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Antibody

Antigenic Drift Defines a New D4 Subgenotype of Measles Virus
Published: 2019
SYNOPSIS

This study explores the D-4 escape measles mutant, a strain that has emerged in countries that have intense vaccination.

CITATION
Miguel Ángel Muñoz-Alía, Claude P. Muller, Stephen J. Russell. 
SUMMARY

Measles virus is a paradigmatic RNA virus, as the antigenic composition of the vaccination has not needed to be updated since its discovery. The vaccine confers protection by inducing neutralizing antibodies that interfere with the function of the hemagglutinin protein. Viral strains are indistinguishable serologically, although characteristic nucleotide sequences differentiate 24 genotypes. In this work, we describe a distant evolutionary branch within genotype D4. Designated subgenotype D4.2, this virus is distinguishable by neutralization with vaccine-induced monoclonal antibodies that target the neutralizing epitope (NE). The subgenotype D4.2 viruses have a higher predominance in countries with intermediary levels of vaccine coverage. Our studies demonstrate that subgenotype D4.2 lacks epitopes associated with half of the known antigenic sites, which significantly impacts our understanding of measles virus evolution.

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Differential durability of immune responses to measles and mumps following MMR vaccination.
Published: 2019
SYNOPSIS

These data suggest that specific immune outcomes may wane at different rates and highlight our currently incomplete understanding of protective immune responses to mumps and measles.

CITATION

Richard B. Kennedy, Inna G. Ovsyannikova, Antonia Thomas, Beth R. Larrabee, Steven Rubin, Gregory A. Poland, Vaccine, Volume 37, Issue 13, 22 March 2019, Pages 1775-1784

SUMMARY

The development and wide-spread use of mumps vaccine resulted in a dramatic and sustained decrease in the incidence of mumps disease; however, since 2000, an increase in the size and number of mumps outbreaks in the United States and other countries has sparked renewed interest in the durability of mumps-specific immunity elicited by mumps vaccination. The most likely explanation for mumps cases in previously immunized persons may be secondary vaccine failure, or waning immunity. Researchers examined changes in markers of measles and mumps immunity at two timepoints, approximately 7 and 17 years after two-dose MMR-II® vaccination, and found that the mumps IgG titers exhibited a large and significant decline during this time period. There was a similar discrepancy with measles-specific immune responses.

 

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Primary vaccine failure to routine vaccines: Why and what to do?
Published: 2019
SYNOPSIS

About 2%–10% of healthy individuals fail to mount antibody levels to routine vaccines.

CITATION

Wiedermann U, Garner-Spitzer E, Wagner A. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics. 2016;12(1):239–243.

SUMMARY

Two sets of factors are responsible for vaccine failure: vaccine-related factors (e.g., failures in vaccine attenuation, vaccination regimes or administration) and host-related factors (e.g., genetics, immune status, age, health or nutritional status). Primary vaccine failure describes the inability to respond to primary vaccination, and secondary vaccine failure is characterized by a loss of protection after initial effectiveness. Studies indicate that about 2%–10% of healthy individuals fail to mount antibody levels to routine vaccines. T-regulatory as well as B-regulatory cells and the production of IL-10 are involved in non/hypo-responsiveness to vaccination. Non-responsiveness increases with age, indicating that vaccine schedules and doses (at least for primary vaccination) should be adapted according to age. Studies also suggest that different vaccination approaches may be needed for allergic or obese individuals. The significant paradigm shift taking place in many fields of medical research and care should extend the concept of personalized medicine into the field of vaccinology.

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