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Vaccines - Vaccination - Immunize - Immunization

Primary vaccine failure to routine vaccines: Why and what to do?
Published: 2019
SYNOPSIS

About 2%–10% of healthy individuals fail to mount antibody levels to routine vaccines.

CITATION

Wiedermann U, Garner-Spitzer E, Wagner A. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics. 2016;12(1):239–243.

SUMMARY

Two sets of factors are responsible for vaccine failure: vaccine-related factors (e.g., failures in vaccine attenuation, vaccination regimes or administration) and host-related factors (e.g., genetics, immune status, age, health or nutritional status). Primary vaccine failure describes the inability to respond to primary vaccination, and secondary vaccine failure is characterized by a loss of protection after initial effectiveness. Studies indicate that about 2%–10% of healthy individuals fail to mount antibody levels to routine vaccines. T-regulatory as well as B-regulatory cells and the production of IL-10 are involved in non/hypo-responsiveness to vaccination. Non-responsiveness increases with age, indicating that vaccine schedules and doses (at least for primary vaccination) should be adapted according to age. Studies also suggest that different vaccination approaches may be needed for allergic or obese individuals. The significant paradigm shift taking place in many fields of medical research and care should extend the concept of personalized medicine into the field of vaccinology.

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The 112-Year Odyssey of Pertussis and Pertussis Vaccines—Mistakes Made and Implications for the Future
Published: 2019
SYNOPSIS

Because of linked-epitope suppression, all children who were primed by DTaP vaccines will be more susceptible to pertussis throughout their lifetimes, and there is no easy way to decrease this increased lifetime susceptibility.

CITATION

Cherry, James D. , Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, piz005, 2019 Feb 22.

SUMMARY

In the last 13 years, major pertussis epidemics have occurred in the United States, and numerous studies have shown the deficiencies of DTaP vaccines, including the small number of antigens that the vaccines contain and the type of cellular immune response that they elicit. The type of cellular response a predominantly, T2 response results in less efficacy and shorter duration of protection. Because of the small number of antigens (3–5 in DTaP vaccines vs >3000 in DTwP vaccines), linked-epitope suppression occurs. Because of linked-epitope suppression, all children who were primed by DTaP vaccines will be more susceptible to pertussis throughout their lifetimes, and there is no easy way to decrease this increased lifetime susceptibility.

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Reconsideration of the immunotherapeutic pediatric safe dose levels of aluminum
Published: 2018
SYNOPSIS

The levels of aluminum present in individual vaccines and in the modern vaccine schedule as a whole are problematically high.

Citation

Lyons-Weiler J, Ricketson R. Reconsideration of the immunotherapeutic pediatric safe dose levels of aluminum. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. 2018;48:67-73.

 

Summary

The authors show that current levels of aluminum in vaccines derive from “outdated information, unwarranted assumptions and errors.” Whereas aluminum dosing in vaccines should be expressed in terms of micrograms per kilogram of body weight per day, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) references aluminum amounts in terms of micrograms per dose. As a result, aluminum amounts do not appropriately adjust for toxicological differences between adults and children, males and females or normal-birthweight versus low-birthweight infants. The FDA also ignores dose-related toxicity and body burden despite routine administration of multiple aluminum-containing vaccines at a single health care visit. The levels of aluminum currently present in individual vaccines and in the modern vaccine schedule as a whole are “problematically high.”

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Vaccines and neuroinflammation
Published: 2018
SYNOPSIS

Vaccination can trigger a series of cascading events that disturbs the balance between “protective immunity” and “destructive inflammation.”

Citation

Giannotta G, Giannotta N. International Journal of Public Health & Safety. 2018;3:3.

