Science Library Category:

Autism

Published: 2019
SYNOPSIS

Metabolism-based analysis may enable earlier autism diagnosis and treatment on the basis of an autistic individual’s “unique metabolic signature.”

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Amino acid dysregulation metabotypes: potential biomarkers for diagnosis and individualized treatment for subtypes of autism spectrum disorder

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Smith AM, King JJ, West PR, et al. Biological Psychiatry. 2019;85(4):345-354.

SUMMARY

The article describes a large-scale effort to define biomarkers for autism using metabolism-based analysis in young children. Whereas autism is currently diagnosed on the basis of behavioral characteristics, “metabolism-based analysis has the merit of being sensitive to interactions among the genome, gut microbiome, diet, and environmental factors that contribute to the unique metabolic signature” of individuals with autism. Metabolism-based biomarkers may also be able to identify metabolically defined subtypes—“metabotypes”—with the potential for earlier diagnosis and more targeted treatment.

 

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Published: 2019
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Children of mothers with asthma are at increased risk of developing autism, highlighting the importance of studying environmental risk factors during pregnancy.

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Parental asthma and risk of autism spectrum disorder in offspring: a population and family-based case-control study

Citation

Gong T, Lundholm C, Rejno G, et al. Parental asthma and risk of autism spectrum disorder in offspring: a population and family-based case-control study. Clinical and Experimental Allergy. 2019 Feb 11.

 

Summary

This large observational study reports that children of mothers with asthma are at increased risk of developing autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The study looked at all children born in Sweden between 1992 and 2007, including almost 23,000 children with ASD. The researchers posit that maternal immune activation during pregnancy may represent a biological mechanism explaining the association. The increased ASD risk could not be explained by socioeconomic, demographic, or genetic factors, underscoring “the importance of investigating other maternal environmental factors.”

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Published: 2018
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There are statistical increases in the incidence rate of autism, mental retardation , and speech disorders after thimerosal-containing DTaP vaccines in comparison with thimerosal-free DTaP vaccines.

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Vaccination and autoimmunity-‘vaccinosis’: a dangerous liaison?

CITATION

Shoenfeld Y, Aron-Maor A. Journal of Autoimmunity, 2000 Feb; 14(1):1-10.

SUMMARY

An analysis of the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) database showed statistical increases in the incidence rate of autism (relative risk [RR] = 6.0), mental retardation (RR = 6.1), and speech disorders (RR = 2.2) after thimerosal-containing diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccines in comparison with thimerosal-free DTaP vaccines.

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Published: 2018
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The preponderance of the evidence indicates that Hg exposure is causal and/or contributory to ASD.

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Current Knowledge on Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) from Animal Biology to Humans, from Pregnancy to Adulthood: Highlights from a National Italian Meeting

CITATION

Maria Elisabeth Street, et al. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2018, 19, 1647.

SUMMARY

This manuscript reviews the reports of a multidisciplinary national meeting on the effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Section 3 specifically discusses EDCs and neurodevelopmental diseases in humans, with a focus on autism. Recent studies point to an equal contribution of environmental factors, particularly environmental toxicants, and genetic susceptibility, but only a few industrial chemicals (e.g., lead (Pb), methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), arsenic (As), and toluene) are recognized causes of neurodevelopmental disorders and subclinical brain dysfunction. The recent discovery that heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) may exhibit endocrine-disrupting activity in animal models, probably by interfering with zinc-fingers of nuclear estrogen receptors. The authors review research on mercury, PCBs, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers, Phthalates, BPAs, and pesticides.

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Published: 2018
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Mount Sinai research could result in early diagnostic system for Autism Spectrum Disorder.

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Dynamical features in fetal and postnatal zinc-copper metabolic cycles predict the emergence of autism spectrum disorder

CITATION

Paul Curtin, et al., Science Advances 2018; 4:eaat1293 30 May 2018.

SUMMARY

Using evidence found in baby teeth, researchers from the Institute for Exposomic Research at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai report that cycles involved in zinc and copper metabolism are dysregulated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and can be used to predict who will later develop the disease. The researchers used the teeth to reconstruct prenatal and early-life exposures to nutrient and toxic elements in healthy and autistic children.

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Published: 2018
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Autistic children with gastrointestinal symptoms have an imbalance in their immune response that affects behavior and quality of life.

