Science Library Category:

MMR - Measles/Mumps/Rubella

Published: 2019
SYNOPSIS

Waning levels of measles antibodies with increasing time post-vaccination suggests that measles susceptibility is potentially increasing in Korea.

TITLE

An increasing, potentially measles-susceptible population over time after vaccination in Korea

CITATION

Kang, H. J., et al. Vaccine, 35 (2017) 4126–4132.

SUMMARY

In Korea, measles occurs mainly in infants <12 months of age, who are unvaccinated. In
addition, vaccine populations, including adolescents and young adults, can become infected through importation. Thus, the question arises whether the current level of herd immunity in Korea is now insufficient for protecting against measles infection.

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Published: 2018
SYNOPSIS

In Israel in 2017, nine measles cases were identified in a population with high measles vaccination coverage.

TITLE

Measles Outbreak in a Highly Vaccinated Population – Israel, July-August 2017

Citation

Avramovich E, Indenbaum V, Haber M, Amitai Z, Tsifanski E, Farjun S, Sarig A, Bracha A, Castillo K, Markovich MP, Galor I. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2018 Oct 26;67(42):1186-1188.

Summary

On August 6, 2017, the Israeli Defense Force Public Heath Branch (IDFPHB) was notified of two suspected measles cases. IDFPHB conducted an epidemiologic investigation, which identified nine measles cases in a population with high measles vaccination coverage. All measles patients had signs and symptoms consistent with modified measles (i.e., less severe disease with milder rash, fever, or both, with or without other mild typical measles symptoms). A total of 1,392 contacts were identified, and 162 received postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) with measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine; the remaining contacts were followed for 21 days (one incubation period). No tertiary cases were identified.

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Published: 2013
SYNOPSIS

Israeli and Italian researchers demonstrate that exposure to aluminum in vaccines can lead to autoimmune and brain dysfunction.

TITLE

Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) 2013: Unveiling the pathogenic, clinical and diagnostic aspects

CITATION

Carlo Perricone, Serena Colafrancesco, Roei D. Mazor, Alessandra Soriano, Yehuda Shoenfeld. Journal of Autoimmunity, October 2013.

SUMMARY

“The data herein illustrate the critical role of environmental factors in the induction of autoimmunity. Indeed, it is the interplay of genetic susceptibility and environment that is the major player for the initiation of breach of tolerance. Several neurologic demyelinating diseases have been reported following vaccination, the main being Guillaine Barre syndrome (GBS). Another demyelinating disease associated with vaccines is the acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). This is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system frequently occurring post-vaccination. Rabies, diphtheria tetanus polio, smallpox, measles, mumps, rubella, Japanese B encephalitis, pertussis, influenza, hepatitis B, and the Hog vaccines have been called to be involved.”

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Published: 2009
SYNOPSIS

Swedish researchers found that children who had natural measles infection had much lower rates of allergy than children vaccinated against measles.

TITLE

Allergic Disease and Atopic Sensitization in Children in Relation to Measles Vaccination and Measles Infection

CITATION

Rosenlund H1, Bergstrom A, Alm JS, Swartz J, Scheynius A, van Hage M, Johansen K, Brunekreef B, von Mutius E, Ege MJ, Riedler J, Braun-Fahrlander C, Waser M, Pershagen G, PARSIFAL Study Group. Pediatrics, 2009.

SUMMARY

“However, in these analyses, measles infection [natural measles] was inversely associated with any allergic symptom or physician’s diagnosis of allergy.”

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Published: 1984
SYNOPSIS

A computer model was created to study the effect of the measles elimination program in the United States on the number of susceptibles in the population. The simulation reveals that in the prevaccine era, approximately 10.6% of the population was susceptible to measles, most of whom were children less than 10 years of age.

TITLE

The future of measles in highly immunized populations. A modeling approach.

CITATION

Levy DL. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1984 Jul;120(1):39-48.

SUMMARY

Little is known about how an intensive measles elimination program changes the overall immune status of the population. A computer model was created to study the effect of the measles elimination program in the United States on the number of susceptibles in the population. The simulation reveals that in the prevaccine era, approximately 10.6% of the population was susceptible to measles, most of whom were children less than 10 years of age. With the institution of the measles immunization program, the proportion of susceptibles in the population fell to 3.1% from 1978 through 1981, but then began to rise by approximately 0.1% per year to reach about 10.9% in the year 2050. The susceptibles at this time were distributed evenly throughout all age groups. The model did not consider the potential effect of waning immunity. The results of this study suggest that measles elimination in the United States has been achieved by an effective immunization program aimed at young susceptibles combined with a highly, naturally immunized adult population. However, despite short-term success in eliminating the disease, long-range projections demonstrate that the proportion of susceptibles in the year 2050 may be greater than in the prevaccine era. Present vaccine technology and public health policy must be altered to deal with this eventuality.

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Published: 1982
SYNOPSIS

The 1989 measles outbreak in the province of Quebec has been largely attributed to an incomplete vaccination coverage, despite a 99% vaccination rate.

TITLE

Major measles epidemic in the region of Quebec despite a 99% vaccine coverage

Citation

Boulianne N, De Serres G, Duval B, Joly JR, Meyer F, Déry P, Alary M, Le Hénaff D, Thériault N. Canadian Journal of Public Health. 1991 May-Jun;82(3):189-90.

Summary

The 1989 measles outbreak in the province of Quebec has been largely attributed to an incomplete vaccination coverage. In the Quebec City area (pop. 600,000) 1,363 confirmed cases of measles did occur. A case-control study conducted to evaluate risk factors for measles allowed us to estimate vaccination coverage.  The vaccination coverage among cases was at least 84.5%. Vaccination coverage for the total population was 99.0%. Incomplete vaccination coverage is not a valid explanation for the Quebec City measles outbreak.

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