 

Summary

This study explores molecular mechanisms capable of explaining “post-vaccination inflammatory syndrome” and the neuroinflammation observed in children with autism. Focusing especially on vaccines (such as HPV vaccines) that contain biopersistent aluminum adjuvants, the authors describe how “continuously escalating doses of this poorly biodegradable adjuvant…may become insidiously unsafe,” especially in children who are vaccinated repeatedly or who have an immature or altered blood-brain barrier. Vaccination can trigger a series of cascading events (involving overexpression of the signaling molecules that regulate inflammation and activation of brain cells called microglia) that disturbs the balance between “protective immunity” and “destructive inflammation.”

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Sponsorship bias in base-case values and uncertainty bounds of health economic evaluations? A systematic review of herpes zoster vaccination
Published: 2018
SYNOPSIS

Economic evaluations of vaccination programs may be biased when they are industry-funded.

Citation

Bilcke J, Verelst F, Beutels P. Sponsorship bias in base-case values and uncertainty bounds of health economic evaluations? A systematic review of herpes zoster vaccination. Medical Decision Making. 2018;38(6):730-745.

 

Summary

This study suggests that economic evaluations of vaccination programs have the potential to be biased when they are industry-funded. Industry-funded studies of shingles vaccination have reported more favorable cost-effectiveness ratios than non-industry funded studies. The authors caution researchers and decision-makers to be “aware of potential sponsorship bias” and also warn against cherry-picking, stating that evaluations “should consider all relevant data sources rather than (subjectively) selecting a subset of the available evidence.” In addition, they emphasize the importance of a “complete picture of the available evidence and uncertainty” when evaluating indicators such as disease burden and case fatality rate.

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Cancer immunology, bioinformatics and chemokine evidence link vaccines contaminated with animal proteins to autoimmune disease: a detailed look at Crohn’s disease and Vitiligo
Published: 2018
SYNOPSIS

The contamination of vaccines with animal proteins that resemble human proteins can trigger autoimmunity.

Citation

Arumugham V, Trushin MV.  Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. 2018;10(8):2106-2110.

Summary

Vaccines are contaminated with animal proteins that resemble human proteins, and this can result in autoimmunity. This study, which used bioinformatics to analyze animal proteins in vaccines and their similarity to human proteins, adds to growing evidence of vaccines inducing autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes, Crohn’s disease, vitiligo, systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. The authors suggest that the live viruses and aluminum adjuvants in certain vaccines can stimulate the activation of particular T cells that, upon activation, may cause autoimmune disease. Because autoimmune reactions vary from person to person, “not everyone will develop overt disease”; thus, autoimmune illness may represent the tip of a broader “iceberg” of subclinical effects.

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Can awareness of medical pathophysiology in autism lead to primary care autism prevention strategies?
Published: 2013
SYNOPSIS

Following implementation of changes in a pediatric medical practice to address autism risks, no new cases of autism occurred.

Citation

Mumper E. North American Journal of Medicine and Science. 2013;6:134-144.

 

Summary

In 2005, the author’s pediatric practice implemented seven changes to address autism risks, focusing on minimizing environmental toxicant exposure, encouraging prolonged breastfeeding, recommending probiotics, providing nutritional counseling, limiting use of antibiotics and acetaminophen and allowing a modified vaccine schedule. No new cases of autism occurred in children born between 2005 and 2011, even though the CDC autism rate would have predicted about six new cases in the practice over that period. The author cautions that “epidemiology may be too blunt a tool to determine all risks for subsets of the population who may be more vulnerable to vaccine reactions.”

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Relative trends in hospitalizations and mortality among infants by the number of vaccine doses and age, based on the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), 1990-2010
Published: 2012
SYNOPSIS

Infants who received more vaccines had much higher hospitalization and death rates than infants who received fewer vaccines.

CITATION

GS Goldman, NZ Miller. Human and Experimental Toxicology, 2012, 31(10) 1012–1021.