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Differential immune responses and microbiota profiles in children with autism spectrum disorders and co-morbid gastrointestinal symptoms

CITATION

Rose DR, Yang H, Serena G, Sturgeon C, Ma B, Careaga M, Hughes HK, Angkustsiri K, Rose M, Hertz-Picciotto I, Van de Water J, Hansen RL, Ravel J, Fasano A, Ashwood P. Differential immune responses and microbiota profiles in children with autism spectrum disorders and co-morbid gastrointestinal symptoms. Brain Behavior, and Immunity. 2018;70:354-368.

SUMMARY

Summary: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and concurrent gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms have a more imbalanced immune response, a more disturbed gut microbiome and worse behavioral outcomes (such as irritability, agitation, social withdrawal, lethargy, hyperactivity and noncompliance) than ASD children without GI symptoms. The study additionally looked at typically developing children with and without GI symptoms and found that ASD+GI children stood out compared to those two groups as well. Children with ASD plus GI symptoms may have a “propensity” toward leaky gut that contributes to their other symptoms and clinical outcomes.

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Published: 2018
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Fluoride and aluminum, alone or in combination, can produce the condition of “immunoexcitotoxicity” that leads to the pathological changes seen in autism. 

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Immunoexcitotoxicity as the central mechanism of etiopathology and treatment of autism spectrum disorders: a possible role of fluoride and aluminum

Citation

Strunecka A, Blaylock RL, Patocka J, Strunecky O. Immunoexcitotoxicity as the central mechanism of etiopathology and treatment of autism spectrum disorders: a possible role of fluoride and aluminum. Surgical Neurology International. 2018;9:74.

 

Summary

Children experience sequential immune stimulation from a growing number of neurotoxic metals and chemicals, vaccines and persistent viral infections. This excessive immune activation is the “initiating and sustaining event” in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), triggering inflammation and a cascade of excitotoxicity (damaged nerve cells). The fluoride added to drinking water and the aluminum in vaccines—singly or synergistically as aluminofluoride—can be potent factors in producing the condition of “immunoexcitotoxicity” that leads to the pathological changes seen in ASD.

 

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Published: 2018
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Vaccination can trigger a series of cascading events that disturbs the balance between “protective immunity” and “destructive inflammation.”

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Vaccines and neuroinflammation

Citation

Giannotta G, Giannotta N. Vaccines and neuroinflammation. International Journal of Public Health & Safety. 2018;3:3.

 

Summary

This study explores molecular mechanisms capable of explaining “post-vaccination inflammatory syndrome” and the neuroinflammation observed in children with autism. Focusing especially on vaccines (such as HPV vaccines) that contain biopersistent aluminum adjuvants, the authors describe how “continuously escalating doses of this poorly biodegradable adjuvant…may become insidiously unsafe,” especially in children who are vaccinated repeatedly or who have an immature or altered blood-brain barrier. Vaccination can trigger a series of cascading events (involving overexpression of the signaling molecules that regulate inflammation and activation of brain cells called microglia) that disturbs the balance between “protective immunity” and “destructive inflammation.”

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Published: 2018
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The offspring of mothers exposed to DDT and its metabolites during pregnancy are at increased risk for autism.

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Association of maternal insecticide levels with autism in offspring from a national birth cohort

Citation

Brown AS, Cheslack-Postava K, Rantakokko P, et al. Association of maternal insecticide levels with autism in offspring from a national birth cohort. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2018;175(11):1094-1101.

 

Summary

The study provides the first evidence based on biomarkers of an increased autism risk in the offspring of mothers exposed to certain insecticides during pregnancy. In this large national birth cohort study of Finnish children, the odds of autism plus intellectual disability were increased by greater than twofold in mothers measuring with the highest levels of a DDT metabolite.

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Published: 2018
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In children under age two, four postnatal risk factors (acetaminophen use, antibiotic use, ear infections and early weaning) were associated with an increased risk of autism.

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Acetaminophen, antibiotics, ear infection, breastfeeding, vitamin D drops, and autism: an epidemiological study

Citation

Bittker SS, Bell KR. Acetaminophen, antibiotics, ear infection, breastfeeding, vitamin D drops, and autism: an epidemiological study. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment. 2018;14:1399-1414.

