Science Library Category:

Thimerosal

Published: 2018
SYNOPSIS

There are statistical increases in the incidence rate of autism, mental retardation , and speech disorders after thimerosal-containing DTaP vaccines in comparison with thimerosal-free DTaP vaccines.

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Vaccination and autoimmunity-‘vaccinosis’: a dangerous liaison?

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Shoenfeld Y, Aron-Maor A. Journal of Autoimmunity, 2000 Feb; 14(1):1-10.

SUMMARY

An analysis of the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) database showed statistical increases in the incidence rate of autism (relative risk [RR] = 6.0), mental retardation (RR = 6.1), and speech disorders (RR = 2.2) after thimerosal-containing diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccines in comparison with thimerosal-free DTaP vaccines.

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Published: 2018
SYNOPSIS

An allergic response to thimerosal, nickel, mercury and cobalt often manifests as hand eczema.

TITLE

Hand eczema in children. Clinical and epidemiological study of the population referred to a tertiary hospital

CITATION

Ortiz-Salvador JM, Subiabre-Ferrer D, Rabasco AG, Esteve-Martínez A, Zaragoza-Ninet V, de Miquel VA. Anales de Pediatria (Barc.) 2018; 88:309—314.

SUMMARY

Hand eczema is a common condition in children. The most common cause is atopic dermatitis, although cases of allergic contact dermatitis manifesting as hand eczema are not uncommon. Using children with hand eczema exclusively, researchers conducted patch-testing. The most frequent allergens detected were thimerosal, nickel, mercury and cobalt.

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Published: 2018
SYNOPSIS

Mercury-associated diagnoses among children diagnosed with pervasive development disorders.

TITLE

Symptoms observed in pervasive developmental disorders such as autism overlap with symptoms of mercury poisoning.

CITATION

David A. Geier, Janet K. Kern, Lisa K. Sykes, Mark R. Geier. Metabolic Brain Disease, March 2018. doi: 10.1007/s11011-018-0211-9.

SUMMARY

Research indicates that environmental triggers are contributing to the childhood epidemics of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). The mercury-containing vaccine preservative thimerosal is a biologically plausible candidate to induce PDD. This study reveals that 12 symptom categories associated with mercury poisoning directly overlap with symptoms observed in children who have a PDD.

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Published: 2017
SYNOPSIS

The author calls for the complete removal of thimerosal in vaccines especially in developing countries where they are used most prevalently.

TITLE

Abating Mercury Exposure in Young Children Should Include Thimerosal-Free Vaccines

CITATION

José G. Dórea. Neurochemical Research, 2017, DOI 10.1007/s11064-017-2277-x.

SUMMARY

The author of this review article contrasts the medical outcomes of children who receive thimerosal-containing vaccines versus thimerosal-free vaccines. Neurological disorders have been shown to be associated with exposure to thimerosal in vaccines. The author calls for the complete removal of thimerosal in vaccines especially in developing countries where they are used most prevalently.

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Published: 2016
SYNOPSIS

Thimerosal reduces people’s ability to make all-important vitamin B12 compounds that help the body detoxify and control inflammation—and B12 deficiencies and severely impaired detoxification are hallmarks of autism.

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Alternatively Spliced Methionine Synthase in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells: Cobalamin and GSH Dependence and Inhibitory Effects of Neurotoxic Metals and Thimerosal

CITATION

Mostafa Waly, et al. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, Volume 2016, Article ID 6143753, 11 pages.

SUMMARY

Thimerosal inhibited cellular production of cobalamin necessary for detoxification and amelioration of oxidative stress. This caused lower methionine synthase activity and an impaired methylation capacity. Autistic subjects in general show cobalamin deficiencies and several impaired methylation.

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Published: 2016
SYNOPSIS

There is a significant increase in neurodevelopmental delays in children exposed to both Thimerosal (in vaccines) and methylmercury (in fish).

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Neurodevelopment of Amazonian children exposed to ethylmercury (from Thimerosal in vaccines) and methylmercury (from fish)

CITATION

Rejane C. Marques, Luciana Abreu, José V.E. Bernardi, José G. Dórea. Environmental Research, 149 (2016), 259–265.

SUMMARY

Amazonian children exposed to high and low levels of both ethyl and methylmercury were assessed using the Mental Developmental Index and Psychomotor Developmental Index. Statistically significant differences were seen in the high exposure group at 24 months in the mental developmental index only. Combined exposures led to developmental delays including the age of talking and the age of walking.

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Published: 2015
SYNOPSIS

There is evidence of a significant relationship between increasing organic mercury exposure from Thimerosal-containing vaccines and the subsequent risk of PDD diagnosis in males and females.

