Science Library Category:

MMR - Measles/Mumps/Rubella

Published: 2019
SYNOPSIS

This study explores the D-4 escape measles mutant, a strain that has emerged in countries that have intense vaccination.

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Antigenic Drift Defines a New D4 Subgenotype of Measles Virus

CITATION
Miguel Ángel Muñoz-Alía, Claude P. Muller, Stephen J. Russell. 
SUMMARY

Measles virus is a paradigmatic RNA virus, as the antigenic composition of the vaccination has not needed to be updated since its discovery. The vaccine confers protection by inducing neutralizing antibodies that interfere with the function of the hemagglutinin protein. Viral strains are indistinguishable serologically, although characteristic nucleotide sequences differentiate 24 genotypes. In this work, we describe a distant evolutionary branch within genotype D4. Designated subgenotype D4.2, this virus is distinguishable by neutralization with vaccine-induced monoclonal antibodies that target the neutralizing epitope (NE). The subgenotype D4.2 viruses have a higher predominance in countries with intermediary levels of vaccine coverage. Our studies demonstrate that subgenotype D4.2 lacks epitopes associated with half of the known antigenic sites, which significantly impacts our understanding of measles virus evolution.

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Published: 2019
SYNOPSIS

Out-of-sequence vaccinations may increase child mortality.

TITLE

Out-of-sequence DTP and measles vaccinations and child mortality in Guinea-Bissau: a reanalysis.

CITATION

Thysen SM, Rodrigues A, Aaby P, et al.  British Medical Journal Open 2019;9:e024893; doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2018-024893.

SUMMARY

This study’s objective was to assess whether the sequence of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) and measles vaccine (MV) was associated with child survival. Using a data set previously used to assess non-specific effects of vaccines with no consideration of vaccination sequence researchers found that out-of-sequence vaccinations in children were associated with higher mortality compared with children vaccinated in-sequence.

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Published: 2019
SYNOPSIS

These data suggest that specific immune outcomes may wane at different rates and highlight our currently incomplete understanding of protective immune responses to mumps and measles.

TITLE

Differential durability of immune responses to measles and mumps following MMR vaccination.

CITATION

Richard B. Kennedy, Inna G. Ovsyannikova, Antonia Thomas, Beth R. Larrabee, Steven Rubin, Gregory A. Poland, Vaccine, Volume 37, Issue 13, 22 March 2019, Pages 1775-1784

SUMMARY

The development and wide-spread use of mumps vaccine resulted in a dramatic and sustained decrease in the incidence of mumps disease; however, since 2000, an increase in the size and number of mumps outbreaks in the United States and other countries has sparked renewed interest in the durability of mumps-specific immunity elicited by mumps vaccination. The most likely explanation for mumps cases in previously immunized persons may be secondary vaccine failure, or waning immunity. Researchers examined changes in markers of measles and mumps immunity at two timepoints, approximately 7 and 17 years after two-dose MMR-II® vaccination, and found that the mumps IgG titers exhibited a large and significant decline during this time period. There was a similar discrepancy with measles-specific immune responses.

 

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Published: 2019
SYNOPSIS

Waning levels of measles antibodies with increasing time post-vaccination suggests that measles susceptibility is potentially increasing in Korea.

TITLE

An increasing, potentially measles-susceptible population over time after vaccination in Korea

CITATION

Kang, H. J., et al. Vaccine, 35 (2017) 4126–4132.

SUMMARY

In Korea, measles occurs mainly in infants <12 months of age, who are unvaccinated. In
addition, vaccine populations, including adolescents and young adults, can become infected through importation. Thus, the question arises whether the current level of herd immunity in Korea is now insufficient for protecting against measles infection.

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Published: 2018
SYNOPSIS

In Israel in 2017, nine measles cases were identified in a population with high measles vaccination coverage.

TITLE

Measles Outbreak in a Highly Vaccinated Population – Israel, July-August 2017

Citation

Avramovich E, Indenbaum V, Haber M, Amitai Z, Tsifanski E, Farjun S, Sarig A, Bracha A, Castillo K, Markovich MP, Galor I. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2018 Oct 26;67(42):1186-1188.

Summary

On August 6, 2017, the Israeli Defense Force Public Heath Branch (IDFPHB) was notified of two suspected measles cases. IDFPHB conducted an epidemiologic investigation, which identified nine measles cases in a population with high measles vaccination coverage. All measles patients had signs and symptoms consistent with modified measles (i.e., less severe disease with milder rash, fever, or both, with or without other mild typical measles symptoms). A total of 1,392 contacts were identified, and 162 received postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) with measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine; the remaining contacts were followed for 21 days (one incubation period). No tertiary cases were identified.