 

Summary

This study suggests that increased use of acetaminophen and antibiotics in children under age two, along with an increased incidence of ear infections in the first two years and early weaning, are associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The researchers conducted a large parent Internet survey covering over 1,500 three- to twelve-year-old children who either had or did not have ASD. The findings replicate other studies focused on these postnatal ASD risk factors.

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Published: 2018
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Two prenatal exposures—stress and maternal immune dysregulation—are associated with autism, probably in combination with other genetic and environmental risk factors.

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Prenatal stress, maternal immune dysregulation, and their association with autism spectrum disorders

Citation

Beversdorf DQ, Stevens HE, Jones KL. Prenatal stress, maternal immune dysregulation, and their association with autism spectrum disorders. Current Psychiatry Reports. 2018;20:76.

 

Summary

Prenatal stress and disruption of a pregnant woman’s immune response (“maternal immune activation”) are two environmental factors that have associated with the increased incidence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the fact that, in many cases, these prenatal exposures do not result in ASD suggests an “interaction with multiple other risks.” Some evidence points to greater susceptibility to prenatal stress and maternal immune dysregulation in male offspring.

Prenatal stress, maternal immune dysregulation, and their association with autism spectrum disorders

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Published: 2018
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Pre-school children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have abnormal connections between certain brain networks that can be visualized using a special MRI technique.

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Alterations of White Matter Connectivity in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

CITATION

Li SJ, Wang Y, Qian L, Liu G, Liu SF, Zou LP, Zhang JS, Hu N, Chen XQ, Yu SY, Guo SL, Li K, He MW, Wu HT, Qiu JX, Zhang L, Wang YL, Lou X, Ma L. Radiology 2018 Jul; 288(1):209-217.

SUMMARY

This study is about neural path length (via radiometric imaging). It shows that pre-school children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have abnormal connections between certain brain networks that can be visualized using an MRI technique called diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).These pathways are generally established as a part of later prenatal and post natal development and may be associated with dendrite pruning (post-natal) which is altered in ASD children.

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Published: 2018
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Mercury-associated diagnoses among children diagnosed with pervasive development disorders.

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Symptoms observed in pervasive developmental disorders such as autism overlap with symptoms of mercury poisoning.

CITATION

David A. Geier, Janet K. Kern, Lisa K. Sykes, Mark R. Geier. Metabolic Brain Disease, March 2018. doi: 10.1007/s11011-018-0211-9.

SUMMARY

Research indicates that environmental triggers are contributing to the childhood epidemics of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). The mercury-containing vaccine preservative thimerosal is a biologically plausible candidate to induce PDD. This study reveals that 12 symptom categories associated with mercury poisoning directly overlap with symptoms observed in children who have a PDD.

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Published: 2017
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Aluminum adjuvant promotes brain inflammation and males appear to be more susceptible to Aluminum’s toxic effects.

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Subcutaneous injections of aluminum at vaccine adjuvant levels activate innate immune genes in mouse brain that are homologous with biomarkers of autism

CITATION

Dan Li, Lucija Tomljenovic, Yongling Li, Christopher A. Shaw. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 177 (2017) 39–54 1953.

SUMMARY

Autism manifested in early childhood, during a window of early developmental vulnerability where the normal developmental trajectory is most susceptible to xenobiotic insults. Aluminum (Al) vaccine adjuvants are xenobiotics with immunostimulating and neurotoxic properties to which infants worldwide are routinely exposed. These researchers found appears that Aluminum triggered innate immune system activation and altered neurotransmitter activity in male mice, observations which are consistent with those in autism. Female mice were less susceptible to Aluminum as frontal cortex was the most affected area in males and cerebellum in females. Thus, Aluminum adjuvant promotes brain inflammation and males appear to be more susceptible to Aluminum ′s toxic effects. (In full transparency, this study has since been retracted by the Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, but we felt it was an important topic so therefore have elected to keep it in our science library.)

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Published: 2016
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Children with ASD have higher urinary levels of mercury and lead.

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Altered urinary porphyrins and mercury exposure as biomarkers for autism severity in Egyptian children with autism spectrum disorder

CITATION

Eman M. Khaled, Nagwa A. Meguid, Geir Bjørklund, Amr Gouda, Mohamed H. Bahary, Adel Hashish, Nermin M. Sallam, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Mona A. El-Bana. Metabolic Brain Disease, (2016), DOI 10.1007/s11011-016-9870-6.

