Science Library Category:

Metals

Published: 2020
SYNOPSIS

In susceptible individuals, chronic low Hg exposure may trigger local and systemic inflammation, even exacerbating the already existing autoimmune response in patients with autoimmunity.

TITLE

Mercury-induced autoimmunity: Drifting from micro to macro concerns on autoimmune disorders

CITATION

Bjorklund, G., M. Peana, M. Dadar, S. Chirumbolo, J. Aaseth, and N. Martins. 2020. ‘Mercury-induced autoimmunity: Drifting from micro to macro concerns on autoimmune disorders’, Clin Immunol: 108352.

SUMMARY

Mercury (Hg) is widely recognized as a neurotoxic metal, besides it can also act as a proinflammatory agent and immunostimulant, depending on individual exposure and susceptibility. Mercury exposure may arise from internal body pathways, such as via dental amalgams, preservatives in drugs and vaccines, and seafood consumption, or even from external pathways, i.e., occupation, environmental pollution, and handling of metallic items and cosmetics containing Hg. In susceptible individuals, chronic low Hg exposure may trigger local and systemic inflammation, even exacerbating the already existing autoimmune response in patients with autoimmunity. Mercury exposure can trigger dysfunction of the autoimmune responses and aggravate immunotoxic effects associated with elevated serum autoantibodies titers. The purpose of the present report is to provide a critical overview of the many issues associated with Hg exposure and autoimmunity. In addition, the paper also focuses on individual susceptibility and other health effects of Hg.

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Published: 2020
SYNOPSIS

The CDC vaccine schedule results in a high degree of chronic aluminum toxicity in the first seven months of life.

TITLE

Acute exposure and chronic retention of aluminum in three vaccine schedules and effects of genetic and environmental variation

CITATION

McFarland G, La Joie E, Thomas P, Lyons-Weiler J. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. 2019 Dec 5;58:126444.

SUMMARY

This study shows that the CDC vaccine schedule results in a high degree of chronic aluminum toxicity in the first seven months of life—a time period critically important to neurodevelopment and immune system development. The authors reached this conclusion after assessing “time spent in toxicity” (defined as “the percentage of days of each week an infant spends with a body burden that exceeds the minimum safe level”) for the CDC schedule and two other lower-aluminum schedules. Important safety considerations include aluminum adjuvant dose per vaccine, spacing of aluminum-containing vaccines, the child’s weight at the time of vaccination and genetic variants that may limit ability to clear aluminum. Changes to the vaccine schedule, including use of vaccines that do not contain aluminum, can significantly reduce “time spent in toxicity.”

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Published: 2019
SYNOPSIS

CITATION Jeff Bradstreet, M.D., David A. Geier, B.A., Jerold J. Kartzinel, M.D., James B. Adams, Ph.D. Mark R. Geier, M.D., Ph.D. Behavioural Neurology, Volume 2015, Article ID 545674. SUMMARY Researchers found the mean levels of mercury, lead and aluminum in hair of the autistic patients were significantly higher than controls. Mercury, lead and aluminum levels […]

TITLE

A Case-Control Study of Mercury Burden in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

CITATION

Jeff Bradstreet, M.D., David A. Geier, B.A., Jerold J. Kartzinel, M.D., James B. Adams, Ph.D. Mark R. Geier, M.D., Ph.D. Behavioural Neurology, Volume 2015, Article ID 545674.

SUMMARY

Researchers found the mean levels of mercury, lead and aluminum in hair of the autistic patients were significantly higher than controls. Mercury, lead and aluminum levels were positively correlated with material fish consumptions, living nearby gasoline stations, and the usage of aluminum pans, respectively.

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Published: 2019
SYNOPSIS

With the preliminary literature search starting in 2013 and looking backwards in time, research publications revealed a myriad of toxic actions of Aluminum causing pathological conditions.

