Science Library Category:

Ethyl Mercury - Thimerosal

Published: 2020
SYNOPSIS

In susceptible individuals, chronic low Hg exposure may trigger local and systemic inflammation, even exacerbating the already existing autoimmune response in patients with autoimmunity.

TITLE

Mercury-induced autoimmunity: Drifting from micro to macro concerns on autoimmune disorders

CITATION

Bjorklund, G., M. Peana, M. Dadar, S. Chirumbolo, J. Aaseth, and N. Martins. 2020. ‘Mercury-induced autoimmunity: Drifting from micro to macro concerns on autoimmune disorders’, Clin Immunol: 108352.

SUMMARY

Mercury (Hg) is widely recognized as a neurotoxic metal, besides it can also act as a proinflammatory agent and immunostimulant, depending on individual exposure and susceptibility. Mercury exposure may arise from internal body pathways, such as via dental amalgams, preservatives in drugs and vaccines, and seafood consumption, or even from external pathways, i.e., occupation, environmental pollution, and handling of metallic items and cosmetics containing Hg. In susceptible individuals, chronic low Hg exposure may trigger local and systemic inflammation, even exacerbating the already existing autoimmune response in patients with autoimmunity. Mercury exposure can trigger dysfunction of the autoimmune responses and aggravate immunotoxic effects associated with elevated serum autoantibodies titers. The purpose of the present report is to provide a critical overview of the many issues associated with Hg exposure and autoimmunity. In addition, the paper also focuses on individual susceptibility and other health effects of Hg.

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Published: 2019
SYNOPSIS

In this US urban, multi-ethnic population, elevated in utero Hg exposure was associated with a higher risk of over weight / obesity in childhood, and such risk was enhanced by maternal over weight / obesity and/or diabetes and reduced by adequate maternal folate.

TITLE

In utero exposure to mercury and childhood overweight or obesity: counteracting effect of maternal folate status

CITATION

Wang et al. BMC Medicine (2019) 17:216 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1442-2

SUMMARY

Low-dose mercury (Hg) exposure has been associated with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and obesity in adults, but it is unknown the metabolic consequence of in utero Mercury exposure. This study aimed to investigate the association between in utero Mercury exposure and child overweight or obesity (OWO) and to explore if adequate maternal folate can mitigate Mercury toxicity.

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Published: 2018
SYNOPSIS

There are statistical increases in the incidence rate of autism, mental retardation , and speech disorders after thimerosal-containing DTaP vaccines in comparison with thimerosal-free DTaP vaccines.

TITLE

Vaccination and autoimmunity-‘vaccinosis’: a dangerous liaison?

CITATION

Shoenfeld Y, Aron-Maor A. Journal of Autoimmunity. 2000 Feb;14(1):1-10.

SUMMARY

An analysis of the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) database showed statistical increases in the incidence rate of autism (relative risk [RR] = 6.0), mental retardation (RR = 6.1), and speech disorders (RR = 2.2) after thimerosal-containing diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccines in comparison with thimerosal-free DTaP vaccines.

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Published: 2018
SYNOPSIS

An allergic response to thimerosal, nickel, mercury and cobalt often manifests as hand eczema.

TITLE

Hand eczema in children. Clinical and epidemiological study of the population referred to a tertiary hospital

CITATION

Ortiz-Salvador JM, Subiabre-Ferrer D, Rabasco AG, Esteve-Martínez A, Zaragoza-Ninet V, de Miquel VA. Anales de Pediatria (Barc.) 2018;88:309-314.

SUMMARY

Hand eczema is a common condition in children. The most common cause is atopic dermatitis, although cases of allergic contact dermatitis manifesting as hand eczema are not uncommon. Using children with hand eczema exclusively, researchers conducted patch-testing. The most frequent allergens detected were thimerosal, nickel, mercury and cobalt.

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Published: 2018
SYNOPSIS

Mercury-associated diagnoses are common among children diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorders.

TITLE

Symptoms observed in pervasive developmental disorders such as autism overlap with symptoms of mercury poisoning.

CITATION

Geier DA, Kern JK, Sykes LK, Geier MR. Metabolic Brain Disease. March 2018. doi: 10.1007/s11011-018-0211-9.

SUMMARY

Research indicates that environmental triggers are contributing to the childhood epidemics of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). The mercury-containing vaccine preservative thimerosal is a biologically plausible candidate to induce PDD. This study reveals that 12 symptom categories associated with mercury poisoning directly overlap with symptoms observed in children who have a PDD.