SUMMARY

Results of this case-control study showed that children with ASD had higher urinary levels of mercury and lead as well as porphyrins that are characteristic of mercury toxicity as compared to non-ASD control children. Porphyrins are complex molecules that are processed in the body through a series of chemical reactions. Mercury poisons the enzymes that are needed in the process, causing a buildup in the body of excess levels of specific porphyrins. The porphyrins for mercury toxicity also correlated with autism severity in ASD patients.

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Published: 2016
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Thimerosal reduces people’s ability to make all-important vitamin B12 compounds that help the body detoxify and control inflammation—and B12 deficiencies and severely impaired detoxification are hallmarks of autism.

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Alternatively Spliced Methionine Synthase in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells: Cobalamin and GSH Dependence and Inhibitory Effects of Neurotoxic Metals and Thimerosal

CITATION

Mostafa Waly, et al. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, Volume 2016, Article ID 6143753, 11 pages.

SUMMARY

Thimerosal inhibited cellular production of cobalamin necessary for detoxification and amelioration of oxidative stress. This caused lower methionine synthase activity and an impaired methylation capacity. Autistic subjects in general show cobalamin deficiencies and several impaired methylation.

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Published: 2016
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Mercury exposure is implicated in neuroinflammatory disorders including autism.

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The levels of blood mercury and inflammatory-related neuropeptides in the serum are correlated in children with autism spectrum disorder

CITATION

Gehan Ahmed Mostafa, Geir Bjørklund, Mauricio A. Urbina, Laila Yousef AL-Ayadhi. Metabolic Brain Disease, June 2016, Volume 31, Issue 3, pp 593–599.

SUMMARY

Blood mercury levels and tachykinins (neuropeptides that cause inflammation) were correlated in children with ASD and statistically significantly higher than neurotypical control children. It has been shown that mercury exposure can elicit tachykinin formation which has been implicated in neuroinflammatory disorders including autism.

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Published: 2015
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In general, autistic children accumulated metals at a much higher level than children who did not have a diagnosis of autism.

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Assessment of Hair Aluminum, Lead, and Mercury in a Sample of Autistic Egyptian Children: Environmental Risk Factors of Heavy Metals in Autism

CITATION

Farida El Baz Mohamed, Eman Ahmed Zaky, Adel Bassuoni EI-Sayed, Reham Mohammed Elhossieny, Sally Soliman Zahra, Waleed Sal ah Eldin, Walaa Yousef Youssef, Rania Abdelmgeed Khaled, Azza Mohamed Youssef. Behavioural Neurology, Volume 2015, Article ID 545674.

SUMMARY

Researchers found the mean levels of mercury, lead and aluminum in hair of the autistic patients were significantly higher than controls. Mercury, lead and aluminum levels were positively correlated with material fish consumptions, living nearby gasoline stations, and the usage of aluminum pans, respectively.

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Published: 2015
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Levels of mercury, lead, and aluminum in the hair of autistic children are higher than controls. Environmental exposure to these toxic heavy metals, at key times in development, may play a causal role in autism.

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Assessment of Hair Aluminum, Lead, and Mercury in a Sample of Autistic Egyptian Children: Environmental Risk Factors of Heavy Metals in Autism

CITATION

Farida El Baz Mohamed, Eman Ahmed Zaky, Adel Bassuoni El-Sayed, Reham Mohammed Elhossieny, Sally Soliman Zahra, Waleed Salah Eldin, Walaa Yousef Youssef, Rania Abdelmgeed Khaled, and Azza Mohamed Youssef. Behavioural Neurology, Volume 2015, Article ID 545674, 9 pages September 2015.

SUMMARY

The etiological factors involved in the etiology of autism remain elusive and controversial, but both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated. The aim of this study was to assess the levels and possible environmental risk factors and sources of exposure to mercury, lead, and aluminum in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as compared to their
matched controls. Researchers found, autistic case children show significantly higher levels of hair mercury as compared to non-autistic control children. In general, autistic children accumulated metals at a much higher level that control children who did not have a diagnosis of autism.

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Published: 2015
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Thimerosal and methylmercury caused cell death in human neurons.

