Aluminum caused tics and grand mal seizures in monkeys.
Experimental Epilepsy in the Monkey Following Multiple Intracerebral Injections of Alumina Cream
Joseph G. Chusid, Lenore M. Kopeloff, Ph.D. and Nicholas Kopeloff, Ph.D. The Bulletin, 1953.
The multiple intracerebral injection of alumina cream (aluminum hydroxide cream) into a principal cerebral sensorimotor cortical area is effective in producing chronic epilepsy in monkeys. In all injected animals a variable degree of contralateral hemiparesis was obvious immediately after operation. In five of the six monkeys injected unilaterally, spontaneous contralateral focal motor seizures were evident three to four weeks after operation. Initially there occurred almost continuous twitch-like movements of varying amplitude and regularity, involving the musculature of the contralateral face and limbs. Excitement, agitation, movement or stress readily aggravated and accentuated this type of motor activity and sometimes led to Jacksonian spread with full-blown generalized convulsive seizure and exhaustion.