TITLE

Aluminium toxicosis: a review of toxic actions and effects

CITATION

Ikechukwu Onyebuchi Igbokwe, Ephraim Igwenagu, Nanacha Afifi Igbokwe. Interdiscip Toxicol. 2019; Vol. 12(2): 45–70. doi: 10.2478/intox-2019-0007

SUMMARY

Aluminium (Al) is frequently accessible to animal and human populations to the extent that intoxications may occur. Intake of Al is by inhalation of aerosols or particles, ingestion of food, water and medicaments, skin contact, vaccination, dialysis and infusions. Toxic actions of Al induce oxidative stress, immunologic alterations, genotoxicity, pro-inflammatory effect, peptide denaturation or transformation, enzymatic dysfunction, metabolic derangement, amyloidogenesis, membrane perturbation, iron dyshomeostasis, apoptosis, necrosis and dysplasia. The pathological conditions associated with Al toxicosis are desquamative interstitial pneumonia, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, granulomas, granulomatosis and fibrosis, toxic myocarditis, thrombosis and ischemic stroke, granulomatous enteritis, Crohn’s disease, inflammatory bowel diseases, anemia, Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, sclerosis, autism, macrophagic myofasciitis, osteomalacia, oligospermia and infertility, hepatorenal disease, breast cancer and cyst, pancreatitis, pancreatic necrosis and diabetes mellitus. The review provides a broad overview of Al toxicosis as a background for sustained investigations of the toxicology of Al compounds of public health importance.

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Published: 2019
SYNOPSIS

In the brain, MeHg seems to induce epigenetic modifications, which disrupt typical neuronal differentiation. These results correlate well with known effects on this developmental process

TITLE

Methylmercury Epigenetics

CITATION

Culbreth, M and Aschner, M.; Toxics 2019, 7, 56; doi:10.3390/toxics7040056

SUMMARY

Methylmercury (MeHg) has conventionally been investigated for effects on nervous system development. As such, epigenetic modifications have become an attractive mechanistic target, and research on MeHg and epigenetics has rapidly expanded in the past decade. Although, these inquiries are a recent advance in the field, much has been learned in regards to MeHg-induced epigenetic modifications, particularly in the brain.In vitro and in vivo controlled exposure studies illustrate that MeHg effects microRNA (miRNA) expression, histone modifications, and DNA methylation both globally and at individual genes. Moreover, some effects are transgenerationally inherited, as organisms not directly exposed to MeHg exhibited biological and behavioral alterations. miRNA expression generally appears to be down regulated consequent to exposure. Further, global histone acetylation also seems to be reduced, persist at distinct gene promoters, and is contemporaneous with enhanced histone methylation. Moreover, global DNA methylation appears to decrease in brain-derived tissues, but not in the liver; however, selected individual genes in the brain are hypermethylated. Human epidemiological studies have also identified hypo- or hypermethylated individual genes, which correlated with MeHg exposure in distinct populations. Intriguingly, several observed epigenetic modifications can be correlated with known mechanisms of MeHg toxicity.Despite this knowledge, however, the functional consequences of these modifications are not entirely evident. Additional research will be necessary to fully comprehend MeHg-induced epigenetic modifications and the impact on the toxic response.

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Published: 2019
SYNOPSIS

In this US urban, multi-ethnic population, elevated in utero Hg exposure was associated with a higher risk of over weight / obesity in childhood, and such risk was enhanced by maternal over weight / obesity and/or diabetes and reduced by adequate maternal folate.

TITLE

In utero exposure to mercury and childhood overweight or obesity: counteracting effect of maternal folate status

CITATION

Wang et al. BMC Medicine (2019) 17:216 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1442-2

SUMMARY

Low-dose mercury (Hg) exposure has been associated with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and obesity in adults, but it is unknown the metabolic consequence of in utero Mercury exposure. This study aimed to investigate the association between in utero Mercury exposure and child overweight or obesity (OWO) and to explore if adequate maternal folate can mitigate Mercury toxicity.

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Published: 2018
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There are statistical increases in the incidence rate of autism, mental retardation , and speech disorders after thimerosal-containing DTaP vaccines in comparison with thimerosal-free DTaP vaccines.

TITLE

Vaccination and autoimmunity-‘vaccinosis’: a dangerous liaison?

CITATION

Shoenfeld Y, Aron-Maor A. Journal of Autoimmunity. 2000 Feb;14(1):1-10.