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A Case-Control Study Evaluating the Relationship Between Thimerosal-Containing Haemophilus influenzae Type b Vaccine Administration and the Risk for a Pervasive Developmental Disorder Diagnosis in the United States

CITATION

David A. Geier & Janet K. Kern & Paul G. King & Lisa K. Sykes & Mark R. Geier; Biological Trace Element Research, (2015) 163:28–38.

SUMMARY

In this case-control study of pervasive development disorder (PDD) in U.S. children, cases were consistently exposed to higher levels of thimerosal via infant vaccines at both 6 months of age and 15 months of age, based specifically on Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines. Differences between exposures in cases and controls were statistically significant at both ages evaluated.

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Published: 2015
SYNOPSIS

Thimerosal and methylmercury caused cell death in human neurons.

TITLE

Toxicity of organic and inorganic mercury species in differentiated human neurons and human astrocytes

CITATION

Hanna Lohren, Lara Blagojevic, Romy Fitkau, Franziska Ebert, Stefan Schildknecht, Marcel Leist, Tanja Schwerdtle. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 32 (2015) 200–208.

SUMMARY

Thimerosal and methylmercury caused cell death in differentiated human neurons and astrocytes. Differentiated neurons showed a massive uptake of ethylmercury (degradation product of thimerosal). This affirms the type of neural damage seen in patients with autism.

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Published: 2015
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Thimerosal exposure led to the death of neuroblastoma and liver cells due to inhibition of thioredoxin-based cellular metabolism. This is similar to neuronal damage associated with autistic disorder.

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Toxicological effects of thiomersal and ethylmercury: Inhibition of the thioredoxin system and NADP+-dependent dehydrogenases of the pentose phosphate pathway

CITATION

Juan Rodrigues, Vasco Branc, Jun Lu, Arne Holmgren, Cristina Carvalho. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 286 (2015) 216–223.

SUMMARY

This study demonstrates that Thimerosal and especially Ethylmercury affect specifically the antioxidant thioredoxin cycle and the production of NADPH by impairing the oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway, therefore showing that Trx, TrxR, G6PDH and 6PGDH are important molecular targets for these mercurial compounds. The impairment of these enzymes originates detrimental effects which are especially relevant to the central nervous system.

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Published: 2015
SYNOPSIS

Thimerosal exposure in humans many neurodevelopment deficits even at levels currently administered in vaccines.

TITLE

Thimerosal: Clinical, epidemiologic and biochemical studies

CITATION

David A. Geier, Paul G. King, Brian S. Hooker, José G. Dórea, Janet K. Kern,
Lisa K. Sykes, Mark R. Geier.Clinica Chimica Acta, 444 (2015) 212–220 February 2015.

SUMMARY

This review article includes a section on numerous papers linking thimerosal exposure via infant vaccines to autism. The publication also includes a critique of studies supported or conducted by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) that deny any associations between exposure to thimerosal in vaccines and the subsequent development of autism. The CDC has been criticized by Congress for inherent conflicts of interest related to its vaccine development activities and role in vaccine safety oversight.

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Published: 2014
SYNOPSIS

Blood levels of mercury and lead were found to be much higher in autistic children as compared to normal controls. Upon chelation, the blood levels of these heavy metals decreased and autistic symptoms improved.

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Autism: A form of lead and mercury toxicity

CITATION

Heba A. Yassa; Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 38 (October 2014), 1016-1024.

SUMMARY

The aim of this study is to find out the relation between exposure to Lead and/or mercury as heavy metals and autistic symptoms, dealing with the heavy metals with chelating agents can improve the autistic symptoms. The results obtained showed significant difference among the two groups, there was high level of mercury and lead among those kids with autism. Significant decline in the blood level of lead and mercury with the use of DMSA as a chelating agent. In addition, there was decline in the autistic symptoms with the decrease in the lead and mercury level in blood.

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Published: 2014
SYNOPSIS

Neurodevelopmental disorders are much more common in children who received mercury-containing vaccines.

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A Dose-Response Relationship between Organic Mercury Exposure from Thimerosal-Containing Vaccines and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

CITATION

David A. Geier, Brian S. Hooker, Janet K. Kern, Paul G. King, Lisa K. Sykes, and Mark R. Geier, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2014, 11, 9156-9170; doi:10.3390/ijerph110909156

SUMMARY

On a per microgram of organic-mercury (Hg) basis, Pervasive Developmental Disorder, specific developmental disorder, tic disorder and hyperkinetic syndrome of childhood cases were significantly more likely than controls to receive increased organic-Hg exposure. This study provides new epidemiological evidence supporting a significant relationship between increasing organic-Hg exposure from vaccines and the subsequent risk of an Neurodevelopmental Disorder diagnosis.

