET/CT: Distinctive Features in Adenovirus-Vectored Vaccine (2021). Clin Nucl Med [PubMed]
  5. COVID-19 vaccine induced Axillary and Pectoral Lymphadenopathy on PET scan (2021). Radiol Case Rep [PubMed]
  6. COVID-19 Vaccination Induced Lymphadenopathy in a Specialized Breast Imaging Clinic in Israel: Analysis of 163 cases (2021). Acad Radiol [PubMed]
  7. Evolution of Lymphadenopathy at PET/MRI after COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). Radiology [PubMed]
  8. A Case of Cervical Lymphadenopathy After Vaccination Against COVID-19 (2021). Cureus [PubMed]
  9. COVID-19 Vaccine-Related Axillary and Cervical Lymphadenopathy in Patients with Current or Prior Breast Cancer and Other Malignancies: Cross-Sectional Imaging Findings on MRI, CT, and PET-CT (2021). Korean J Radiol [PubMed]
  10. Evolving Bilateral Hypermetabolic Axillary Lymphadenopathy on FDG PET/CT Following 2-Dose COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). Clin Nucl Med [PubMed]
  11. COVID-19 post-vaccination lymphadenopathy: Report of cytological findings from fine needle aspiration biopsy (2021). Diagn Cytopathol [PubMed]
  12. Lymphadenopathy in COVID-19 Vaccine Recipients: Diagnostic Dilemma in Oncologic Patients (2021). Radiology [PubMed]
  13. Lymphadenopathy Following COVID-19 Vaccination: Imaging Findings Review (2021). Acad Radiol [PubMed]
  14. Unilateral Lymphadenopathy After COVID-19 Vaccination: A Practical Management Plan for Radiologists Across Specialties (2021). J Am Coll Radiol [PubMed]
  15. COVID-19 vaccine-related unilateral axillary lymphadenopathy: Pattern on screening breast MRI allowing for a benign assessment (2021). Clin Imaging [PubMed]
  16. Unilateral axillary adenopathy induced by COVID-19 vaccine: US follow-up evaluation (2021). Eur Radiol [PubMed]
  17. Acute onset supraclavicular lymphadenopathy coinciding with intramuscular mRNA vaccination against COVID-19 may be related to vaccine injection technique, Spain, January and February 2021 (2021). Euro Surveill [PubMed]
  18. COVID-19 vaccine-related axillary lymphadenopathy in breast cancer patients: Case series with a review of literature (2021). Semin Oncol [PubMed]
  19. Massive Cervical Lymphadenopathy Post-COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). Ear Nose Throat J [PubMed]
  20. Regional lymphadenopathy following COVID-19 vaccination: Literature review and considerations for patient management in breast cancer care (2021). Eur J Cancer [PubMed]
  21. Hypermetabolic lymphadenopathy following administration of BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 vaccine: incidence assessed by [18F]FDG PET-CT and relevance to study interpretation (2021). Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging [PubMed]
  22. Unilateral axillary adenopathy in the setting of COVID-19 vaccine: Follow-up (2021). Clin Imaging [PubMed]
  23. Axillary Adenopathy in Patients with Recent Covid-19 Vaccination: A New Diagnostic Dilemma (2021). Korean J Radiol [PubMed]
  24. Lymphadenopathy Associated With the COVID-19 Vaccine (2021). Cureus [PubMed]
  25. Supraclavicular lymphadenopathy following COVID-19 vaccination: an increasing presentation to the two-week wait neck lump clinic? (2021). Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg [PubMed]
  26. COVID-19 Vaccination-Associated Axillary Adenopathy: Imaging Findings and Follow-Up Recommendations in 23 Women (2021). AJR Am J Roentgenol [PubMed]
  27. Supraclavicular lymphadenopathy after COVID-19 vaccination in Korea: serial follow-up using ultrasonography (2021). Clin Imaging [PubMed]
  28. Adenopathy Following COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). Radiology [PubMed]
  29. Incidence of Axillary Adenopathy in Breast Imaging After COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). JAMA Oncol [PubMed]
  30. COVID-19 vaccination and low cervical lymphadenopathy in the two week neck lump clinic – a follow up audit (2021). Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg [PubMed]
  31. Cervical lymphadenopathy following coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine: clinical characteristics and implications for head and neck cancer services (2021). J Laryngol Otol [PubMed]
  32. Coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine mimics lymph node metastases in patients undergoing skin cancer follow-up: A monocentre study (2021). Eur J Cancer [PubMed]
  33. Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccination induced lymphadenopathy on [18F]Choline PET/CT-not only an FDG finding (2021). Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging [PubMed]

Cutaneous (skin) effects

Many different allergic, immune reactions, and infections can manifest on the skin as rashes.