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Toxicity of organic and inorganic mercury species in differentiated human neurons and human astrocytes

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Hanna Lohren, Lara Blagojevic, Romy Fitkau, Franziska Ebert, Stefan Schildknecht, Marcel Leist, Tanja Schwerdtle. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 32 (2015) 200–208.

SUMMARY

Thimerosal and methylmercury caused cell death in differentiated human neurons and astrocytes. Differentiated neurons showed a massive uptake of ethylmercury (degradation product of thimerosal). This affirms the type of neural damage seen in patients with autism.

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Published: 2015
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Thimerosal exposure in humans many neurodevelopment deficits even at levels currently administered in vaccines.

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Thimerosal: Clinical, epidemiologic and biochemical studies

CITATION

David A. Geier, Paul G. King, Brian S. Hooker, José G. Dórea, Janet K. Kern,
Lisa K. Sykes, Mark R. Geier.Clinica Chimica Acta, 444 (2015) 212–220 February 2015.

SUMMARY

This review article includes a section on numerous papers linking thimerosal exposure via infant vaccines to autism. The publication also includes a critique of studies supported or conducted by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) that deny any associations between exposure to thimerosal in vaccines and the subsequent development of autism. The CDC has been criticized by Congress for inherent conflicts of interest related to its vaccine development activities and role in vaccine safety oversight.

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Published: 2015
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Researchers found a link between environmental mercury exposure and an increased risk of autism and some individuals are more susceptible than others.

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Increased Susceptibility to Ethylmercury-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction in a Subset of Autism Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines

CITATION

Shannon Rose, Rebecca Wynne, Richard E. Frye, Stepan Melnyk, and S. Jill James.Journal of Toxicology, Volume 2015, Article ID 573701, 13 pages.

SUMMARY

The association of autism spectrum disorders with oxidative stress, redox imbalance, and mitochondrial dysfunction has become increasingly recognized. In this study, researchers compared mitochondrial respiration in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from individuals with autism and unaffected controls exposed to ethylmercury, an environmental toxin known to deplete glutathione and induce oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction . We also tested whether pretreating the autism LCLs with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) to increase glutathione concentrations conferred protection from ethylmercury. Their findings suggest that the epidemiological link between environmental mercury exposure and an increased risk of developing autism may be mediated through mitochondrial dysfunction and support
the notion that a subset of individuals with autism may be vulnerable to environmental influences with detrimental effects on development through mitochondrial dysfunction.

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Published: 2014
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Blood levels of mercury and lead were found to be much higher in autistic children as compared to normal controls. Upon chelation, the blood levels of these heavy metals decreased and autistic symptoms improved.

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Autism: A form of lead and mercury toxicity

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Heba A. Yassa; Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 38 (October 2014), 1016-1024.

SUMMARY

The aim of this study is to find out the relation between exposure to Lead and/or mercury as heavy metals and autistic symptoms, dealing with the heavy metals with chelating agents can improve the autistic symptoms. The results obtained showed significant difference among the two groups, there was high level of mercury and lead among those kids with autism. Significant decline in the blood level of lead and mercury with the use of DMSA as a chelating agent. In addition, there was decline in the autistic symptoms with the decrease in the lead and mercury level in blood.

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Published: 2014
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Background data (not reported in print) suggests a strong link between thimerosal exposure and autism.

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Methodological Issues and Evidence of Malfeasance in Research Purporting to Show Thimerosal in Vaccines Is Safe

CITATION

Brian Hooker, Janet Kern, David Geier, Boyd Haley, Lisa Sykes, Paul King, and Mark Geier; BioMed Research International, Volume 2014, Article ID 247218, 8 pages.

SUMMARY

This review article shows methodological flaws in six separate CDC studies claiming that thimerosal does not cause autism. In three specific instances (Madsen et al. 2003, Verstraeten et al. 2003 and Price et al. 2010) evidence of malfeasance on the part of CDC scientists is shown. Background data (not reported in print) from these three publications suggest a strong link between thimerosal exposure and autism.

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Published: 2014
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Chinese scientists find mice injected with thimerosal (vaccine mercury) have behavioral impairments similar to autism.

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Transcriptomic Analyses of Neurotoxic Effects in Mouse Brain After Intermittent Neonatal Administration of Thimerosal

CITATION

Xiaoling Li,, et al., Toxicological Sciences 139(2), 452–465 2014
doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfu049.

