About 2%–10% of healthy individuals fail to mount antibody levels to routine vaccines.
Primary vaccine failure to routine vaccines: Why and what to do?
Wiedermann U, Garner-Spitzer E, Wagner A. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics. 2016;12(1):239–243.
Two sets of factors are responsible for vaccine failure: vaccine-related factors (e.g., failures in vaccine attenuation, vaccination regimes or administration) and host-related factors (e.g., genetics, immune status, age, health or nutritional status). Primary vaccine failure describes the inability to respond to primary vaccination, and secondary vaccine failure is characterized by a loss of protection after initial effectiveness. Studies indicate that about 2%–10% of healthy individuals fail to mount antibody levels to routine vaccines. T-regulatory as well as B-regulatory cells and the production of IL-10 are involved in non/hypo-responsiveness to vaccination. Non-responsiveness increases with age, indicating that vaccine schedules and doses (at least for primary vaccination) should be adapted according to age. Studies also suggest that different vaccination approaches may be needed for allergic or obese individuals. The significant paradigm shift taking place in many fields of medical research and care should extend the concept of personalized medicine into the field of vaccinology.
In this US urban, multi-ethnic population, elevated in utero Hg exposure was associated with a higher risk of over weight / obesity in childhood, and such risk was enhanced by maternal over weight / obesity and/or diabetes and reduced by adequate maternal folate.
In utero exposure to mercury and childhood overweight or obesity: counteracting effect of maternal folate status
Low-dose mercury (Hg) exposure has been associated with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and obesity in adults, but it is unknown the metabolic consequence of in utero Mercury exposure. This study aimed to investigate the association between in utero Mercury exposure and child overweight or obesity (OWO) and to explore if adequate maternal folate can mitigate Mercury toxicity.