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Published: 2014
SYNOPSIS

Background data (not reported in print) suggests a strong link between thimerosal exposure and autism.

TITLE

Methodological Issues and Evidence of Malfeasance in Research Purporting to Show Thimerosal in Vaccines Is Safe

CITATION

Brian Hooker, Janet Kern, David Geier, Boyd Haley, Lisa Sykes, Paul King, and Mark Geier; BioMed Research International, Volume 2014, Article ID 247218, 8 pages.

SUMMARY

This review article shows methodological flaws in six separate CDC studies claiming that thimerosal does not cause autism. In three specific instances (Madsen et al. 2003, Verstraeten et al. 2003 and Price et al. 2010) evidence of malfeasance on the part of CDC scientists is shown. Background data (not reported in print) from these three publications suggest a strong link between thimerosal exposure and autism.

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Published: 2014
SYNOPSIS

Chinese scientists find mice injected with thimerosal (vaccine mercury) have behavioral impairments similar to autism.

TITLE

Transcriptomic Analyses of Neurotoxic Effects in Mouse Brain After Intermittent Neonatal Administration of Thimerosal

CITATION

Xiaoling Li,, et al., Toxicological Sciences 139(2), 452–465 2014
doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfu049.

SUMMARY

“Thimerosal-treated mice exhibited neural development delay, social interaction deficiency, and inclination of depression. Apparent neuropathological changes were also observed in adult mice neonatally treated with thimerosal. High-throughput RNA sequencing of autistic-behaved mice brains revealed the alternation of a number of canonical path- ways involving neuronal development, neuronal synaptic function, and the dysregulation of endocrine system.”

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Published: 2013
SYNOPSIS

Infants receiving mercury-containing vaccines had much higher rates of autism than infants receiving vaccines without mercury.

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A two-phase study evaluating the relationship between Thimerosal-containing vaccine administration and the risk for an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in the United States

CITATION

David A. Geier, Brian S. Hooker, Janet K. Kern, Paul G. King, Lisa K. Sykes, Mark R. Geier. Translational Neurodegeneration, 2013, 2:25.

SUMMARY

“The present study provides new epidemiological evidence supporting an association between increasing organic-Hg [mercury] exposure from Thimerosal-containing childhood vaccines and the subsequent risk of ASD [autism] diagnosis.”

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Published: 2013
SYNOPSIS

This article highlights the connection between infant and prenatal thimerosal exposure and neurological disorders.

TITLE

Low-Dose Mercury Exposure in Early Life: Relevance of Thimerosal to Fetuses, Newborns and Infants

CITATION

José G. Dórea. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 2013, 20, 4060-4069.

SUMMARY

This review article highlights the scientifically affirmed connection between infant and prenatal thimerosal exposure and neurological disorders, including tic disorder, which has been shown to be much more prevalent in children with autism. The author also delineates the use of thimerosal in vaccines in developing countries at a greater exposure level than developed countries such as the U.S.

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Published: 2012
SYNOPSIS

Polish scientists propose new vaccine schedule, express concern at high rate of vaccine adverse events.

TITLE

Neurologic adverse events following vaccination

CITATION

Sienkiewicz D., Kulak W., Okurowska-Zawada B., Paszko-Patej G. Progress in Health Sciences, 2012, Vol 2 , No1.

SUMMARY

“Thus, it is not reasonable to assume that manipulation of the immune system through an increasing number of vaccinations during critical periods of brain development will not result in adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. European countries have different models of vaccination that have been modified in recent decades. In Scandinavian countries, which have the lowest infant mortality, vaccinations are voluntary and infants receive their first vaccination at 3 months of age. In the first year of life, they receive 9 recommended vaccinations, and at 18 months – MMR. The acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) is used, as well as IPV. BCG and Hepatitis B vaccines are administered to children from high risk groups. Similar vaccination schedules exist in other European countries, where the vaccination of neonates was abandoned and a ban on the use of thimerosal in vaccines was introduced. Note also that Scandinavian countries have the lowest rates of autism compared to other developed countries in which children are vaccinated much earlier and with greater number of vaccines.”

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Published: 2011
SYNOPSIS

Harvard researchers find vaccine mercury impacts neurodevelopment in rats.