SUMMARY

An analysis of the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) database showed statistical increases in the incidence rate of autism (relative risk [RR] = 6.0), mental retardation (RR = 6.1), and speech disorders (RR = 2.2) after thimerosal-containing diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccines in comparison with thimerosal-free DTaP vaccines.

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Published: 2018
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Aluminum adjuvants in vaccines produce toxic effects ranging from benign to fatal, depending on the physicochemical properties of the adjuvant and the physiological response of the vaccine recipient.

TITLE

Unraveling the enigma: elucidating the relationship between the physicochemical properties of aluminium-based adjuvants and their immunological mechanisms of action

CITATION

Shardlow E, Mold M, Exley C. Unraveling the enigma: elucidating the relationship between the physicochemical properties of aluminium-based adjuvants and their immunological mechanisms of action. Allergy Asthma & Clinical Immunology 2018;14:80.

SUMMARY

The two types of aluminum salts commonly used as adjuvants in vaccines are chemically and biologically dissimilar and may play distinct roles in vaccine-related adverse events. Understanding their physicochemical properties—within the physiological environment of the injection site—can help explain their role in adverse events. The authors suggest that “some degree of toxicity and cell death is probably inevitable” following injection of aluminum salts, but they note that the type of iatrogenic effect observed may “range from benign to fatal” depending on the properties of the specific adjuvant “and, critically, the physiological response of the recipient.” Pointing out that aluminum-based adjuvants have never received approval for intramuscular or subcutaneous injection into humans, the researchers call for evaluation of their safety “independently of their presence in vaccine formulations.”

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Published: 2018
SYNOPSIS

An allergic response to thimerosal, nickel, mercury and cobalt often manifests as hand eczema.

TITLE

Hand eczema in children. Clinical and epidemiological study of the population referred to a tertiary hospital

CITATION

Ortiz-Salvador JM, Subiabre-Ferrer D, Rabasco AG, Esteve-Martínez A, Zaragoza-Ninet V, de Miquel VA. Anales de Pediatria (Barc.) 2018;88:309-314.

SUMMARY

Hand eczema is a common condition in children. The most common cause is atopic dermatitis, although cases of allergic contact dermatitis manifesting as hand eczema are not uncommon. Using children with hand eczema exclusively, researchers conducted patch-testing. The most frequent allergens detected were thimerosal, nickel, mercury and cobalt.

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Published: 2018
SYNOPSIS

The preponderance of the evidence indicates that mercury exposure is causal and/or contributory to ASD.

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Current knowledge on endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) from animal biology to humans, from pregnancy to adulthood: Highlights from a national Italian meeting

CITATION

Street ME, et al. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018;19:1647.

SUMMARY

This manuscript reviews the reports of a multidisciplinary national meeting on the effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Section 3 specifically discusses EDCs and neurodevelopmental diseases in humans, with a focus on autism. Recent studies point to an equal contribution of environmental factors (particularly environmental toxicants) and genetic susceptibility, but only a few industrial chemicals (e.g., lead [Pb], methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], and toluene) are recognized causes of neurodevelopmental disorders and subclinical brain dysfunction. Recent discoveries indicate that heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) may exhibit endocrine-disrupting activity in animal models, probably by interfering with zinc-fingers of nuclear estrogen receptors. The authors review research on mercury, PCBs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, phthalates, BPAs and pesticides.

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Published: 2018
SYNOPSIS

Fluoride and aluminum, alone or in combination, can produce the condition of “immunoexcitotoxicity” that leads to the pathological changes seen in autism. 

TITLE

Immunoexcitotoxicity as the central mechanism of etiopathology and treatment of autism spectrum disorders: a possible role of fluoride and aluminum

Citation

Strunecka A, Blaylock RL, Patocka J, Strunecky O. Surgical Neurology International. 2018;9:74.

 

Summary

Children experience sequential immune stimulation from a growing number of neurotoxic metals and chemicals, vaccines and persistent viral infections. This excessive immune activation is the “initiating and sustaining event” in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), triggering inflammation and a cascade of excitotoxicity (damaged nerve cells). The fluoride added to drinking water and the aluminum in vaccines—singly or synergistically as aluminofluoride—can be potent factors in producing the condition of “immunoexcitotoxicity” that leads to the pathological changes seen in ASD.