  1. Clinical and pathologic correlation of cutaneous COVID-19 vaccine reactions including V-REPP: A registry-based study (2022). J Am Acad Dermatol [PubMed]
  2. A case of toxic epidermal necrolysis after ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (AZD1222) vaccination (2022). Australas J Dermatol [PubMed]
  3. Eosinophilic dermatosis after AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccination (2022). J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol [PubMed]
  4. Vesiculobullous skin reactions induced by COVID-19 mRNA vaccine: report of four cases and review of the literature (2022). Clin Exp Dermatol [PubMed]
  5. Generalized bullous fixed drug eruption after Oxford-AstraZeneca (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) vaccination (2022). Clin Exp Dermatol [PubMed]
  6. Cutaneous adverse reactions from 35,229 doses of Sinovac and AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccination: a prospective cohort study in healthcare workers (2022). J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol [PubMed]
  7. Cutaneous reactions after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination: a cross-sectional Spanish nationwide study of 405 cases (2022). Br J Dermatol [PubMed]
  8. Sweet syndrome after Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine (AZD1222) in an elderly female (2021). Dermatol Ther [PubMed]
  9. Rare cutaneous adverse effects of COVID-19 vaccines: a case series and review of the literature (2021). J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol [PubMed]
  10. Widespread purpura annularis telangiectodes following mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (2021). J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol [PubMed]
  11. Delayed cutaneous reactions after the administration of mRNA vaccines against COVID-19 (2021). J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract [PubMed]
  12. Cutaneous reactions reported after Moderna and Pfizer COVID-19 vaccination: A registry-based study of 414 cases (2021). J Am Acad Dermatol [PubMed]
  13. Exacerbation of plaque psoriasis after inactivated and BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccines: A report of two cases (2021). Dermatol Ther [PubMed]
  14. Bullous drug eruption after second dose of mRNA-1273 (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccine: Case report (2021). J Infect Public Health [PubMed]
  15. Onset/flare of psoriasis following the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Corona virus vaccine (Oxford-AstraZeneca/Covishield): Report of two cases (2021). Dermatol Ther [PubMed]
  16. Exacerbation of Hailey-Hailey Disease Following SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination (2021). Acta Derm Venereol [PubMed]
  17. Miller Fisher syndrome following BNT162b2 mRNA coronavirus 2019 vaccination (2021). BMC Neurol [PubMed]
  18. Case Report: Pityriasis Rosea-Like Eruption Following COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). Front Med (Lausanne) [PubMed]
  19. Cutaneous adverse effects of the available COVID-19 vaccines (2021). Clin Dermatol [PubMed]
  20. A case series of cutaneous COVID-19 vaccine reactions at Loma Linda University Department of Dermatology (2021). JAAD Case Rep [PubMed]

Eye disorders

Immune disorders and problems with blood vessels, blood clotting (and bleeding) can manifest as eye problems.

  1. Bilateral uveitis after inoculation with COVID-19 vaccine: A case report (2021). Int J Infect Dis [PubMed]
  2. Bilateral Acute Macular Neuroretinopathy After Vaccination Against SARS-CoV-2 (2021). JAMA Ophthalmol [PubMed]
  3. Ocular Adverse Events After COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). Ocul Immunol Inflamm [PubMed]
  4. Acute-onset central serous retinopathy after immunization with COVID-19 mRNA vaccine (2021). Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep [PubMed]
  5. Bilateral Immune-Mediated Keratolysis After Immunization With SARS-CoV-2 Recombinant Viral Vector Vaccine (2021). Cornea [PubMed]
  6. Central retinal vein occlusion after mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccination: A case report (2021). Indian J Ophthalmol [PubMed]
  7. Tolosa-Hunt Syndrome Presenting After COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). Cureus [PubMed]


This is syndrome due to direct or indirect muscle injury. It results from death of muscle cells and the release of their contents into the blood stream. This can lead to serious complications such as renal (kidney) failure. In rare cases, rhabdomyolysis can even cause death.

  1. COVID-19 mRNA vaccine induced rhabdomyolysis and fasciitis (2022). J Neurol [PubMed]
  2. Case Report: ANCA-Associated Vasculitis Presenting With Rhabdomyolysis and Pauci-Immune Crescentic Glomerulonephritis After Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 mRNA Vaccination (2021). Front Immunol [PubMed]
  3. COVID-19 vaccine induced rhabdomyolysis: Case report with literature review (2021). Diabetes Metab Syndr [PubMed]

Kidney injury

Kidney injury can be from an immune attack or from chemicals (drugs) that injure kidney cells.