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Published: 2017
SYNOPSIS

The author calls for the complete removal of thimerosal in vaccines especially in developing countries where they are used most prevalently.

TITLE

Abating Mercury Exposure in Young Children Should Include Thimerosal-Free Vaccines

CITATION

José G. Dórea. Neurochemical Research, 2017, DOI 10.1007/s11064-017-2277-x.

SUMMARY

The author of this review article contrasts the medical outcomes of children who receive thimerosal-containing vaccines versus thimerosal-free vaccines. Neurological disorders have been shown to be associated with exposure to thimerosal in vaccines. The author calls for the complete removal of thimerosal in vaccines especially in developing countries where they are used most prevalently.

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Published: 2016
SYNOPSIS

Thimerosal reduces people’s ability to make all-important vitamin B12 compounds that help the body detoxify and control inflammation—and B12 deficiencies and severely impaired detoxification are hallmarks of autism.

TITLE

Alternatively spliced methionine synthase in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells: Cobalamin and GSH dependence and inhibitory effects of neurotoxic metals and thimerosal

CITATION

Waly M, Power-Charnitsky V-A, Hodgson N, … Deth R. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2016, Article ID 6143753.

SUMMARY

Thimerosal inhibited cellular production of cobalamin necessary for detoxification and amelioration of oxidative stress. This caused lower methionine synthase activity and an impaired methylation capacity. Autistic subjects in general show cobalamin deficiencies and severely impaired methylation.

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Published: 2016
SYNOPSIS

There is a significant increase in neurodevelopmental delays in children exposed to both Thimerosal (in vaccines) and methylmercury (in fish).

TITLE

Neurodevelopment of Amazonian children exposed to ethylmercury (from Thimerosal in vaccines) and methylmercury (from fish)

CITATION

Marques RC, Abreu L, Bernardi JVE, Dórea JG. Environmental Research. 2016;149:259–265.

SUMMARY

Amazonian children exposed to high and low levels of both ethyl- and methylmercury were assessed using the Mental Developmental Index and Psychomotor Developmental Index. The researchers observed statistically significant differences in the high-exposure group at 24 months in the Mental Developmental Index. Combined exposures led to developmental delays, including the age of talking and the age of walking.

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Published: 2015
SYNOPSIS

There is evidence of a significant relationship between increasing organic mercury exposure from Thimerosal-containing vaccines and the subsequent risk of PDD diagnosis in males and females.

TITLE

A Case-Control Study Evaluating the Relationship Between Thimerosal-Containing Haemophilus influenzae Type b Vaccine Administration and the Risk for a Pervasive Developmental Disorder Diagnosis in the United States

CITATION

David A. Geier & Janet K. Kern & Paul G. King & Lisa K. Sykes & Mark R. Geier; Biological Trace Element Research, (2015) 163:28–38.

SUMMARY

In this case-control study of pervasive development disorder (PDD) in U.S. children, cases were consistently exposed to higher levels of thimerosal via infant vaccines at both 6 months of age and 15 months of age, based specifically on Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines. Differences between exposures in cases and controls were statistically significant at both ages evaluated.

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Published: 2015
SYNOPSIS

Thimerosal and methylmercury cause cell death in human neurons.

TITLE

Toxicity of organic and inorganic mercury species in differentiated human neurons and human astrocytes

CITATION

Lohren H, Blagojevic L, Fitkau R, et al. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. 2015;32:200–208.

SUMMARY

Thimerosal and methylmercury caused cell death in differentiated human neurons and astrocytes. Differentiated neurons showed a massive uptake of ethylmercury (degradation product of thimerosal). This affirms the type of neural damage seen in patients with autism.

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Published: 2015
SYNOPSIS

Thimerosal exposure led to the death of neuroblastoma and liver cells due to inhibition of thioredoxin-based cellular metabolism. This is similar to neuronal damage associated with autistic disorder.

TITLE

Toxicological effects of thiomersal and ethylmercury: Inhibition of the thioredoxin system and NADP+-dependent dehydrogenases of the pentose phosphate pathway

CITATION

Juan Rodrigues, Vasco Branc, Jun Lu, Arne Holmgren, Cristina Carvalho. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 286 (2015) 216–223.