 

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Published: 2018
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The first-ever measurements of aluminum in the brain tissue of donors with multiple sclerosis detected pathologically significant levels of aluminum in every single individual.

TITLE

Aluminium in brain tissue in multiple sclerosis

Citation

Mold M, Chmielecka A, Rodriguez MRR, …Exley C. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018;15(8):1777.

 

Summary

The researchers examined the aluminum content of brain tissue from 14 donors diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS), 11 of whom were below age 60. Collecting the first-ever measurements of aluminum in MS brain tissue, the researchers found that all 14 donors had at least one sample with a pathologically significant concentration of aluminum. The universally high aluminum content and the aluminum’s location in the brain suggest a role for aluminum in the neurodegeneration observed in MS.

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Published: 2018
SYNOPSIS

The levels of aluminum present in individual vaccines and in the modern vaccine schedule as a whole are problematically high.

TITLE

Reconsideration of the immunotherapeutic pediatric safe dose levels of aluminum

Citation

Lyons-Weiler J, Ricketson R. Reconsideration of the immunotherapeutic pediatric safe dose levels of aluminum. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. 2018;48:67-73.

 

Summary

The authors show that current levels of aluminum in vaccines derive from “outdated information, unwarranted assumptions and errors.” Whereas aluminum dosing in vaccines should be expressed in terms of micrograms per kilogram of body weight per day, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) references aluminum amounts in terms of micrograms per dose. As a result, aluminum amounts do not appropriately adjust for toxicological differences between adults and children, males and females or normal-birthweight versus low-birthweight infants. The FDA also ignores dose-related toxicity and body burden despite routine administration of multiple aluminum-containing vaccines at a single health care visit. The levels of aluminum currently present in individual vaccines and in the modern vaccine schedule as a whole are “problematically high.”

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Published: 2018
SYNOPSIS

Aluminum and mercury sulfates may contribute to neurodegeneration and progressive age-related functional decline such as Alzheimer’s disease.

TITLE

Synergism in aluminum and mercury neurotoxicity

CITATION

Alexandrov PN, Pogue AI, Lukiw WJ. Integrative Food, Nutrition and Metabolism. 2018;5(3):1-7. doi: 10.15761/IFNM.1000214.

SUMMARY

The authors analyzed the effects of aluminum and/or mercury, either alone or together, on their ability to induce inflammatory signaling in human cells and in a cell culture that is the same brain cell types targeted by the inflammatory neurodegeneration that characterizes Alzheimer’s disease. They report that neurotoxic metal sulfates obtainable via our environment or diet are significantly potent.

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Published: 2018
SYNOPSIS

Mercury-associated diagnoses are common among children diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorders.

TITLE

Symptoms observed in pervasive developmental disorders such as autism overlap with symptoms of mercury poisoning.

CITATION

Geier DA, Kern JK, Sykes LK, Geier MR. Metabolic Brain Disease. March 2018. doi: 10.1007/s11011-018-0211-9.

SUMMARY

Research indicates that environmental triggers are contributing to the childhood epidemics of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). The mercury-containing vaccine preservative thimerosal is a biologically plausible candidate to induce PDD. This study reveals that 12 symptom categories associated with mercury poisoning directly overlap with symptoms observed in children who have a PDD.

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Published: 2018
SYNOPSIS

Aluminum nanoparticles are toxic on their own and in combination with other metal nanoparticles.

TITLE

Combined subchronic toxicity of aluminum (III), titanium (IV) and silicon (IV) oxide nanoparticles and its alleviation with a complex of bioprotectors

CITATION

IA Minigalieva, BA Katsnelson, LI Privalova, et al. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, March 2018;19(3):837.

SUMMARY

The use of nanoparticles—including metallic nanoparticles—has exploded in industry, commerce and medicine over the past several decades. A Russian research team assessed the “nano-toxicity” of three types of metal nanoparticles (titanium, silicon and aluminum oxide) alone and in combination. Repeated injection into rats showed that all three were “toxic for several target organs.” However, “for the majority of these effects,” the aluminum oxide nanoparticles “proved to be the most noxious,” even though the aluminum dose was half that of the titanium and silicon doses. No other publications have reported on these metal nanoparticles’ combined toxicity, despite their “potentially hazardous nano-impacts on human health.”

