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Autism

The Relationship Between the Level of Copper, Lead, Mercury and Autism Disorders: A Meta-Analysis
Published: 2020
SYNOPSIS

There is, nevertheless, a significant relationship between mercury concentration and autism. Thus, the concentration for mercury can be listed as a pathogenic cause (disease-causing) for autism.

CITATION

Jafari Mohammadabadi H, Rahmatian A, Sayehmiri F, Rafiei M. The Relationship Between the Level of Copper, Lead, Mercury and Autism Disorders: A Meta-Analysis. Pediatric Health Med Ther. 2020;11:369-378 https://doi.org/10.2147/PHMT.S210042

SUMMARY

In this study, 18 articles conducted in different countries from 1982 to 2019 were collected to determine the authenticity or lack of relationship between the concentrations of copper, lead, and mercury and autism and to provide a reliable pattern in the field for the researchers and planners. Results: In these 18 studies, 1797 patients (981 cases and 816 controls) aged 2 to 16 years were examined. Concentration of the samples (blood, hair, and nails) for both case and control groups was evaluated. There was no significant relationship between copper concentration and autism; there was a significant relationship between mercury concentration and autism; there was also a significant relationship between lead concentration and autism.

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Imaging of aluminium and amyloid β in neurodegenerative disease
Published: 2020
SYNOPSIS

Quantitative analyses suggest increased brain aluminium content in a number of neurodegenerative diseases including familial Alzheimer’s disease, congophilic amyloid angiopathy, epilepsy and autism.

CITATION

C. Exley, M.J. Mold; Imaging of aluminium and amyloid β in neurodegenerative disease. Heliyon 6 21 April 2020; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03839.

SUMMARY

Recent research has confirmed the presence of aluminium in human brain tissue. Quantitative analyses suggest increased brain aluminium content in a number of neurodegenerative diseases including familial Alzheimer’s disease, congophilic amyloid angiopathy, epilepsy and autism. Complementary aluminium-specific fluorescence microscopy identifies the location of aluminium in human brain tissue and demonstrates significant differences in distribution between diseases. Herein we combine these approaches in investigating associations between aluminium in human brain tissue and specific disease-associated neuropathologies.

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Mercury-induced autoimmunity: Drifting from micro to macro concerns on autoimmune disorders
Published: 2020
SYNOPSIS

In susceptible individuals, chronic low Hg exposure may trigger local and systemic inflammation, even exacerbating the already existing autoimmune response in patients with autoimmunity.

CITATION

Bjorklund, G., M. Peana, M. Dadar, S. Chirumbolo, J. Aaseth, and N. Martins. 2020. ‘Mercury-induced autoimmunity: Drifting from micro to macro concerns on autoimmune disorders’, Clin Immunol: 108352.

SUMMARY

Mercury (Hg) is widely recognized as a neurotoxic metal, besides it can also act as a proinflammatory agent and immunostimulant, depending on individual exposure and susceptibility. Mercury exposure may arise from internal body pathways, such as via dental amalgams, preservatives in drugs and vaccines, and seafood consumption, or even from external pathways, i.e., occupation, environmental pollution, and handling of metallic items and cosmetics containing Hg. In susceptible individuals, chronic low Hg exposure may trigger local and systemic inflammation, even exacerbating the already existing autoimmune response in patients with autoimmunity. Mercury exposure can trigger dysfunction of the autoimmune responses and aggravate immunotoxic effects associated with elevated serum autoantibodies titers. The purpose of the present report is to provide a critical overview of the many issues associated with Hg exposure and autoimmunity. In addition, the paper also focuses on individual susceptibility and other health effects of Hg.

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Persistent behavioral impairments and alterations of brain dopamine system after early postnatal administration of thimerosal in rats.
Published: 2011
SYNOPSIS

Exposure to thimerosal at vaccine relevant doses alters behavior and brain neurochemistry in a rat model. Based on their findings the authors call for removal of thimerosal from all medicinal products intended for use by children and pregnant women.

CITATION

Olczak M, Duszczyk M, Mierzejewski P, Meyza K, Majewska MD. Behav Brain Res. 2011 Sep 30;223(1):107-18. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2011.04.026. Epub 2011 Apr 28.

SUMMARY

The preservative thimerosal added to some vaccines contains about 49% mercury by weight. The toxic effects of thimerosal are dependent on a number of variables including: age of exposure, sex, genetics, tissue concentrations, nutritional adequacy and co-exposures to other toxic chemicals and/or infections. Using a rat animal model, these researchers investigated a series of tests to determine the association of early postnatal exposure to thimerosal on behavioral, neurochemical and neuropathological outcomes. A variety of dose exposures were chosen and were administered by injection i.m. into the glutei maximi in four equal doses on postnatal days 7, 9, 11 and 15. The lowest dose of 12 micro grams of mercury per kilogram of weight was within the range of dose achieved in pediatric vaccines. The higher doses of 240, 1440 and 3000 were used, in part, to account for the lower sensitivity that rats have to the toxic effects of mercury compared to humans. A control cohort received injections of saline. According to the authors, the specific tests utilized were based on behaviors, “which are characteristically altered in autism, such as locomotor activity, anxiety, social interactions, spatial learning, and on the brain dopaminergic system”. Male rats treated with the lowest thimerosal dose (or higher) had a significant reduction in general locomotor activity while in the females this only occurred at the highest thimerosal dose. Such a sexual dimorphism is consistent with males being more sensitive to the neurotoxic property of mercury.

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