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Maternal Thimerosal Exposure Results in Aberrant Cerebellar Oxidative Stress, Thyroid Hormone Metabolism, and Motor Behavior in Rat Pups; Sex- and Strain-Dependent Effects

CITATION

Z. L. Sulkowski & T. Chen & S. Midha & A. M. Zavacki & Elizabeth M. Sajdel-Sulkowska. Cerebellum, (2012) 11:575–586.

SUMMARY

“Our data indicate that maternal TM exposure results in a delayed auditory maturation and impaired motor learning in rat pups. Factors that may contribute to these abnormalities include increased cerebellar oxidative stress and decreased D2 activity resulting local intracerebellar T3 deficiency and altered TH-dependent gene expression. Indeed, provided here is the first evidence of altered TH-dependent gene expression following TM exposure. Our data thus demonstrate a negative neurodevelopmental impact of perinatal TM exposure, which appears to be both strain- and sex-dependent. Although, additional studies are needed, data derived from TM exposure in rats may provide clues relevant to understanding neurodevelopmental consequences of TM exposure in humans.”

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Published: 2010
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Baby monkeys given U.S. vaccine schedule had brain abnormalities in region responsible for social and emotional development.

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Influence of pediatric vaccines on amygdala growth and opioid ligand binding in rhesus macaque infants: A pilot study

CITATION

Laura Hewitson, Brian J. Lopresti, Carol Stott, N. Scott Mason and Jaime Tomko1. ACTA Neurobiological Experimentals, 2010 70: 147–164.

SUMMARY

“The data suggest that vaccine exposure may be associated with significant disturbances in central opioidergic pathways in this model… Volumetric analyses identified significantly greater total brain volume in exposed compared with unexposed animals at both measured time points. These results raise the possibility that multiple vaccine exposures during the previous 3-4 months may have had a significant impact on brain growth and development.”

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Published: 2009
SYNOPSIS

Newborn monkeys given a mercury-containing hepatitis b vaccine had significant delays in neonatal reflexes and neurological development.

TITLE

Delayed acquisition of neonatal reflexes in newborn primates receiving a thimerosal-containing Hepatitis B vaccine: Influence of gestational age and birth weight

CITATION

Laura Hewitson, Lisa A. Houser, Carol Stott, Gene Sackett, Jaime L. Tomko, David Atwood, Lisa Blue, E. Railey White, Andrew J. Wakefield. NeuroToxicology, 2009; doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2009.09.008.

SUMMARY

“In summary, this study provides preliminary evidence of abnormal early neurodevelopmental responses in male infant rhesus macaques receiving a single dose of Th-containing HB vaccine at birth and indicates that further investigation is merited.”

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Published: 2008
SYNOPSIS

A CDC-sponsored database showed much higher rates of neurodevelopmental disabilities from mercury-containing vaccines.

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Thimerosal exposure in infants and neurodevelopmental disorders: An assessment of computerized medical records in the Vaccine Safety Datalink

CITATION

Heather A. Young, David A. Geier, Mark R. Geier. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 2008, 121:626-31.

SUMMARY

“Consistent significantly increased rate ratios were observed for autism, autism spectrum disorders, tics, attention deficit disorder, and emotional disturbances with Hg exposure from TCVs. By contrast, none of the control outcomes had significantly increased rate ratios with Hg exposure from TCVs.”

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Published: 2005
SYNOPSIS

The mercury used as a vaccine preservative is far more neurotoxic than the mercury found in fish.

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Comparison of Blood and Brain Mercury Levels in Infant Monkeys Exposed to Methylmercury or Vaccines Containing Thimerosal

CITATION

Thomas M. Burbacher, Danny D. Shen, Noelle Liberato, Kimberly S. Grant, Elsa Cernichiari, and Thomas Clarkson. Environmental Health Perspectives, Volume 113, Number 8, August 2005.

SUMMARY

The mercury used in vaccines (and still in the flu vaccine given to pregnant women) is far more toxic than the mercury found in fish, because it stays in the brain at much higher levels. “Data from the present study support the prediction that, although little accumulation of Hg in the blood occurs over time with repeated vaccinations, accumulation of Hg in the brain of infants will occur. Thus, conclusion regarding the safety of thimerosal drawn from blood Hg clearance data in human infants receiving vaccines may not be valid, given the significantly slower half-life of Hg in the brain as observed in the infant macaques. There was a much higher proportion of inorganic Hg in the brain of thimerosal monkeys than in the brains of MeHg monkeys (up to 71% vs. 10%). Absolute inorganic Hg concentrations in the brains of the thimerosal-exposed monkeys were approximately twice that of the MeHg monkeys.”