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Published: 2017
SYNOPSIS

Mercury in the body produces a selenium deficiency state that increases toxicity.

TITLE

Rethinking mercury: the role of selenium in the pathophysiology of mercury toxicity

CITATION

Spiller HA. Rethinking mercury: the role of selenium in the pathophysiology of mercury toxicity. Clinical Toxicology. 2018;56(5):313-326.

SUMMARY

This study makes the case that mercury’s multifaceted interactions with selenium are a central feature of mercury toxicity. The authors argue that “the previously suggested ‘protective effect’ of selenium against mercury toxicity may in fact be backwards”—because of mercury’s affinity for selenium, mercury can actually produce a selenium deficiency state that promotes oxidative stress and inhibits the body’s regenerative mechanisms. Depending on the form of mercury and other factors, selenium supplementation may have some benefits for restoring adequate selenium status and mitigating the toxicity of mercury, but it does not appear to promote increased elimination of mercury.

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Published: 2017
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Aluminum adjuvants promote brain inflammation, and males appear to be more susceptible to aluminum’s toxic effects.

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Subcutaneous injections of aluminum at vaccine adjuvant levels activate innate immune genes in mouse brain that are homologous with biomarkers of autism

CITATION

Li D, Tomljenovic L, Li Y, Shaw CA. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry. 2017;177:39–54.

SUMMARY

Autism manifests in early childhood, during a window of early developmental vulnerability where the normal developmental trajectory is most susceptible to xenobiotic insults. Aluminum (Al) vaccine adjuvants are xenobiotics with immunostimulating and neurotoxic properties to which infants worldwide are routinely exposed. This research found that aluminum triggered innate immune system activation and altered neurotransmitter activity in male mice, observations which are consistent with those in autism. Female mice were less susceptible to aluminum as the frontal cortex was the most affected area in males and the cerebellum in females. These findings suggest that aluminum adjuvants promote brain inflammation and that males appear to be more susceptible to aluminum′s toxic effects. (Note: This study has since been retracted by the Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, but the importance of the topic prompted our decision to keep it in our science library.)

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Published: 2017
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The author calls for the complete removal of thimerosal in vaccines especially in developing countries where they are used most prevalently.

TITLE

Abating Mercury Exposure in Young Children Should Include Thimerosal-Free Vaccines

CITATION

José G. Dórea. Neurochemical Research, 2017, DOI 10.1007/s11064-017-2277-x.

SUMMARY

The author of this review article contrasts the medical outcomes of children who receive thimerosal-containing vaccines versus thimerosal-free vaccines. Neurological disorders have been shown to be associated with exposure to thimerosal in vaccines. The author calls for the complete removal of thimerosal in vaccines especially in developing countries where they are used most prevalently.

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Published: 2017
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Combined exposure to heavy metals and pesticides can lead to more severe effects on human health compared to their individual effects.

TITLE

Synergistic effects of heavy metals and pesticides in living systems

Citation

Singh N, Gupta VK, Kumar A, Sharma B. Synergistic effects of heavy metals and pesticides in living systems. Frontiers in Chemistry. 2017;5:70.

 

Summary

Combined exposure to heavy metals and pesticides can lead to more severe effects on human health compared to their individual effects. This review reports that various combinations (pesticides combined with pesticides, pesticides combined with heavy metals, and heavy metals combined with heavy metals) all act synergistically and exhibit more toxicity than a single toxin alone. More work is needed to study the biotransformation of heavy metals and pesticides in combination and the mechanisms by which they affect toxicity.

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Published: 2016
SYNOPSIS

Alzheimer’s victims have very high brain aluminum levels, a potent neurotoxin.

TITLE

Aluminium in brain tissue in familial Alzheimer’s disease

CITATION

Ambreen Mirza, Andrew King, Claire Troakes, Christopher Exley. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, November 2016.