SUMMARY

This study demonstrates that Thimerosal and especially Ethylmercury affect specifically the antioxidant thioredoxin cycle and the production of NADPH by impairing the oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway, therefore showing that Trx, TrxR, G6PDH and 6PGDH are important molecular targets for these mercurial compounds. The impairment of these enzymes originates detrimental effects which are especially relevant to the central nervous system.

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Published: 2015
SYNOPSIS

Thimerosal exposure in humans is associated with neurodevelopmental deficits even at levels currently administered in vaccines.

TITLE

Thimerosal: Clinical, epidemiologic and biochemical studies

CITATION

Geier DA, King PG, Hooker BS, Dórea JG, Kern JK, Sykes LK, Geier MR. Clinica Chimica Acta. 2015;444:212–220.

SUMMARY

This review article includes a section on numerous papers linking thimerosal exposure via infant vaccines to autism. The publication also includes a critique of studies supported or conducted by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) that deny any associations between exposure to thimerosal in vaccines and the subsequent development of autism. Congress has criticized the CDC for conflicts of interest related to its vaccine development activities and role in vaccine safety oversight.

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Published: 2014
SYNOPSIS

Blood levels of mercury and lead are much higher in autistic children as compared to normal controls.

TITLE

Autism: A form of lead and mercury toxicity

CITATION

Yassa HA. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. 2014;38:1016-1024.

SUMMARY

The aim of this study was to find out the relation between exposure to lead and/or mercury as heavy metals and autistic symptoms and assess use of chelating agents for dealing with heavy metals and improving autistic symptoms. The results showed significantly higher levels of mercury and lead among children with autism compared to children without autism, and a significant decline in the blood levels of lead and mercury with the use of DMSA as a chelating agent. In addition, there was a decline in autistic symptoms with the decrease in the lead and mercury levels in blood.

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Published: 2014
SYNOPSIS

Neurodevelopmental disorders are much more common in children who received mercury-containing vaccines.

TITLE

A dose-response relationship between organic mercury exposure from thimerosal-containing vaccines and neurodevelopmental disorders

CITATION

Geier DA, Hooker BS, Kern JK, King PG, Sykes LK, Geier MR. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014;11:9156-9170.

SUMMARY

On a per microgram of organic-mercury (Hg) basis, pervasive developmental disorder, specific developmental disorder, tic disorder and hyperkinetic syndrome of childhood cases were significantly more likely than controls to receive increased organic-Hg exposure. This study provides new epidemiological evidence supporting a significant relationship between increasing organic-Hg exposure from vaccines and the subsequent risk of a neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosis.

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Published: 2014
SYNOPSIS

Background data (not reported in print) suggest a strong link between thimerosal exposure and autism.

TITLE

Methodological issues and evidence of malfeasance in research purporting to show thimerosal in vaccines is safe

CITATION

Hooker B, Kern J, Geier D, Haley B, Sykes L, King P, Geier M. BioMed Research International. 2014, Article ID 247218.

SUMMARY

This review article shows methodological flaws in six separate CDC studies claiming that thimerosal does not cause autism. In three specific instances (Madsen et al. 2003, Verstraeten et al. 2003 and Price et al. 2010), evidence of malfeasance on the part of CDC scientists is shown. Background data (not reported in print) from these three publications suggest a strong link between thimerosal exposure and autism.

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Published: 2014
SYNOPSIS

Chinese scientists find mice injected with thimerosal (vaccine mercury) have behavioral impairments similar to autism.

TITLE

Transcriptomic analyses of neurotoxic effects in mouse brain after intermittent neonatal administration of thimerosal

CITATION

Li X, Qu F, Xie W, et al. Toxicological Sciences. 2014;139:452–465.

SUMMARY

“Thimerosal-treated mice exhibited neural development delay, social interaction deficiency, and inclination of depression. Apparent neuropathological changes were also observed in adult mice neonatally treated with thimerosal. High-throughput RNA sequencing of autistic-behaved mice brains revealed the alternation of a number of canonical pathways involving neuronal development, neuronal synaptic function, and the dysregulation of endocrine system.”

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Published: 2013
SYNOPSIS

Research has determined there is a subgroup of the population that has hypersensitivity to the toxicity of thimerosal yet thimerosal containing vaccines are administered to all without consideration to this important fact. We can ban peanuts from schools because a subpopulation is allergic to them, so why is thimerosal still contained in our vaccines?

TITLE

B-lymphocytes from a population of children with autism spectrum disorder and their unaffected siblings exhibit hypersensitivity to thimerosal.