SUMMARY

“The hospitalization rate increased linearly from 11.0% (107 of 969) for 2 doses to 23.5% (661 of 2817) for 8 doses and decreased linearly from 20.1% (154 of 765) for children aged < 0.1 year to 10.7% (86 of 801) for children aged 0.9 year. Our findings show a positive correlation between the number of vaccine doses administered and the percentage of hospitalizations and deaths. Since vaccines are given to millions of infants annually, it is imperative that health authorities have scientific data from synergistic toxicity studies on all combinations of vaccines that infants might receive. Finding ways to increase vaccine safety should be the highest priority."

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Do aluminum vaccine adjuvants contribute to the rising prevalence of autism?
Published: 2011
SYNOPSIS

Canadian researchers report vaccine aluminum and autism prevalence related.

CITATION

Tomljenovic L, Shaw CA. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry. 2011;105:1489-1499.

SUMMARY

“Dysfunctional immunity and impaired brain function are core deficits in ASD. Aluminum (Al), the most commonly used vaccine adjuvant, is a demonstrated neurotoxin and a strong immune stimulator. Hence, adjuvant Al has the potential to induce neuroimmune disorders. The application of the Hill’s criteria to these data indicates that the correlation between Al in vaccines and ASD may be causal. Because children represent a fraction of the population most at risk for complications following exposure to Al, a more rigorous evaluation of Al adjuvant safety seems warranted. By satisfying eight of the Hill’s criteria for establishing causality applicable to our study, we show that Al-adjuvanted vaccines may be a significant etiological factor in the rising prevalence of ASD in the Western world. We also show that children from countries with the highest ASD prevalence appear to have a much higher exposure to Al from vaccines, particularly at 2 months of age.”

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Interindividual variations in the efficacy and toxicity of vaccines
Published: 2010
SYNOPSIS

Researchers warn of sizable difference in individual reaction to vaccines, stress need to avoid increasing side effects of vaccines.

CITATION

Chandan Thomasa, Majid Moridanib. Toxicology 278, 2010 204-210.

SUMMARY

“A number of currently available vaccines have shown significant differences in the magnitude of immune responses and toxicity in individuals undergoing vaccination. A number of factors may be involved in the variations in immune responses, which include age, gender, race, amount and quality of the antigen, the dose administered and to some extent the route of administration, and genetics of immune system. Hence, it becomes imperative that researchers have tools such as genomics and proteomics at their disposal to predict which set of population is more likely to be non-responsive or develop toxicity to vaccines.. With the increasing number of side effects associated with a number of vaccines reported over the years, it has become imperative to develop new technologies that can effectively assist in the development and evaluation of vaccines for efficacy and toxicity.”

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Delayed acquisition of neonatal reflexes in newborn primates receiving a thimerosal-containing Hepatitis B vaccine: Influence of gestational age and birth weight
Published: 2009
SYNOPSIS

Newborn monkeys given a mercury-containing hepatitis b vaccine had significant delays in neonatal reflexes and neurological development.

CITATION

Laura Hewitson, Lisa A. Houser, Carol Stott, Gene Sackett, Jaime L. Tomko, David Atwood, Lisa Blue, E. Railey White, Andrew J. Wakefield. NeuroToxicology, 2009; doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2009.09.008.

SUMMARY

“In summary, this study provides preliminary evidence of abnormal early neurodevelopmental responses in male infant rhesus macaques receiving a single dose of Th-containing HB vaccine at birth and indicates that further investigation is merited.”

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Long-term persistence of vaccine-derived aluminum hydroxide is associated with chronic cognitive dysfunction
Published: 2009
SYNOPSIS

French scientists report aluminum from vaccines causes chronic cognitive dysfunction.

CITATION

Maryline Couette, Marie-Françoise Boisse, Patrick Maison, Pierre Brugieres, Pierre Cesaro, Xavier Chevalier, Romain K. Gherardi, Anne-Catherine Bachoud-Levi, François-Jérôme Authier. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 2009.