SUMMARY

“Aluminium has been shown to be present in brain tissue in sporadic Alzheimer’s disease. We have made the first ever measurements of aluminium in brain tissue from 12 donors diagnosed with familial Alzheimer’s disease. The concentrations of aluminium were extremely high, for example, there were values in excess of 10??g/g tissue dry wt. in 5 of the 12 individuals. Overall, the concentrations were higher than all previous measurements of brain aluminium except cases of known aluminium-induced encephalopathy. We have supported our quantitative analyses using a novel method of aluminium-selective fluorescence microscopy to visualise aluminium in all lobes of every brain investigated. The unique quantitative data and the stunning images of aluminium in familial Alzheimer’s disease brain tissue raise the spectre of aluminium’s role in this devastating disease.”

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Published: 2016
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Israeli, Canadian and Colombian scientists show that the Gardasil vaccine triggers brain inflammation and autoimmunity in mice.

TITLE

Behavioral abnormalities in female mice following administration of aluminum adjuvants and the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine Gardasil

CITATION

Inbar R, Weiss R, Tomljenovic L, Arango M-T, Deri Y, Shaw CA, Chapman J, Blank M, Shoenfeld Y. Immunologic Research. 2017;65(1):136-149.

SUMMARY

“Vaccine adjuvants and vaccines may induce autoimmune and inflammatory manifestations in susceptible individuals. To date most human vaccine trials utilize aluminum (Al) adjuvants as placebos despite much evidence showing that Al in vaccine-relevant exposures can be toxic to humans and animals…. It appears that Gardasil via its Al adjuvant and HPV antigens has the ability to trigger neuroinflammation and autoimmune reactions, further leading to behavioral changes…. In light of these findings, this study highlights the necessity of proceeding with caution with respect to further mass-immunization practices with a vaccine of yet unproven long-term clinical benefit in cervical cancer prevention.”

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Published: 2016
SYNOPSIS

Children with ASD have higher urinary levels of mercury and lead.

TITLE

Altered urinary porphyrins and mercury exposure as biomarkers for autism severity in Egyptian children with autism spectrum disorder

CITATION

Khaled EM, Meguid NA, Bjørklund G, et al. Metabolic Brain Disease 2016. DOI 10.1007/s11011-016-9870-6.

SUMMARY

Results of this case-control study showed that children with ASD had higher urinary levels of mercury and lead as well as porphyrins that are characteristic of mercury toxicity as compared to non-ASD control children. Porphyrins are complex molecules that are processed in the body through a series of chemical reactions. Mercury poisons the enzymes that are needed in the process, causing a buildup in the body of excess levels of specific porphyrins. The porphyrins for mercury toxicity also correlated with autism severity in ASD patients.

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Published: 2016
SYNOPSIS

Aluminum in vaccines is highly neurotoxic and exposure levels given to infants have dramatically increased.

TITLE

Aluminum in Childhood Vaccines Is Unsafe

CITATION

Neil Z. Miller. Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons, Winter 2016.

SUMMARY

“Infants and young children throughout the world receive high quantities of aluminum from multiple inoculations. Incremental changes to the vaccination schedule during the past several years significantly increased the quantity of aluminum in childhood shots. Numerous studies provide compelling evidence that injected aluminum can be detrimental to health. Aluminum is capable of remaining in cells long after vaccination and may cause neurologic and autoimmune disorders. During early development, the child’s brain is more susceptible to toxins and the kidneys are less able to eliminate them. Thus, children have a greater risk than adults of adverse reactions to aluminum in vaccines. Millions of children every year are injected with vaccines containing mercury and aluminum despite well-established experimental evidence of the potential for additive or synergistic toxicity when an organism is exposed to two or more toxic metals.”

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Published: 2016
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Thimerosal reduces people’s ability to make all-important vitamin B12 compounds that help the body detoxify and control inflammation—and B12 deficiencies and severely impaired detoxification are hallmarks of autism.

TITLE

Alternatively spliced methionine synthase in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells: Cobalamin and GSH dependence and inhibitory effects of neurotoxic metals and thimerosal

CITATION

Waly M, Power-Charnitsky V-A, Hodgson N, … Deth R. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2016, Article ID 6143753.