CITATION

Sharpe MA, Gist TL, Baskin DS. J Toxicol. 2013;2013:801517. doi: 10.1155/2013/801517. Epub 2013 Jun 9.

SUMMARY

Two medications (valproate and thalidomide) have been definitively shown to be causative with regards to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Both of these medications share a common trait of inhibiting cell proliferation. Thus, these researchers set out to determine if thimerosal can inhibit cell proliferation using doses of thimerosal which reflect the concentrations that infants are exposed to via vaccinations. The design of this experiment was chosen to be able to distinguish between shared or different in utero environments among families with an ASD member. To accomplish this goal, B-cells were collected from, ASD individuals, their unaffected fraternal twins representing a shared in utero environment, and their unaffected nontwin siblings. In the same manner, B-cells were collected from control families with no history of ASD which were matched for age/sex/ethnicity and compared to ASD families. It was determined that there is a hypersensitivity to thimerosal among a subpopulation of ASD families. The target of thimerosal toxicity is the mitochondria and cell proliferation was inhibited at a dose that was lower than that required to cause cell death.  Among the hypersensitive population, the dose of thimerosal that could inhibit cell proliferation was found to be only 40% of that needed to inhibit proliferation in the control group. Whether a twin or sibling was hypersensitive was dependent on having another family member with hypersensitivity. This finding implies there is a genetic component to thimerosal hypersensitivity. Among the ASD families with hypersensitivity oxidative stress was determined to be the contributing factor. Poor antioxidant status, high lactate levels, and elevated markers of oxidative stress are a common finding among individuals with ASD. In 2008 the case of Hannah Poling was awarded compensation under the United States National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. It was claimed that her vaccines induced a mitochondrial encephalopathy that resulted in autism. Since the mitochondria is the most significant target of thimerosal toxicity, it is particularly poignant to know that a lowering of antioxidant status by any other additional conditions such as infections or co-exposure to other toxins would further sensitize mitochondria to the damaging effects of thimerosal. These researchers state that their work, “…supports a multi-insult model of ASD causation where many individuals have the genetic background that makes them vulnerable to a particular type of insult at a particular time in their brain development…”. Just like valproate and thalidomide which are the only 2 accepted causative agents for ASD, this research has demonstrated that thimerosal is also capable of inhibiting cell proliferation.

 

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Published: 2013
SYNOPSIS

An animal model of early life exposure to thimerosal finds it adversely impacts learning and memory and may be associated with the development of autism in susceptible individuals.

TITLE

Effect of thimerosal on the neurodevelopment of premature rats.

CITATION

Chen YN, Wang J, Zhang J, Li SJ, He L, Shao DD, Du HY. World J Pediatr. 2013 Nov;9(4):356-60. doi: 10.1007/s12519-013-0443-z. Epub 2013 Nov 14.

SUMMARY

Thimerosal is a preservative used in vaccines and contains approximately 49% mercury. This animal model study was undertaken to investigate the neurodevelopmental effect of exposure to thimerosal in premature rats. Four groups of premature rats received four different doses of thimerosal (32.8, 65.6, 98.4 or 131.2 μg/kg) injected into the gluteus maximus on postnatal day 1. A fifth group served as a control and received a saline injection. Tests were performed 44-48 days post injection to determine spatial learning and memory function. On day 49 the animals were euthanized and prepared for immunohistochemical staining to determine the expression of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4), serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) and apoptosis (programmed cell death) in the prefrontal cortex. The DRD4 receptor is associated with memory function while the 5-HT2AR receptor correlates with episodic memory. Previous rat studies have demonstrated that early life exposure to thimerosal alters the dopamine and serotonin systems. Similarly, this study found a significant decrease in the expression of DRD4, 5-HT2AR and learning at the highest dose of thimerosal. The decrease in receptor expression correlated with increased levels of apoptosis. In all but the lowest exposure group, memory function was significantly decreased when compare to the control group. The authors close by saying, “In conclusion, our results are consistent with previous studies in mice, rats, rhesus macaques, and humans, demonstrate that exposure to mercury from thimerosal- containing vaccines in susceptible populations, such as premature infants, may be associated with neurodevelopmental disorders like autism.”

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Published: 2013
SYNOPSIS

Infants receiving mercury-containing vaccines had much higher rates of autism than infants receiving vaccines without mercury.