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Published: 2005
SYNOPSIS

Many heavy metals increase the apparent toxicity of low levels of mercury.

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Mercury toxicity: Genetic susceptibility and synergistic effects

CITATION

B.E. Haley. Medical Veritas, 2 (2005) 535–542.

SUMMARY

This article discusses mercury intoxication and several normally appearing factors that increase the susceptibility to mercury toxicity. Boys with autism represent a subset of the population that is more susceptible to the toxic effects of mercury and thimerosal because they are not efficient excretors of these toxic materials. Research confirms that a lead toxic person would be more susceptible to mercury toxicity than a healthy, non-toxic person researchers routinely observed that many heavy metals increase the apparent toxicity of low levels of mercury. In other words, the synergistic effects of other heavy metals, diet, antibiotics, etc. on mercury toxicity make it impossible to define a “safe level of mercury exposure.”

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Published: 2005
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Vaccine mercury depletes a vital antioxidant, glutathione.

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Thimerosal Neurotoxicity is Associated with Glutathione Depletion: Protection with Glutathione Precursors

CITATION

S.J. James, William Slikker, Stepan Melnyk, Elizabeth New,
Marta Pogribna, Stefanie Jernigan. NeuroToxicology, 26 (2005) 1–8.

SUMMARY

“Thimerosal is an antiseptic containing 49.5% ethyl mercury that has been used for years as a preservative in many infant vaccines and in flu vaccines. Environmental methyl mercury has been shown to be highly neurotoxic, especially to the developing brain. Because mercury has a high affinity for thiol (sulfhydryl (-SH)) groups, the thiol-containing antioxidant, glutathione (GSH), provides the major intracellular defense against mercury-induced neurotoxicity. Cultured neuroblastoma cells were found to have lower levels of GSH and increased sensitivity to thimerosal toxicity compared to glioblastoma cells that have higher basal levels of intracellular GSH. Thimerosal-induced cytotoxicity was associated with depletion of intracellular GSH in both cell lines. Although Thimerosal has been recently removed from most children’s vaccines, it is still present in flu vaccines given to pregnant women, the elderly, and to children in developing countries.”

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Published: 2004
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Scientists identify vaccine mercury’s role in blocking crucial neurodevelopmental pathways.

TITLE

Activation of methionine synthase by insulin-like growth factor-1 and dopamine: a target for neurodevelopmental toxins and thimerosal

CITATION

M Waly, H Olteanu, R Banerjee, S-W Choi, JB Mason, BS Parker, S Sukumar, S Shim,
A Sharma, JM Benzecry, V-A Power-Charnitsky and RC Deth. Molecular Psychiatry , (2004) 9, 358–370.

SUMMARY

“The ethylmercury-containing preservative thimerosal inhibited both IGF-1- and dopamine-stimulated methylation with an IC50 of 1nM and eliminated MS activity. Our findings outline a novel growth factor signaling pathway that regulates MS activity and thereby modulates methylation reactions, including DNA methylation. The potent inhibition of this pathway by ethanol, lead, mercury, aluminum and thimerosal suggest that it may be an important target of neurodevelopmental toxins.”

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Published: 2000
SYNOPSIS

Infants receiving mercury-containing vaccines developed speech disorders, sleep disorders, and autism, according to CDC scientists.

TITLE

Increased risk of developmental neurologic impairment after high exposure to thimerosal-containing vaccine in first month of life

CITATION

Thomas M. Verstraeten, R. Davies, D. Gu, F DeStefano Proceedings of the Epidemic Intelligence Service Annual Conference, April 2000.

SUMMARY

“This analysis suggests that high exposure to ethylmercury from thimerosal-containing vaccines in the first month of life increases the risk of subsequent development of neurologic development impairment.”

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Published: 2000
SYNOPSIS

Vaccines with mercury significantly raised the body levels of mercury in infants.

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Iatrogenic exposure to mercury after hepatitis B vaccination in preterm infants

CITATION

Gregory V. Stajich, Gaylord P. Lopez, Sokei W. Harry, and William R. Sexson. Journal of Pediatrics, 2000, 136, 679-81.

SUMMARY

“Thimerosal, a derivative of mercury, is used as a preservative in hepatitis B vaccines. We measured total mercury levels before and after the administration of this vaccine in 15 preterm and 5 term infants. Comparison of pre- and post-vaccination mercury levels showed a significant increase in both preterm and term infants after vaccination. Additionally, post-vaccination mercury levels were significantly higher in preterm infants as compared with term infants. Because mercury is known to be a potential neurotoxin to infants, further study of its pharmacodynamics is warranted.”

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