SUMMARY

“Thimerosal-treated mice exhibited neural development delay, social interaction deficiency, and inclination of depression. Apparent neuropathological changes were also observed in adult mice neonatally treated with thimerosal. High-throughput RNA sequencing of autistic-behaved mice brains revealed the alternation of a number of canonical path- ways involving neuronal development, neuronal synaptic function, and the dysregulation of endocrine system.”

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Published: 2014
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Mesenchymal stem cells may be promising candidates for addressing autism-related immune dysregulation.

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Mesenchymal stem cells in treating autism: novel insights

Citation

Siniscalco D, Bradstreet JJ, Sych N, Antonucci N. Mesenchymal stem cells in treating autism: novel insights. World Journal of Stem Cells. 2014;6(2):173-178.

 

Summary

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess unique immunological properties that make them promising candidates in regenerative medicine, with the potential to address the immune dysregulation often observed in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study describes a variety of mechanisms through which MSCs could exert a positive effect in ASD.

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Published: 2014
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UC-Boulder professor: the autism epidemic is real and therefore must be the product of an environmental factor.

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A comparison of temporal trends in United States autism prevalence to trends in suspected environmental factors

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Cynthia D Nevison, Environmental Health 2014, 13:73.

SUMMARY

“Diagnosed autism prevalence has risen dramatically in the U.S over the last several decades and continued to trend upward as of birth year 2005. The increase is mainly real and has occurred mostly since the late 1980s. In contrast, children’s exposure to most of the top ten toxic compounds has remained flat or decreased over this same time frame. Environmental factors with increasing temporal trends can help suggest hypotheses for drivers of autism that merit further investigation”

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Published: 2013
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Following implementation of changes in a pediatric medical practice to address autism risks, no new cases of autism occurred.

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Can awareness of medical pathophysiology in autism lead to primary care autism prevention strategies?

Citation

Mumper E. Can awareness of medical pathophysiology in autism lead to primary care autism prevention strategies? North American Journal of Medicine and Science. 2013;6(3):134-144.

 

Summary

In 2005, the author’s pediatric practice implemented seven changes to address autism risks, focusing on minimizing environmental toxicant exposure, encouraging prolonged breastfeeding, recommending probiotics, providing nutritional counseling, limiting use of antibiotics and acetaminophen and allowing a modified vaccine schedule. No new cases of autism occurred in children born between 2005 and 2011, even though the CDC autism rate would have predicted about six new cases in the practice over that period. The author cautions that “epidemiology may be too blunt a tool to determine all risks for subsets of the population who may be more vulnerable to vaccine reactions.”

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Published: 2013
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Canadian researchers: aluminum in vaccines can cause both autoimmunity and neurological damage.

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Aluminum in the central nervous system (CNS): toxicity in humans and animals, vaccine adjuvants, and autoimmunity

CITATION

Chris Shaw, L. Tomljenovic. Immunologic Research, (2013) 56:304–316 DOI 10.1007/s12026-013-8403-1.

SUMMARY

“In young children, a highly significant correlation exists between the number of pediatric aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines administered and the rate of autism spectrum disorders. Many of the features of aluminum-induced neurotoxicity may arise, in part, from autoimmune reactions, as part of the ASIA syndrome. Aluminum is added to vaccines to help the vaccine work more effectively, but unlike dietary aluminum which will usually clear rapidly from the body, aluminum used in vaccines and injected is designed to provide a long-lasting cellular exposure. Thus, the problem with vaccine-derived aluminum is really twofold: It drives the immune response even in the absence of a viral or bacterial threat and it can make its way into the central nervous system. It is not really a matter of much debate that aluminum in various forms can be neurotoxic.”

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Published: 2013
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Infants receiving mercury-containing vaccines had much higher rates of autism than infants receiving vaccines without mercury.

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A two-phase study evaluating the relationship between Thimerosal-containing vaccine administration and the risk for an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in the United States

CITATION

David A. Geier, Brian S. Hooker, Janet K. Kern, Paul G. King, Lisa K. Sykes, Mark R. Geier. Translational Neurodegeneration, 2013, 2:25.

SUMMARY

“The present study provides new epidemiological evidence supporting an association between increasing organic-Hg [mercury] exposure from Thimerosal-containing childhood vaccines and the subsequent risk of ASD [autism] diagnosis.”

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