TITLE

A two-phase study evaluating the relationship between Thimerosal-containing vaccine administration and the risk for an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in the United States

CITATION

Geier DA, Hooker BS, Kern JK, King PG, Sykes LK, Geier MR. Translational Neurodegeneration. 2013;2:25.

SUMMARY

“The present study provides new epidemiological evidence supporting an association between increasing organic-Hg [mercury] exposure from Thimerosal-containing childhood vaccines and the subsequent risk of ASD [autism] diagnosis.”

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Published: 2013
SYNOPSIS

There is a connection between infant and prenatal thimerosal exposure and neurological disorders.

TITLE

Low-dose mercury exposure in early life: Relevance of thimerosal to fetuses, newborns and infants

CITATION

Dórea JG. Current Medicinal Chemistry. 2013;20:4060-4069.

SUMMARY

This review article highlights the scientifically affirmed connection between infant and prenatal thimerosal exposure and neurological disorders, including tic disorder, which has been shown to be much more prevalent in children with autism. The author also delineates the use of thimerosal in vaccines in developing countries at a greater exposure level than developed countries such as the U.S.

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Published: 2012
SYNOPSIS

Polish scientists propose new vaccine schedule, express concern at high rate of vaccine adverse events.

TITLE

Neurologic adverse events following vaccination

CITATION

Sienkiewicz D, Kulak W, Okurowska-Zawada B, Paszko-Patej G. Progress in Health Sciences. 2012;2.

SUMMARY

“[I]t is not reasonable to assume that manipulation of the immune system through an increasing number of vaccinations during critical periods of brain development will not result in adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. European countries have different models of vaccination that have been modified in recent decades. In Scandinavian countries, which have the lowest infant mortality, vaccinations are voluntary and infants receive their first vaccination at 3 months of age. In the first year of life, they receive 9 recommended vaccinations, and at 18 months – MMR. The acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) is used, as well as IPV. BCG and Hepatitis B vaccines are administered to children from high risk groups. Similar vaccination schedules exist in other European countries, where the vaccination of neonates was abandoned and a ban on the use of thimerosal in vaccines was introduced. Note also that Scandinavian countries have the lowest rates of autism compared to other developed countries in which children are vaccinated much earlier and with greater number of vaccines.”

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Published: 2011
SYNOPSIS

Harvard researchers find vaccine mercury impacts neurodevelopment in rats.

TITLE

Maternal Thimerosal Exposure Results in Aberrant Cerebellar Oxidative Stress, Thyroid Hormone Metabolism, and Motor Behavior in Rat Pups; Sex- and Strain-Dependent Effects

CITATION

Z. L. Sulkowski & T. Chen & S. Midha & A. M. Zavacki & Elizabeth M. Sajdel-Sulkowska. Cerebellum, (2012) 11:575–586.

SUMMARY

“Our data indicate that maternal TM exposure results in a delayed auditory maturation and impaired motor learning in rat pups. Factors that may contribute to these abnormalities include increased cerebellar oxidative stress and decreased D2 activity resulting local intracerebellar T3 deficiency and altered TH-dependent gene expression. Indeed, provided here is the first evidence of altered TH-dependent gene expression following TM exposure. Our data thus demonstrate a negative neurodevelopmental impact of perinatal TM exposure, which appears to be both strain- and sex-dependent. Although, additional studies are needed, data derived from TM exposure in rats may provide clues relevant to understanding neurodevelopmental consequences of TM exposure in humans.”

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Published: 2011
SYNOPSIS

Exposure to thimerosal at vaccine relevant doses alters behavior and brain neurochemistry in a rat model. Based on their findings the authors call for removal of thimerosal from all medicinal products intended for use by children and pregnant women.

TITLE

Persistent behavioral impairments and alterations of brain dopamine system after early postnatal administration of thimerosal in rats.

CITATION

Olczak M, Duszczyk M, Mierzejewski P, Meyza K, Majewska MD. Behav Brain Res. 2011 Sep 30;223(1):107-18. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2011.04.026. Epub 2011 Apr 28.