SUMMARY

“In conclusion, long-term persistence of vaccine-derived aluminum hydroxide within the body assessed by MMF is associated with cognitive dysfunction, not solely due to chronic pain, fatigue and depression. In conclusion, this work is the first firm demonstration that cognitive dysfunction is a central feature in MMF, this dysfunction being much more frequent and severe than suspected by routine neurological evaluation. Instead of being a non-specific bystander effect of pain, fatigue or depression, MACD seems to reflect an underlying organic, inflammatory or toxic, brain involvement.”

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Abnormal measles-mumps-rubella antibodies and CNS autoimmunity in children with autism
Published: 2002
SYNOPSIS

Utah state scientists find autoimmune reaction to MMR in children with autism, including autoimmunity to myelin basic protein, a brain building-block.

CITATION

Singh VK, Lin SX, Newell E, Nelson C. Journal of Biomedical Science. 2002;9:359–364.

SUMMARY

“[A]s described herein, autistic children showed a serological correlation between MMR and brain autoimmunity, i.e., over 90% of MMR antibody-positive autistic sera also had autoantibodies to brain MBP. This is quite an intriguing observation in favor of a connection between atypical measles infection and autism; an atypical infection usually refers to infection that occurs in the absence of a rash. An atypical measles infection in the absence of a rash and unusual neurological symptoms was recently described to suggest the existence of a variant MV in children and adults. In light of these new findings, we suggest that a considerable proportion of autistic cases may result from an atypical measles infection that does not produce a rash but causes neurological symptoms in some children. The source of this virus could be a variant MV or it could be the MMR vaccine.”

Macrophagic myofasciitis lesions assess long-term persistence of vaccine derived aluminum hydroxide in muscle
Published: 2001
SYNOPSIS

French scientists tie aluminum adjuvant in vaccine to macrophagic myofasciitis.

CITATION

R.K. Gherardi, M. Coquet, P. Cherin, L. Belec, P. Moretto, P.A. Dreyfus. Brain, 2001, 124, 1821-1831.

SUMMARY

“Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an emerging condition of unknown cause, detected in patients with diffuse arthromyalgias and fatigue, and characterized by muscle infiltration by granular periodic acid-Schiff’s reagent-positive macrophages and lymphocytes. Intracytoplasmic inclusions have been observed in macrophages of some patients. To assess their significance, electron microscopy was performed in 40 consecutive cases and chemical analysis was done by microanalysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. Inclusions were constantly detected and corresponded to aluminium hydroxide, an immunostimulatory compound frequently used as a vaccine adjuvant.”

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Annual Summary of Vital Statistics: Trends in the Health of Americans During the 20th Century
Published: 2000
SYNOPSIS

CDC scientists admit that 90% of infectious disease mortality decrease in the United States happened before vaccines were available.

CITATION

Bernard Guyer, MD, Mary Anne Freeman, MA, Donna M. Strobino, PhD, Edward J. Sondik, PhD. Pediatrics, Dec 2000, Vol. 106, No. 6.

SUMMARY

“Thus vaccination does not account for the impressive declines in mortality seen in the first half of the century…nearly 90% of the decline in infectious disease mortality among US children occurred before 1940, when few antibiotics or vaccines were available.”

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Effects of Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis or Tetanus Vaccination on Allergies and Allergy-Related Respiratory Symptoms Among Children and Adolescents in the United States
Published: 2000
SYNOPSIS

UCLA researchers find the DTP vaccine is causing asthma.

CITATION

Eric L. Hurwitz, DC, PhD, and Hal Morgenstern, PhD. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, Volume 23, Number 2, February 2000.

SUMMARY

“Asthma and other allergic hypersensitivity reactions and related symptoms may be caused, in part, by the delayed effects of DTP or tetanus vaccination. Because the proportion of US children who have received at least 1 dose of DTP vaccine approaches 100%, the number of allergies and allergy-related conditions attributable to DTP or tetanus vaccination in the United States may be very high. For example, assuming that the estimated vaccination effect is unbiased, 50% of diagnosed asthma cases (2.93 million) in US children and adolescents would be prevented if the DTP or tetanus vaccination was not administered.”

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