  1. Haematuria, a widespread petechial rash, and headaches following the Oxford AstraZeneca ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Vaccination (2021). BMJ Case Rep [PubMed]
  2. Nephrotic Syndrome Following ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Vaccine Against SARScoV-2 (2021). Kidney Int Rep [PubMed]
  3. A case of gross hematuria and IgA nephropathy flare-up following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination (2021). Kidney Int [PubMed]
  4. Minimal change disease and acute kidney injury following the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine (2021). Kidney Int [PubMed]
  5. New-onset Nephrotic Syndrome after Janssen COVID-19 Vaccination: a Case Report and Literature Review (2021). J Korean Med Sci [PubMed]
  6. Acute kidney injury with gross hematuria and IgA nephropathy after COVID-19 vaccination (2021). Kidney Int [PubMed]
  7. Minimal Change Disease With Severe Acute Kidney Injury Following the Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 Vaccine: A Case Report (2021). Am J Kidney Dis [PubMed]
  8. ANCA glomerulonephritis after the Moderna COVID-19 vaccination (2021). Kidney Int [PubMed]


These are disorders of muscles that result in weakness or reduced function.

  1. Transient Oculomotor Palsy Following the Administration of the Messenger RNA-1273 Vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 Diplopia Following the COVID-19 Vaccine (2021). J Neuroophthalmol [PubMed]
  2. Inflammatory myositis after ChAdOx1 vaccination (2021). Lancet Rheumatol [PubMed]
  3. Reported orofacial adverse effects of COVID-19 vaccines: The knowns and the unknowns (2021). J Oral Pathol Med [PubMed]
  4. Nervous and Muscular Adverse Events after COVID-19 Vaccination: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials (2021). Vaccines (Basel) [PubMed]


  1. Varicella-zoster and herpes simplex virus reactivation post-COVID-19 vaccination: a review of 40 cases in an International Dermatology Registry (2022). J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol [PubMed]
  2. Acute Retinal Necrosis from Reactivation of Varicella Zoster Virus following BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). Ocul Immunol Inflamm [PubMed]
  3. Herpes-like skin lesion after AstraZeneca vaccination for COVID-19: A case report (2021). Clin Case Rep [PubMed]
  4. Recurrent herpes zoster after COVID-19 vaccination in patients with chronic urticaria being treated with cyclosporine-A report of 3 cases (2021). J Cosmet Dermatol [PubMed]

Other rare disorders

  1. Vaccine-induced interstitial lung disease: a rare reaction to COVID-19 vaccination (2022). Thorax [PubMed]
  2. Pancreas allograft rejection occurring after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (2021). Diabetes Metab [PubMed]
  3. [Lipschütz Ulcers After the AstraZeneca COVID-19 Vaccine] (2021). Actas Dermosifiliogr (Engl Ed) [PubMed]
  4. Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia Associated With the Anti-COVID-19 Vaccine AZD1222 (2021). Cureus [PubMed]
  5. Rituximab-induced acute lympholysis and pancytopenia after COVID-19 vaccination (2021). Clin Case Rep [PubMed]

Population studies

  1. Prevalence of severe adverse events among health professionals after receiving the first dose of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 coronavirus vaccine (Covishield) in Togo, March 2021 (2021). Arch Public Health [PubMed]

Cancer progression

  1. Rapid Progression of Angioimmunoblastic T Cell Lymphoma Following BNT162b2 mRNA Vaccine Booster Shot: A Case Report (2021). Front Med (Lausanne) [PubMed]
  2. Lung squamous cell carcinoma with hemoptysis after vaccination with tozinameran (BNT162b2, Pfizer-BioNTech) (2021). Thorac Cancer [PubMed]


  1. Autopsy Findings and Causality Relationship between Death and COVID-19 Vaccination: A Systematic Review (2021). J Clin Med [PubMed]
  2. An Insight into the Role of Postmortem Immunohistochemistry in the Comprehension of the Inflammatory Pathophysiology of COVID-19 Disease and Vaccine-Related Thrombotic Adverse Events: A Narrative Review (2021). Int J Mol Sci [PubMed]
  3. COVID-19 Vaccine and Death: Causality Algorithm According to the WHO Eligibility Diagnosis (2021). Diagnostics (Basel) [PubMed]

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