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Published: 2014
SYNOPSIS

Researchers found that febrile seizures occurred in roughly one in every 1,000 children who were given the MMR vaccine and two genetic variants came to light that pointed to a higher risk of a febrile seizure in the second week following MMR vaccination.

TITLE

Common variants associated with general and MMR vaccine–related febrile seizures

CITATION

Bjarke Feenstra, Bjorn Pasternak, Frank Geller, Lisbeth Carstensen, et. al. Nature Genetics 46, 1274-1282; 26 October, 2014.

SUMMARY

Febrile seizures represent a serious adverse event following measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination. We conducted a series of genome-wide association scans comparing children with MMR-related febrile seizures, children with febrile seizures unrelated to vaccination and controls with no history of febrile seizures. Two loci were distinctly associated with MMR-related febrile seizures. Furthermore, four loci were associated with febrile seizures in general, implicating the sodium channel genes and a region associated with magnesium levels.

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Published: 2013
SYNOPSIS

Israeli and Italian researchers demonstrate that exposure to aluminum in vaccines can lead to autoimmune and brain dysfunction.

TITLE

Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) 2013: Unveiling the pathogenic, clinical and diagnostic aspects

CITATION

Perricone C, Colafrancesco S, Mazor RD, Soriano A, Agmon-Levin N, Shoenfeld Y. Journal of Autoimmunity. 2013;47:1-16.

SUMMARY

Environmental factors play a critical role in the induction of autoimmunity, with an interplay between genetic susceptibility and environment. Several neurologic demyelinating diseases have been reported following vaccination, notably Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) (an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system). A number of the most common vaccines appear to have some involvement with autoimmunity.

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Published: 2009
SYNOPSIS

Swedish researchers found that children who had natural measles infection had much lower rates of allergy than children vaccinated against measles.

TITLE

Allergic disease and atopic sensitization in children in relation to measles vaccination and measles infection

CITATION

Rosenlund H, Bergstrom A, Alm JS, … PARSIFAL Study Group. Pediatrics. 2009;123(3):771-778.

SUMMARY

In these analyses, measles infection [natural measles] was inversely associated with any allergic symptom or physician’s diagnosis of allergy, suggesting that natural measles infection may protect against allergies in children.

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Published: 1984
SYNOPSIS

A computer model was created to study the effect of the measles elimination program in the United States on the number of susceptibles in the population. The simulation reveals that in the prevaccine era, approximately 10.6% of the population was susceptible to measles, most of whom were children less than 10 years of age.

TITLE

The future of measles in highly immunized populations. A modeling approach.

CITATION

Levy DL. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1984 Jul;120(1):39-48.

SUMMARY

Little is known about how an intensive measles elimination program changes the overall immune status of the population. A computer model was created to study the effect of the measles elimination program in the United States on the number of susceptibles in the population. The simulation reveals that in the prevaccine era, approximately 10.6% of the population was susceptible to measles, most of whom were children less than 10 years of age. With the institution of the measles immunization program, the proportion of susceptibles in the population fell to 3.1% from 1978 through 1981, but then began to rise by approximately 0.1% per year to reach about 10.9% in the year 2050. The susceptibles at this time were distributed evenly throughout all age groups. The model did not consider the potential effect of waning immunity. The results of this study suggest that measles elimination in the United States has been achieved by an effective immunization program aimed at young susceptibles combined with a highly, naturally immunized adult population. However, despite short-term success in eliminating the disease, long-range projections demonstrate that the proportion of susceptibles in the year 2050 may be greater than in the prevaccine era. Present vaccine technology and public health policy must be altered to deal with this eventuality.

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Published: 1982
SYNOPSIS

The 1989 measles outbreak in the province of Quebec has been largely attributed to an incomplete vaccination coverage, despite a 99% vaccination rate.

TITLE

Major measles epidemic in the region of Quebec despite a 99% vaccine coverage

Citation

Boulianne N, De Serres G, Duval B, Joly JR, Meyer F, Déry P, Alary M, Le Hénaff D, Thériault N. Canadian Journal of Public Health. 1991 May-Jun;82(3):189-90.

Summary

The 1989 measles outbreak in the province of Quebec has been largely attributed to an incomplete vaccination coverage. In the Quebec City area (pop. 600,000) 1,363 confirmed cases of measles did occur. A case-control study conducted to evaluate risk factors for measles allowed us to estimate vaccination coverage.  The vaccination coverage among cases was at least 84.5%. Vaccination coverage for the total population was 99.0%. Incomplete vaccination coverage is not a valid explanation for the Quebec City measles outbreak.

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