SUMMARY

The preservative thimerosal added to some vaccines contains about 49% mercury by weight. The toxic effects of thimerosal are dependent on a number of variables including: age of exposure, sex, genetics, tissue concentrations, nutritional adequacy and co-exposures to other toxic chemicals and/or infections. Using a rat animal model, these researchers investigated a series of tests to determine the association of early postnatal exposure to thimerosal on behavioral, neurochemical and neuropathological outcomes. A variety of dose exposures were chosen and were administered by injection i.m. into the glutei maximi in four equal doses on postnatal days 7, 9, 11 and 15. The lowest dose of 12 micro grams of mercury per kilogram of weight was within the range of dose achieved in pediatric vaccines. The higher doses of 240, 1440 and 3000 were used, in part, to account for the lower sensitivity that rats have to the toxic effects of mercury compared to humans. A control cohort received injections of saline. According to the authors, the specific tests utilized were based on behaviors, “which are characteristically altered in autism, such as locomotor activity, anxiety, social interactions, spatial learning, and on the brain dopaminergic system”. Male rats treated with the lowest thimerosal dose (or higher) had a significant reduction in general locomotor activity while in the females this only occurred at the highest thimerosal dose. Such a sexual dimorphism is consistent with males being more sensitive to the neurotoxic property of mercury.

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Published: 2010
SYNOPSIS

Baby monkeys given U.S. vaccine schedule had brain abnormalities in region responsible for social and emotional development.

TITLE

Influence of pediatric vaccines on amygdala growth and opioid ligand binding in rhesus macaque infants: A pilot study

CITATION

Laura Hewitson, Brian J. Lopresti, Carol Stott, N. Scott Mason and Jaime Tomko1. ACTA Neurobiological Experimentals, 2010 70: 147–164.

SUMMARY

“The data suggest that vaccine exposure may be associated with significant disturbances in central opioidergic pathways in this model… Volumetric analyses identified significantly greater total brain volume in exposed compared with unexposed animals at both measured time points. These results raise the possibility that multiple vaccine exposures during the previous 3-4 months may have had a significant impact on brain growth and development.”

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Published: 2009
SYNOPSIS

Newborn monkeys given a mercury-containing hepatitis b vaccine had significant delays in neonatal reflexes and neurological development.

TITLE

Delayed acquisition of neonatal reflexes in newborn primates receiving a thimerosal-containing Hepatitis B vaccine: Influence of gestational age and birth weight

CITATION

Laura Hewitson, Lisa A. Houser, Carol Stott, Gene Sackett, Jaime L. Tomko, David Atwood, Lisa Blue, E. Railey White, Andrew J. Wakefield. NeuroToxicology, 2009; doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2009.09.008.

SUMMARY

“In summary, this study provides preliminary evidence of abnormal early neurodevelopmental responses in male infant rhesus macaques receiving a single dose of Th-containing HB vaccine at birth and indicates that further investigation is merited.”

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Published: 2009
SYNOPSIS

Thimerosal injections cause increased mercury in brain, liver and kidney of rats and induces long-term reduction in pain sensitivity (hypoalgesia). Might this contribute to self-injurious behavior in autism?

TITLE

Neonatal administration of a vaccine preservative, thimerosal, produces lasting impairment of nociception and apparent activation of opioid system in rats.

CITATION

Olczak M1, Duszczyk M, Mierzejewski P, Majewska MD. Brain Res. 2009 Dec 8;1301:143-51. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2009.09.003. Epub 2009 Sep 9.

SUMMARY

The preservative thimerosal added to vaccines is approximately 49% mercury by weight. Once inside the body it converts to a persistent inorganic mercury. Thimerosal has been used for decades despite not undergoing sufficient safety studies. This study utilized an animal model to investigate the distribution of mercury in brain, kidney and liver after injection of thimerosal (THIM) in newborn rats at various timeframes postnatally. The schedule used was meant to be similar to that given to humans. One group of rats that had not previously gotten thimerosal as newborns (naïve group) received a single dose as an adult. It was determined that the kidneys accumulated the largest amount of mercury, followed by the liver then the brain. Individuals with autism have been known to engage in self-injurious behaviors (SIB) and to demonstrate a decrease sensitivity to pain (hypoalgesia). Studies of individuals with autism have reported a reduction in SIB when treated with naloxone. Naloxone is an opioid receptor antagonist which would allow a person to more profoundly feel their pain upon participation in SIBs. A secondary consideration of this study was to determine if thimerosal exposure modulates sensitivity to painful stimuli. Using a hot plate test, it was demonstrated that thimerosal induces hypoalgesia. The long-term impairment in pain sensitivity seen among the neonates exceeded that of the naïve adults that received a single acute dose indicating young rats are more sensitive than adults. If rats were given a dose of naloxone prior to the hot plate test, it significantly mitigated the thimerosal induced hypoalgesia thereby indicating a role of the opioid system. The authors conclude, “…our study shows that administration of THIM to suckling or adult rats causes persistent impairment of pain sensitivity, which appears to involve increased activity of endogenous opioids.”