SUMMARY

Thimerosal inhibited cellular production of cobalamin necessary for detoxification and amelioration of oxidative stress. This caused lower methionine synthase activity and an impaired methylation capacity. Autistic subjects in general show cobalamin deficiencies and severely impaired methylation.

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Published: 2016
SYNOPSIS

There is a significant increase in neurodevelopmental delays in children exposed to both Thimerosal (in vaccines) and methylmercury (in fish).

TITLE

Neurodevelopment of Amazonian children exposed to ethylmercury (from Thimerosal in vaccines) and methylmercury (from fish)

CITATION

Marques RC, Abreu L, Bernardi JVE, Dórea JG. Environmental Research. 2016;149:259–265.

SUMMARY

Amazonian children exposed to high and low levels of both ethyl- and methylmercury were assessed using the Mental Developmental Index and Psychomotor Developmental Index. The researchers observed statistically significant differences in the high-exposure group at 24 months in the Mental Developmental Index. Combined exposures led to developmental delays, including the age of talking and the age of walking.

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Published: 2016
SYNOPSIS

Mercury exposure is implicated in neuroinflammatory disorders including autism.

TITLE

The levels of blood mercury and inflammatory-related neuropeptides in the serum are correlated in children with autism spectrum disorder

CITATION

Mostafa GA, Bjørklund G, Urbina MA, Al-Ayadhi LY. Metabolic Brain Disease. 2016;31:593–599.

SUMMARY

Blood mercury levels and tachykinins (neuropeptides that cause inflammation) were correlated in children with ASD and statistically significantly higher than neurotypical control children. It has been shown that mercury exposure can elicit tachykinin formation, which has been implicated in neuroinflammatory disorders including autism.

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Published: 2015
SYNOPSIS

The specific mechanism of action of each vaccine adjuvant may have different effects on the course of autoimmune conditions resulting from vaccination.

TITLE

On vaccine’s adjuvants and autoimmunity: Current evidence and future perspectives

CITATION

Pellegrino P, Clementi E, Radice S. Autoimmunity Reviews. 2015;14(10):880-888.

SUMMARY

Adjuvants in vaccines have been implicated in “Autoimmune/inflammatory Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants” (ASIA), an umbrella of clinical conditions that includes post-vaccination adverse reactions. Aluminum-based compounds, in particular, are associated with the development of vaccine adjuvant-induced autoimmune diseases, but vaccines with other adjuvants may also cause specific autoimmune adverse reactions via different pathogenic mechanisms. The specific mechanism of action of each single adjuvant may have different effects on the course of different diseases.

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Published: 2015
SYNOPSIS

Autistic children accumulate metals at a much higher level than children who do not have a diagnosis of autism.

TITLE

Assessment of hair aluminum, lead, and mercury in a sample of autistic Egyptian children: Environmental risk factors of heavy metals in autism

CITATION

El Baz Mohamed F, Zaky EA, Bassuoni EI-Sayed A, et al. Behavioural Neurology. 2015, Article ID 545674.

SUMMARY

Researchers found the mean levels of mercury, lead and aluminum in hair of autistic patients were significantly higher than in controls. Mercury, lead and aluminum levels were positively correlated with maternal fish consumption, living near gasoline stations and the usage of aluminum pans, respectively.

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Published: 2015
SYNOPSIS

There is evidence of a significant relationship between increasing organic mercury exposure from Thimerosal-containing vaccines and the subsequent risk of PDD diagnosis in males and females.

TITLE

A Case-Control Study Evaluating the Relationship Between Thimerosal-Containing Haemophilus influenzae Type b Vaccine Administration and the Risk for a Pervasive Developmental Disorder Diagnosis in the United States

CITATION

David A. Geier & Janet K. Kern & Paul G. King & Lisa K. Sykes & Mark R. Geier; Biological Trace Element Research, (2015) 163:28–38.

SUMMARY

In this case-control study of pervasive development disorder (PDD) in U.S. children, cases were consistently exposed to higher levels of thimerosal via infant vaccines at both 6 months of age and 15 months of age, based specifically on Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines. Differences between exposures in cases and controls were statistically significant at both ages evaluated.

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