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Published: 2008
SYNOPSIS

A CDC-sponsored database showed much higher rates of neurodevelopmental disabilities from mercury-containing vaccines.

TITLE

Thimerosal exposure in infants and neurodevelopmental disorders: An assessment of computerized medical records in the Vaccine Safety Datalink

CITATION

Young HA, Geier DA, Geier MR. Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 2008;121:626-631.

SUMMARY

“Consistent significantly increased rate ratios were observed for autism, autism spectrum disorders, tics, attention deficit disorder, and emotional disturbances with Hg [mercury] exposure from TCVs [thimerosal-containing vaccines]. By contrast, none of the control outcomes had significantly increased rate ratios with Hg exposure from TCVs.”

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Published: 2005
SYNOPSIS

The mercury used as a vaccine preservative is far more neurotoxic than the mercury found in fish.

TITLE

Comparison of Blood and Brain Mercury Levels in Infant Monkeys Exposed to Methylmercury or Vaccines Containing Thimerosal

CITATION

Thomas M. Burbacher, Danny D. Shen, Noelle Liberato, Kimberly S. Grant, Elsa Cernichiari, and Thomas Clarkson. Environmental Health Perspectives, Volume 113, Number 8, August 2005.

SUMMARY

The mercury used in vaccines (and still in the flu vaccine given to pregnant women) is far more toxic than the mercury found in fish, because it stays in the brain at much higher levels. “Data from the present study support the prediction that, although little accumulation of Hg in the blood occurs over time with repeated vaccinations, accumulation of Hg in the brain of infants will occur. Thus, conclusion regarding the safety of thimerosal drawn from blood Hg clearance data in human infants receiving vaccines may not be valid, given the significantly slower half-life of Hg in the brain as observed in the infant macaques. There was a much higher proportion of inorganic Hg in the brain of thimerosal monkeys than in the brains of MeHg monkeys (up to 71% vs. 10%). Absolute inorganic Hg concentrations in the brains of the thimerosal-exposed monkeys were approximately twice that of the MeHg monkeys.”

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Published: 2005
SYNOPSIS

Many heavy metals increase the apparent toxicity of low levels of mercury.

TITLE

Mercury toxicity: Genetic susceptibility and synergistic effects

CITATION

Haley BE. Medical Veritas. 2005;2:535–542.

SUMMARY

This article discusses mercury intoxication and several normally appearing factors that increase the susceptibility to mercury toxicity. Boys with autism represent a subset of the population that is more susceptible to the toxic effects of mercury and thimerosal because they are not efficient excretors of these toxic materials. Research confirms that a lead-toxic person would be more susceptible to mercury toxicity than a healthy, non-toxic person. Researchers routinely observe that many heavy metals increase the apparent toxicity of low levels of mercury. In other words, the synergistic effects of other heavy metals, diet, antibiotics, etc. on mercury toxicity make it impossible to define a “safe level of mercury exposure.”

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Published: 2005
SYNOPSIS

Vaccine mercury depletes a vital antioxidant, glutathione.

TITLE

Thimerosal Neurotoxicity is Associated with Glutathione Depletion: Protection with Glutathione Precursors

CITATION

S.J. James, William Slikker, Stepan Melnyk, Elizabeth New,
Marta Pogribna, Stefanie Jernigan. NeuroToxicology, 26 (2005) 1–8.

SUMMARY

“Thimerosal is an antiseptic containing 49.5% ethyl mercury that has been used for years as a preservative in many infant vaccines and in flu vaccines. Environmental methyl mercury has been shown to be highly neurotoxic, especially to the developing brain. Because mercury has a high affinity for thiol (sulfhydryl (-SH)) groups, the thiol-containing antioxidant, glutathione (GSH), provides the major intracellular defense against mercury-induced neurotoxicity. Cultured neuroblastoma cells were found to have lower levels of GSH and increased sensitivity to thimerosal toxicity compared to glioblastoma cells that have higher basal levels of intracellular GSH. Thimerosal-induced cytotoxicity was associated with depletion of intracellular GSH in both cell lines. Although Thimerosal has been recently removed from most children’s vaccines, it is still present in flu vaccines given to pregnant women, the elderly, and to children in developing countries.”

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